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BELGIUM and HOLLAND , with 12 Maps and 20 Plans 
Eighth Edition. 1885. 6 mark: 


Seven Mountains, Moselle, Volcaniu Eifel, Vosges Mts., Blac 
Forest, etc.), with 30Mapsand 22 Plans. TenthEdition. 1886. 6 mark: 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 32 Maps and 42 Plans 

Ninth Edition. 1886. 7 mark; 

Gary and Transylvania, with 13 Maps and 28 Plans 
Fifth Edition. 1883. 6 marki 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High 

12 Plans, 


29 Plana. 



Lipari I 
Corfu, v 

Isle of 



Edition. 1885, 


I, etc. With 25 Maps 
1883. 6 mark, 


i t and Routes to Ital 
jia, with 16 Maps an 
6 marks 

Maps, 31 Plans, , 

rum Romanum. Nint/ 

6 mark! 

kcursions to th 
,rdinia, Malta, an 

Idition. 1887. 6 marki 

[ng Brighton, th: 

and 15 Plans. Fiftl 
6 marks 

md 11 Plans. Thirc 

9 marks 

PARIS and its ENVIRONS, with Routes from Londok 

to Paris, and from Paris to the Rhine and Switzerland. Wit! 
10 Maps and 30 Plans. Eighth Edition. 1884. 6 marks 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy 

SAVOJ, and the TYROL, with 35 Maps, 9 Plans, and 9 Panoramas 
Eleventh Edition. 1885. 7 marks 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Fayum and the Peninsula 01 

SlNAI, with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, 7 Views, and 76 Vignettes. Seconc 
Edition. 1885. 16 marks 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, 1 Pano- 
rama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 

April 1887. 





Approximate Equivalents. 





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With 26 Maps and 17 Plans. 

Ninth Revised Edition. 



All Maliis Reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this he thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all'. 



The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with the most necessary information regarding the 
history and culture of the people he is about to visit, to 
render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating 
countries in the world. These volumes will also, it is hoped, 
be the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper ; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The whole work is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents, which he 
gratefully acknowledges, has in many cases proved most 

The Handbook for Southern Italy and Sicily, which now 
appears for the ninth time, has been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented, and the information regarding 
Naples and its environs in particular has been carefully veri- 
fied. The account of the climatic and sanitary conditions of 
Naples given at p. xxiii is from the pen of a thoroughly com- 
petent observer, and while dissipating some of the exag- 
gerated notions which are prevalent regarding its unheal- 
thiness, may afford some useful hints for the traveller's mode 
of life in that town. The article on Ancient Art by Prof. 
R. KekuU of Bonn has been adapted for the use of English 
travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. Crowe, the 
eminent historian of art, and will be found suggestive by 
visitors to the museums of Naples and Palermo or the ruins 
of Pompeii. The description of Sicily owes much of its value 
to the co-operation of Prof. Holm of Palermo, who has en- 
riched it with interesting archaeological notices. The in- 


sertion of excursions to the Lipari Islands , Malta , Sardinia, 
Tunis (Carthage), and Corfu does not add materially to the 
bulk of the volume, and will be acceptable to many travellers. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The Plan of Naples, like those of Rome and other 
large cities described in Baedeker's Handbooks , is divided 
into sections with a view to facilitate reference. The Map of 
Sicily, drawn by Prof. Kiepert of Berlin, is a reproduction on a 
reduced scale of the new map of the Italian Ordnance Survey ; 
the rivers which flow all the year round are printed in blue, 
those which are generally dry in brown. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). Pop- 
ulations are stated in accordance with the latest official 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary so much as in Italy, 
and attempts at extortion are perhaps nowhere so out- 
rageous. The inns of S. Italy and Sicily, with the exception 
of those of Naples, Palermo, and a few other towns, are sadly 
behind the requirements of the age ; but the Editor has in- 
dicated by asterisks those which he has reason to consider 
comparatively respectable , clean , and reasonable. The 
charges in the most frequented places have a constant ten- 
dency to rise, but those of the last few years are approx- 
imately stated in the Handbook for the traveller's guidance. 

To hotel -proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. 

C N T E N T S. 

Introduction. Page 

I. TraveHing Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period of Tour. Language xii 

III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage .... xiii 

IV. Public Safety. Begging xiv 

V. Intercourse with Italians xiv 

VI. Conveyances xvi 

VII. Hotels xix 

VIII. Restaurants, Cafes, etc xx 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops xxi 

X. Reckoning of Time xxii 

XL Postal Arrangements xxiii 

XII Climate and Health of Naples xxiii 

XIII. History of Ancient Art, by Prof. R. Kekule . xxvii 

History of the Kingdom of Naples xliv 

Eoute BouteS - 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway 1 

2. From Rome to Naples by the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, 

Gaeta, and Capua 11 

3. Naples 20 

Preliminary Observations : 

a. Arrival. Hotels, Pensions, Restaurants, Cafes, etc. . . 20-23 

b. Carriages, Tramways, Omnibuses, Boats 23, 24 

c. Bankers, Money-Changers. Consulates. Physicians, Hospitals. 

Baths. Post and Telegraph Office. English Church. . . 25, 26 

d. Shops 26-27 

e. Theatres. Street Scenes. Religious and National Festivals . 28, 29 

f. Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. Guides . . 29, 30 
Remarks on the Situation and Characteristics of Naples 31 
I. Side next the Sea, to the E. of the Pizzofalcone (from 

the Largo della Vittoria to the Piazza del Mercato) 34 
II. Toledo. Capodimonte (from the Largo della Vittoria 
through the Strada Chiaja and the Toledo to Capodi- 
monte. Strada Foria) 41 

III. The Old Town. E. Quarters, between the Toledo and 

the Harbour (from the Strada Medina through the 
Str. Montoliveto to the Str. S. Trinita; Porta 

Capuana, Cemeteries, Via de' Tribunal!) ... 45 

IV. The Museum 59 

V. Modern Quarters : The Chiaja, Villa Nazionale, Cor so 

Vittorio Emanuele. — Castel S. Elmo, Via Tasso 84 


KiiiiU' Page 

VI. Hill of Posilipu. Vamaldoli 92 

1. Western Environs of Naples — Pozzuoli, Bai<e, Misenum, ' 

Cumas 96 

5. Procida and Isckia 110 

6. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). Heiculaneuni. 

High-road from Naples to Pompeii 114 

7. Mount Vesuvius 118 

8. Pompeii 126 

9. Castellammare, Sorrento, and Capri 153 

10. From Naples to Salerno, Paestum, and Amain . . . 167 

1. Corpo di Cava 168 

2. From Amalfl to Sorrento 178 

11. From Naples to Nola and Avellino 179 

E. and S. Districts of S. Italy. 

12. From Terni to Castellammare Adriatico through the 

Abruzzi 182 

1. Gran Sasso d'ltalia 184 

2. Monte Amaro. 3. Corfinium 1^6 

13. From Aquila to Avezzano and Rocoasecca (Naples) . . 187 

14. From Solmona to Caianello (Naples) 191 

15. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi) 192 

1. From S. Benedetto to Ascoli Piceno 193 

2. From Giulianova to Teramo . . 193 

3. From Termoli to Benevento 195 

4. From Foggia to Manfredonia 196 

5. From Foggia to Lucera 197 

From Foggia to Melfl. Venosa 197 

16. From (Ancona) Foggia to Naples 198 

17. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian Peninsula . . 202 

18. From Bari to Taranto and Metaponto 210 

19. From (Naples) Eboli to Metaponto and Reggio . . . 213 

20. From Buffaloria to Cosenza and thence by road to Reggio 222 

21. From Naples to Messina (by Sea) 227 

22. From Naples to Palermo (by Sea) 228 


General Information 229 

Geography and Statistics 230 

Historical Notice 238 

1. Political History 238 

2. History of Civilisation and Art 245 

23. Palermo 252 

24. Environs of Palermo 273 

a. La Cuba. Monreale. S. Martino. La Zisa 273 

b. Monte Pellegrino The Favorita . . . ... 276 

c. Bagheria. Solunto 278 

d. S. Maria di Gesii 279 

Island of Ustica . 280 

MAPS', ix 

Koute Page 

25. From Palermo to Trapani 281 

1. From Calatafimi to Segesta 282 

2. From Castelvetrano to Selinunto 284 

26. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti .... 292 

From Palermo to Sciacca by Corleone ...... 293 

27. From Palermo to Girgenti and Porto Bmpedocle . . . 294 

28. Girgenti 297 

29. From Palermo and Girgenti to Catania 303 

From Castrogiovanni to Catania by Caltagirone .... 306 

30. From Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, Terranova, 

Modica (Val d'Ispica), and Palazzolo 307 

31. From Palermo to Messina by the Coast 312 

32. Messina 318 

33. The Lipari Islands 326 

34. From Messina to Catania. Taormiua 330 

35. From Taormina to Catania round the W. side of Mt. 

jEtna 337 

36. Catania . . • 340 

37. Mount ^Etna 345 

38. From Catania to Syracuse 352 

39. Syracuse 354 

40. Sardinia 368 

a. Cagliari and Environs 372 

b. From Cagliari to Sassari 376 

c. Sassari. Porto Torres 378 

d. From Cagliari to Nuoro, with Excursions into the Mountains 

of La Barbagia 380 

41. Excursion to Malta 381 

42. Excursion to Tunis. Carthage 384 

43. Excursion to Corfu 390 

List of Artists 395 

Index 399 


1. Map of Italy (1 : 3,000,000), facing title-page. 

2. Environs of Monte Cassino (1 : 50,000), p. 4. 

3. General Map of the Environs of Naples (1 : 400,000), be- 
tween pp. 96, 97. 

4. Western Environs op Naples (1 : 100,000) , between pp. 
98, 99. 

5. The Islands op Procida and Ischia (1 : 100,000), p. 111. 

6. Eastern Environs op Naples. Mt. "Vesuvius (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 116, 117. 

7. Peninsula op Sorrento, and 8. Island of Capri, between 
pp. 154, 155. 

9. Environs op La Cava, Salerno, and Amalfi (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 170, 171. 


10. District between Salerno and Pjestum(1 : 286,000), p. 171. 

11. Environs of Taranto (1: 50,000), p. 207. 

12. District op Mbtapontum (1 : 50,000), p. 217. 

13. Environs of Palermo , and 14. Environs of Trapani 
(1:250,000), p. 273. 

15. District bbtwbbn Calatafimi and Segesta (1 : 50,000), 
p. 284. 

16. District of Sblinunto (1 : 50,000), p. 285. 

17. Environs of Girgbnti (1 : 50,000), p. 297. 

18. Environs of Messina (1 : 400,000), p. 318. 

19. Environs of Taormina (1 : 50,000), p. 332. 

10. Mount ^Etna (1 : 300,000), between pp. 346, 347. 

21. Environs of Syracuse (1 : 50,000), between pp. 354, 355. 

22. Map of Sardinia (1 : 1,350,000), p. 369. 

23. Malta, Gozzo, Comino (1 : 500,000), p. 384. 

24. Environs of Tunis (1 : 250,000), p. 385. 

25. Map of Sicily and 26. Lipari Islands (1 : 800,000), after 
the Index. 


1. Naples, survey plan (1 : 37,700), p. 20. — 2. Naples, large 
plan, in two parts (1 : 16,000), between pp. 20, 21. — 3, 4. Museo 
Nazionale at Naples, groundfloor p. 74, upper floor p. 75. — 
5. Pozzuoli, p. 99. — 6, 7. Pompeii, general plan (1 : 4200), p. 127, 
plan of excavations (1 : 8500), between pp. 126, 127. — 8. House 
of Pansa at Pompeii, p. 131. — 9. P^bstum (1 : 28,000), p. 171. 
— 10. Bari (1:10,000), p. 206. — 11. Palermo (1:13,000), 
p. 252. — 12, 13. Museo Nazionale at Palermo, groundfloor p. 267, 
upper floor p. 269. — 14. Acropolis of Sblinunto, p. 285. — 
15. Messina and Environs, between pp. 318, 319. — 16. Catania, 
between pp. 336, 337. — 17. Syracuse, modern town, p. 351. 

Map of Naples, comp. p. 20. It is of course impossible to give an 
absolutely accurate map of the town, as the very extensive improvements 
(p. 33), which are working a complete revolution in the aspect of the 
older quarters, are still going on. — The survey plan will be found useful by 
those making excursions into the neighbourhood by tramway or otherwise. 


R. = room; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; S. = supper; L. = 
light; A. = attendance. — N. = north, northern, etc.; S. = 
south, southern, etc. ; E. = east, etc. ; W. = west, etc. — r. = 
Tight; 1. = left; min. = minute; hr. = hour. — M. = English 
mile; ft. = Engl, foot; fr. = franc, c. = centime. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates 
the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of 
a place shows its height above the sea-level. The number of 
miles placed before the principal places on railway-routes and high- 
roads indicates their distance from the starting-point of the route. 

Asterisks arc used as marks of commendation. 


"Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced. 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Southern Italy and Sicily 
depends of course on the traveller's means and habits, but it may 
be stated generally that his expenses need not exceed those in- 
curred in the more frequented parts of the continent. The average 
expenditure of a single traveller may be estimated at 25 francs 
per day, or about half that sum when a prolonged stay is made 
at one place, while those who are acquainted with the language 
and habits of the country may reduce their expenses to still nar- 
rower limits. Persons travelling as members of a party also effect 
a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, carriages, 
and other items. When, however, ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are always unavoidably greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now used throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 
centesimi ; 1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark = i/ 2 Austrian 
florin. A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo (or sou), and as the lower 
classes often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller may find 
it useful to familiarise himself with this mode of reckoning. See 
also the Money Table, opposite the title-page. 

As Italy belongs to the 'Latin Monetary League' the gold and 
silver coins of France, Switzerland, and Belgium circulate freely, 
but the traveller should be on his guard against silver pieces struck 
before 1863 and old coins from the papal mint. The only bank- 
notes now current throughout the whole country are those of the 
Banco, Nazionale and the Biglietti gift, Consorziali, but the notes of 
the Banca di Napoli also pass in Southern Italy. 

Best Money fob the Tour.. Circular Notes, issued by the prin- 
cipal English banks, are very convenient for the transport of large 
sums, and always realise the full current exchange. English and 
German banknotes also realise more than their nominal equiva- 

xii FE1U0P OF TOUK. 

lcuts. A moderate supply of French Gold will be found desirable. 
Sovereigns are received at, or nearly at, their full value (26-28 fr.) 
by most of the hotel-keepers, as well as by the money-changers in the 
principal towns and resorts of travellers, but not in remote districts. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in 
the larger towns , either at one of the English bankers or at a re- 
spectable money-changer's ('cambiavaluta'). Those money-changers 
who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange are the 
most satisfactory. The exchange is effeoted more advantageously 
at Naples that at any of the other towns in S. Italy. The traveller 
should always stipulate for an abundant supply of small notes (1, 2, 
and 5 fr.), as it is often difficult to change those of large amount. 
When a railway-fare has to be paid it is a wise precaution to be 
provided with the exact sum beforehand in order that mistakes or 
imposition may be prevented. Besides the small notes, 1-172 fr- 
in copper should also be carried in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10Z., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates: not exceeding 
11., 6d.; 51., Is.; 71., Is. 6d.; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The 
identity of the receiver must, strictly speaking, be guaranteed by two 
well-known residents or by a Libretto di Recognizione Postale (1 fr.) ob- 
tained beforehand in the central post-office at Kome; but an exhibition 
of the passport often suffices. The charge for money-orders granted in 
Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per 11. sterling. 

A convenient method of carrying money for a journey in Italy is af- 
forded by the Titoli di Gredito, which may be procured at the post-offices 
of the principal Italian towns for any sum not exceeding 10,000 fr. (400(.). 
The holder may then draw what sum he requires (from 200 fr. upwards) at 
any post-office in the kingdom, until the amount for which the book is 
issued has been exhausted. In case of loss the traveller should at once 
inform the postal authorities, giving his name and the number of the 
book, when measures will immediately be taken to stop payment. 

II. Period of Tour. Language. 

Season. The season selected must of course depend on the 
traveller's convenience , but the best time for Naples , and par- 
ticularly for other parts of S. Italy and Sicily is spring, from the 
end of March to the end of May, or autumn , from the middle 
of September to the end of November. The rainy winter months 
had better be devoted to Rome. The hot season may be spent 
at some of the charming summer-resorts in the environs of Na- 
ples, such as Sorrento, Castellammare, Ischia, and La Cava, but 
is unfavourable for travelling in the South of Italy. The 
scenery indeed is then in perfection , and the long days are 
hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller ; but he will 
soon experience the enervating effects of exposure to the fierce 
rays of an Italian sun. These effects are produced, not so much by 
the intensity, as by the protracted duration of the heat, the sky 
being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of rain falling for several 
months in succession , until the first showers of autumn again 
refresh the parched atmosphere about the end of August. 


At p. 30 the traveller will find various plans for excursions 
in the environs of Naples , and at p. 230 are others for a tour 
in Sicily. The other • districts described in the Handbook are 
rarely visited by ordinary tourists , but those who desire to ex- 
plore them, whether in search of the picturesque, or for scien- 
tific purposes, will have no difficulty in framing an itinerary. 

Language. The time and labour which the traveller has 
bestowed on the study of Italian at home will be amply repaid 
as he proceeds 'on his journey, and more particularly in Southern 
Italy and Sicily. It is quite possible to travel in the regions 
around Naples and Palermo with a knowledge of a little French 
only, but in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate 
from the beaten track, and is moreover constantly exposed to gross 
extortion. Those , therefore , who desire to derive instruction 
from their tour and to confine their expenditure within moderate 
limits will find a slight acquaintance with the language f of the 
country indispensable. 

III. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage. 

Passports. Passports are not required in Italy, but it is un- 
wise not to be provided with one of these documents, as it may 
occasionally prove useful. Registered letters, for example, are not 
delivered to strangers unless they exhibit a passport as a guar- 
antee of their identity. The countenance and help of the Eng- 
lish and American consuls can , of course, be extended to those 
persons only who can prove their nationality. Excursions into 
the country in the southern provinces should not be undertaken 
without a passport. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage which takes 
place at the Italian custom - houses on the arrival of the traveller 
by land or sea, even when the vessel has come from another 
Italian port, is usually very lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the 
articles most sought for. "Weapons of all kinds are liable to con- 
fiscation (see below). The ' dazio consumo', or municipal tax 
levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, seldom of 
course requires to be paid by ordinary travellers. An assurance 

+ A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persona 
unacquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like 
the English ch; g before e and « like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or «', are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronunced ah, 5, ee, o, oo. — In addressing 
persons of the educated classes 'Ella'' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 
3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' 
in familiar conversation only by those who are proficient in the language. 
'Voi' is the common mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is 
generally regarded as inelegant or uncoui-teous. 


that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty generally suffices 
to prevent detention. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods' train except through the medium of a trustworthy goods- 
agent, to whom the keys must be forwarded. As a rule, however, 
the traveller will find it advisable, and less expensive, never to 
part from his luggage , and always to superintend the custom- 
house examination in person. 

IV. Public Safety. Begging. 

Travelling in the neighbourhood of Naples and many other 
regions of Southern Italy is now hardly attended with greater 
hazard than in any of the northern European countries. The 
traveller should, however, avoid the poorer and less frequented 
parts of large towns, particularly of Naples, after nightfall. The 
Brigantaggio, properly so called, is now rooted out. Isolated cases 
of highway robbery may occasionally occur, but are not distin- 
guishable in any way from similar crimes in other countries. 
Strangers, whose person and property are unknown, have in any 
case much less cause lor alarm than wealthy natives, who are known 
to be travelling with large sums of money. The Carabinieri, or 
gensdarmes (who wear a black uniform , with red facings , and 
cocked hats) are a thoroughly respectable and trustworthy corps. 

Weapons cannot legally be carried without a licence. For the 
ordinary traveller they are, of course, a mere burden. 

Begging still continues to be one of those national nuisances to 
which the traveller must habituate himself, though the evil has 
been to a great extent suppressed under the new regime. The 
best mode of getting rid of importunate applicants is to bestow a 
donation of 2 c. or at moot 5c, or else firmly to decline giving 
with — 'niente', or a gesture of disapproval. 

V. Intercourse with Italians. 

Travelling in Italy, and particularly in the southern pro- 
vinces, differs essentially in some respects from that in France, 
Germany, and Switzerland, chiefly owing to the almost invariable 
necessity for bargaining with innkeepers , cab-drivers, boatmen, 
and others of a similar class. The system of fixed prices is being 
gradually introduced, but it gains ground much more slowly in 
Southern than in Northern and Central Italy. 

The traveller is regarded by the classes in question as their 
natural and legitimate prey. Deception and imposition are 
considered very venial offences by Italians of the lower orders, 
and they regard success in these arts as a proof of superior 
sagacity. The traveller who complacently submits to extortion 
is therefore less respected than one who stoutly resists barefaced 


attempts upon his credulity. On the principal routes, and especially 
in Naples, the insolence of this mercenary fraternity has attained 
to such an unexampled pitch, that the traveller is often tempted 
to doubt whether such a thing as honesty is known in Italy ; but 
a more intimate acquaintance with the people and their habits 
will satisfy him that his misgivings apply to the above classes 
only, and not to the community generally. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted is universal; but a knowledge 
of the custom, which is based upon the presumed ignorance of 
one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the evil. 
Where tariffs and fixed charges exist , they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases where an average price is established by 
custom, the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect 
to the service to be rendered, and never rely on the equity of 
the other party. l Patti chiari, amicizia lunga' is a good Italian 
proverb. In the following pages the average prices of hotel accom- 
modation and other items are stated with all possible accuracy, 
and although liable to fluctuation , will often prove a safeguard 
against gross extortion. The equanimity of the traveller's own 
temper will greatly assist him if involved in a dispute or bargain, 
and he should pay no attention whatever to vehement gesticul- 
ations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter Ms knowledge of 
the Italian language is, the more careful should he be not to in 1 
volve himself in a war of words, in which he must necessarily be 
at great disadvantage. 

It need hardly be observed that the representations of drivers, 
guides, and others of a similar class, with whom even the in- 
habitants of the place often appear to act in concert, are unworthy 
of the slightest reliance, . In such cases the traveller may gen- 
erally depend on the data in the Handbook. Where farther in- 
formation is required, it should be sought from printed tariffs, from 
fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, respectably dressed persons present, 
occasionally from landlords , but seldom or never from . waiters^ 

The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are incessantly in demand. Drivers, guides, porters, and .donkey? 
attendants invariably expect, and often demand as a right, a 
gratuity (buona mano, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fiimaia), 
varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to a franc or 
more, in addition to their hire. The traveller need not scruple 
to limit his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
is often a fruitful source of annoyance and embarrassment. The 
bestowal of half-a-franc when two sous would have sufficed may 
be fraught with disagreeable results to the injudicious donor ; the 
fact speedily becomes known, and he is besieged by a host of other 
applicants whose demands it becomes utterly impossible to satisfy; 


VI. Conveyances, f 

Railways. The remarks made in the first two volumes of this 
Handbook on the railways of Northern and Central Italy apply on 
the whole to the railways of South Italy also. The first-class car- 
riages are tolerably comfortable, the second are inferior to those of 
the German railways, and resemble the English and French, while 
the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower orders. Among 
the expressions with which the railway-traveller will soon become 
familiar are — 'pronti' (ready), 'partenza' (departure), 'si cambia 
convoglio' (change carriages) , and 'uscita' (egress) , which are 
shouted by the officials with characteristic vigour. The station- 
master is called 'capo stazione\ 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto'). In addition to the fare a 
tax of 5 c. is payable on each ticket, and the express fares are about 
10 per cent higher than the ordinary. It is also important to be at 
the station early. The booking-office at large stations is open 
40 min. , at small stations 20 min. before the departure of the 
trains. Holders of tickets are alone entitled to enter the waiting- 
rooms. At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the usctia, 
except in the case of the very large stations, where they are col- 
lected before the passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 
gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition (1 kilogramme = about 2 1 / 5 lbs.). No luggage is 
allowed free except small articles (which must not exceed 20X10 
X12 inches) taken by the passenger into his carriage. Porters who 
convey luggage to and from the carriages are sufficiently paid with 
a few sous, where there is no fixed tariff. Those who intend to make 
only a short stay at a place, especially when the town or village lies 
at a distance from the railway, should leave their heavier luggage 
at the station till their return {dare in deposito, or depositare, 10 c. 
per day per cwt. or fraction of a cwt.). 

In crossing the frontier travellers should travel with the same 
train as their luggage and superintend the custom-house examina- 
tion in person. During the last few years an extraordinary numbed 
of robberies of passengers' luggage have been perpetrated in Italy 
without detection, and articles of great value should not be en- 
trusted to th safe-keeping of any trunk or portmanteau, however 
strong and seecure it may seem. 

t The most trustworthy time-tables are those contained in the Indi- 
calure 'Jfficiale delle Strade Ferrate , della Navigation* e Telegrafia del 
Regno d" 1 Italia , published at Turin monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo (with 
map, price 1 fr.j, with which every traveller should be provided. It is 
advisable, however, not to tmsl implirilly to its accuracy lint to consult 
the local time-tables ;is well. 


Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) for the S. Italian lines are 
issued under the conditions already explained in the first two parts 
of the present Handbook, and in the time-tables. The 'Indicatore 
Ufflciale' gives plans of the various tours, -which extend as far as 
Sicily. In connection with these tours, return-tickets are issued 
from Rome to Naples (41 fr. 90, 29 fr. 35, 18 fr. 95 c), which are 
valid for the period for which the circular-ticket is taken. 

Circular tickets require to be stamped at each fresh starting-point 
with the name qf. the next station at which the traveller intends to halt. 
If, therefore, the traveller leaves the train before the station for which 
his ticket has been stamped he must at once apply to the capo stazione 
for recognition of the break in the journey Caccertare il cambiamento di 
deslinazione'). When the traveller quits the prescribed route, intending 
to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure an 'annotazione'' 
at the station where he alights, enabling him to resume his circular tour 
after his digression ('vale per riprendere alia stazione . . . il viaggio inlev- 
rotto «...). If this ceremony be neglected the holder of the ticket is 
required to pay treble fare for the omitted portion of the route for which 
the ticket is issued. — Tickets for tours of 20 days or more may be 
extended for a period not exceeding half of the original duration, on 
payment of l»/o of the original price for each day of the extension. 

Return Tickbts (Biglietti d'andata e ritorno) may often be ad- 
vantageously used for short excursions, but they are generally 
available for one day only. It should also be observed that if the 
traveller alights at a station short of his destination he forfeits the 
rest of his ticket for the direction in which he is proceeding. In 
returning the ticket is not available unless he starts from the end- 
station for which the ticket was issued. 

Steam Tramways (Tramways a Vapore) , which have rapidly 
become common in N. Italy, are also already in use in some parts 
of S. Italy. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
almost inseparable from a tour in Southern Italy. If the vessel 
plies near the coast, the voyage is often entertaining ; and if the 
open sea is traversed, the magnificent Italian sunsets, lighting up 
the deep blue water with their crimson rays, present a scene not 
easily forgotten. Rough weather is not very often to be appre- 
hended in summer. The French steamers are said to be more 
comfortable than the Italian. 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the office 
of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's name and 
destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of departure. First and 
second class family-tickets, for not fewer than three persons, are issued 
by all the companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the passage-money, 
but not on the cost of food. A child of 2-10 years pays half-fare, but in 
this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two children are entitled 
to a berth for themselves. — Enquiry should be made beforehand as to 
the punctuality of the vessel, as it sometimes happens in smaller ports 
that the shipment and unshipment of goods prolong the voyage for a day 
or more beyond the advertised time. 

The First Class saloons and berths are comfortably and elegantly 
fitted up, those of the Second tolerably. Second-class passengers, like 
those of the first, have free access to every part of the deck. Officers of 
the Italian and French armies, up to and including those of the rank of 

BAKT>Kirin> T»,l„ TTT mu r, , • . ■ , 


captain, are entitled to second-class berths only. When ladies are of the 
party it is of course advisable to travel first-class. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 70 kilogrammes (.106 lbs. 
Engl.), second-class 45 kilogr. (1U0 lbs.), but articles not intended for per- 
sonal use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is generally included in the 
lirst and second-class fares. Dijeilne-r a la fourchelte, served at 10, con- 
sists of 3-4 courses, table-wine, and coffee. Dinner is a similar repast 
between 5 and 6 o'clock. Passengers who are too ill to partake of these 
repasts are provided with lemonade , etc. , gratuitously. Refreshments 
may of course be procured at other hours on payment. 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12-24 hrs., but more 
if the passenger has given unusual trouble. 

Embarkation. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance to the steamboat 
(.usually l-l'/afr. for each person with luggage) are fixed by tariff at all the 
seaports, and will be found in the Handbook. Passengers should there- 
fore avoid all discussions on the subject with the boatmen, and simply 
direct them to row 'al Vaticano 1 , 'alia Bella Venezia 1 , or whatever the 
name of the vessel may be. On the way, the boatmen often make demands 
extravagantly in excess of the tariff, such as, 'Signore, sono cinque lire! 1 
— to which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti! 1 On arriving at 
the vessel, payment should not be made until the traveller with all his 
luggage is deposited on deck. The wild gesticulations of the boatman, 
who has perhaps calculated upon the credulity of his passenger, but re- 
ceives no more than the fare fixed by tariff (which is ample remune- 
ration), may be enjoyed with serenity from the deck, a 'terra sacra 1 on 
which disputes are strictly prohibited. 

The passenger gives up his ticket on board, receives the number of 
his berth, superintends the stowing away of his luggage, and finally repairs 
to the deck to observe the progress of the vessel as it quits the harbour, 
of which a fine view is generally obtained. 

Diligences. .Southern Italy is now so well provided with rail- 
ways that only those travellers who seek a more particular acquaint- 
ance with the country and its people have occasion to use the 
Diliyenze or Yclture Corrieri. These vehicles ply regularly only on 
the chief routes, but even on the other roads there is seldom any 
difficulty in obtaining a conveyance. On the more frequented routes 
a Ciirriage with one horse may generally be hired for 3 /i-l fr., and 
on the less frequented for 1 /2- 3 / / 4 fr. per English mile. 

Walking Tours. An Italian never walks if he can possibly 
drive ; to him it is an inscrutable mystery how walking can afford 
pleasure. In the more frequented districts, however, such as the 
environs of Naples, the inhabitants are accustomed to this mania of 
travellers from the north ; and the numerous sections of the Italian 
Alpine Club, founded for the exploration of the Italian Alps as well 
as of the Apennines, have also introduced the habit among the 
native cultivated classes. 

Prolonged and fatiguing walking-tours, such as are undertaken 
in more northern climates, will he found impracticable in Italy. 
Cool and clear weather should if possible be selected, and ex- 
posure to the scirocco studiously avoided. The height of summer 
is totally unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

Biding. A horse (cavallo), mule (mulo), or donkey (sommiiro ; 
Ncapol. ciucio ; Sicil. vettura, applied to all three animals), between 

HOTELS, xix 

which the difference of expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant 
and cheap mode of travelling, especially in mountainous districts, 
where the attendant (pedone) also acts as a servant for the time 
being. Side-saddles for ladies are also generally procurable. A 
bargain should be made previously , tutto compreso , a gratuity 
being added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VII. Hotels. 

First Clash Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
Naples and some of the places in its vicinity, at Brindisi, Palermo, 
Messina, Catania, and Girgenti, the landlords of many of them being 
Swiss or Germans. Rooms 2y 2 -5 fr., bougie 75 c. - 1 fr., attendance 
1 fr., table-d'hote 4-6 fr., and so on. Families, for whose reception 
the hotels are often specially fitted up, should make an agreement 
with regard to pension (8-12 fr. per day for each person). Visitors 
are expected to dine at the table-d'hote ; otherwise they are charged 
more for their rooms, or are informed that they are engaged by 
other travellers. French is spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture 
of French and Italian. — The numerous Pensions in or near 
Naples, often kept by English or German ladies, are usually com- 
fortable, clean, and moderate. Passing travellers are received at 
many of them even for a day or two. 

The Second Class Inns, as in Northern and Central Italy, gener- 
ally have a trattoria in connection with the house. Room 172-3, 
light and attendance 1 fr. per day. Enquiry as to charges, however, 
should always be made beforehand ; and in bargaining for a room 
the 'servizio e candela' should not be forgotten. An extortionate 
bill may even be reduced though no previous agreement has been 
made, but never without long and vehement discussions. 

Attendance, exclusive of boots and commissionnaire, is usually 
charged in the bill at the best hotels. In the smaller inns it is 
generally included in the charge for rooms ; but if not, 1 fr. per 
day may be divided between the waiter and. the facchino, or less 
for a prolonged stay. Copper coins are never despised by such 
recipients. — Travellers should not omit to provide themselves 
with matches, as these are not furnished by the hotels (comp. p. 28). 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Southern Italy is behind the age, 
dirt being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming in the better hotels and lodgings even of the second class ; but those 
who quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. In the village- 
inns the pig (animate nero) is a privileged inmate, and the poultry are freely 
admitted. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, as being less 
infested by the enemies of repose. Insect-powder ipolvere di Persia, or 
Keating's ; better procured before leaving home) or camphor should be 
plentifully sprinkled on the beds and on the traveller's clothing in places 
of doubtful cleanliness. The zanzdre, or mosquitoes , are a source of 
great annoyance, and even of suffering, in summer and autumn. Windows 
should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the 
room. Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the 
face, and gloves are used to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious 



intruders. The burning (if insect-powder over a spirit-lamp is also re- 
commended, and pastilles for the same purpose may be purchased at the 
principal chemists'. A weak solution of carbolic acid is efficacious in 
allaying the irritation caused by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camisca (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, il 
solino; cuff, il polsino; drawers, le mutande; woollen undershirt, una 
flanella, or giubadi flane.Ua; petticoat, lasottana; stocking, la catea; sock, 
la calzetla; handkerchief (silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give out to wash, 
dare a bucato (di bucato, newly washed); washing-list, nola; washerwoman, 
laundress, la lavandaja, la stiratrice. 

VIII. Restaurants, Cafes. 

Restaurants (trattorie) are chiefly frequented by Italians, 
and by travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtain- 
ed a la carte at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., for l 1 /2 - E>fi\ ; 
or a repast (pasto) may be ordered at the fixed price of 3-5 i'r. for 
each person. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi, or about 
1 soldo for each franc of the bill. The diner who desires to keep 
his expenses within reasonable limits should avoid ordering dishes 
not included in the bill of fare. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Gallotta, turkey. 

Ifmidi, meat with sauce. 

Stufatino, ragout. 

Erbe or legumi, vegetables. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Minestra, or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante , soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Jiiso con, piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto, a kind of rice-pudding (rich). 
Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al 

pomidoro, or alia Napolilana, with 

tomatas, see p. xxi. 
Manzo, beef. 

Lesso or bollilo, boiled meat. 
Fritto, fried meat. 

Frittura mista, liver, brains, arti- 
chokes, etc., fried together. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscietlo, loin. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 
Cosloletla or braccioletta di vitello, 

Palate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Antepasto, principi alia tavola , or 

piattiui, hot relishes. 
Fu/ighi, mushrooms (often too rich). 
Presciutto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 
Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, French beans. 

Sale, salt. 

Pepe, pepper. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Osiriche, oysters (good in winter 

Frutta or Giarditietlo, fruit-desert. 
Groslata di friilti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Pomi or mele, apples. 
Persiche, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or Portogallo, orange. 
I'ane/rancese ormecanico, bread made 

with yeast (the Italian is without). 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Formaggio , or in >S. Italy caccio, 

Vino rosso or uero, red wine ; bianco, 

white; asciutlo, dry; dolce, sweet; 

vino del paese, wine of the country. 


The Maccaroni of Naples is much esteemed , hut is generally hard, 
and should therefore be ordered 'ben cotti'. It is usually flavoured with 
pomi cToro (tomatas), of which the Neapolitans are very fond. Sea-fish 
and ragosla . a kind of lobster, excellent. Shell-fish soup (zuppa di von- 
gole), a good but indigestible dish. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon , and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. Cafe - noir (Caffe nero) 
is most commonly drunk (15-20 c. per cup). Caffe latte is coffee 
mixed with milk before served (20-30 c); or caffe e latte, i. e. 
with the milk, served separately, may be preferred (30-40 c). 
The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, and eggs 
(uova da here, soft; toste, hard; uova al piatto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto, or gelato) of every conceivable variety are 
supplied at the cafes, particularly at Naples, at 30-90 c. per por- 
tion ; or half-a-portion (mezza) may generally be ordered. Oranita, 
or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons ; aranciata, of oranges ; 
di caffe, of coffee), is chiefly in vogue in the forenoon. The waiter 
(cameriere), whose accuracy in giving change is not always to be 
relied on, expects a fee of 5-10 c. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. The prices 
of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani, Virginias, Vevays, Cavours, 
Napolitani, etc.) vary from 5 to 10 c. Good imported cigars may be bought 
at the best shops in the large towns for 25-60 c. — Passers-by are at 
liberty to avail themselves of the light burning in every tobacconist's, 
without making any purchase. 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12.30, and gener- 
ally again from 2-4 to 7 p.m. Visitors may inspect the works of 
art even during divine service , provided they move about noise- 
lessly, and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. 
The verger (sagrestano or nonzolo) receives a fee of V» f f - or U P~ 
wards, if his services are required. 

Museums, picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong to 
government are open on week-days at a charge of 1 fr., and on 
Sundays gratis. The attendants are forbidden to accept gratuities. 
The collections are closed on public holidays. 

The Museo Nazionale at Naples, for instance, is closed on New Year's 
Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the king's birthday (14th Mar.), Easter Sunday, 
Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Corpus Christi, Festa dello Statuto (first 
Sunday in June), Day of SS. Peter & Paul (29th June), Assumption of the 
Virgin (15th Aug.), Birth of the Virgin (8th Sept.), St. Januarius (19th 
Sept.), All Saints' Day (1st Nov.), Feast of the Conception (8th Dec), and 
on Christmas Day. 

Theatres. The performances at the larger theatres, beginning 
at 8, 8. 30, or 9, and ending at midnight or later , consist ex- 
clusively of operas and ballets , the first act of an opera being 
usually succeeded by a ballet of three or more acts. The pit (platea), 
to which holders of the ordinary biglietto d'ingresso are admitted, 
is the usual resort of the men. For the reserved seats (scanni 



chiusi, sedie chime , poltrone , posti distinti) and boxes (palco) ad- 
ditional tickets must be taken. Ladies of course engage a box, or 
at least reserved seats. The former must always be secured in 
advance. — The theatre is a favourite evening resort of the 
Italians , and silence during the performance of the music is 
never very strictly observed. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price asked should be offered (comp. p. 26). The 
same rule applies to artizans , drivers, and others. l Non volete?' 
(then you will not?) is a remark which generally has the effect of 
bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should 
never be made by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de- 
place. These individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 
per cent of the purchase-money, which of course comes out of the 
purchaser's pocket. 

X. Reckoning of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused 
in all the larger towns, except by the lower classes, but is still 
almost universally employed in the country, especially in Sicily. 
The ordinary reckoning of other nations is termed orn francese. 

The moment of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 
'half past 23 o'clock' ; the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after 
which it is '24 o'clock', or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' 

By Ital. time 

By Ital. time 

■5 ° 3 

^ O 











► ft" 
< o 




< o 












183| 4 









1S>| 2 

6'| 2 





4M 2 


1G— 24. 

18i/ 4 




163| 4 












1— 5. 





1— 5. 





17»| 4 












17i| 2 




17' 4 




173| 4 






5i| 4 





















6i) 4 




16i| 2 

4' |2 

7'/ 2 



18i| 2 








188 4 












5 1 

is rung. The following hours are usually called 'mi ora di notte', 
'due ore di notte', etc. This troublesome mode of calculation 
would necessitate a daily alteration of every time-piece in the 


kingdom, but it is thought sufficiently accurate to alter the 
hour of Ave Maria by a quarter of an hour about once a fort- 
night. The accompanying table shows the Italian compared with 
the ordinary hours. 

XI. Postal Arrangements. 

Post Office. The address of letters, whether poste restante (Ital. 
ferma in postd), or to the traveller's hotel, should in all cases be 
simple and distinctly legible, all superfluous titles being omitted. 
In asking for letters it is advisable to show one's visiting-card, and 
to see that a proper search is made among the poste restante letters. 

Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at many of the tobacco- 
shops. A letter of 15 grammes (1/2 oz., weight of about 3 soldi") 
to any of the countries included in the postal union 25 c. ; post- 
card (cartolina postale) 10 c, with card for answer attached (con 
risposta pagata) 20 c. ; book-post (stampe sotto fascia) 5 c. per 50 
grammes ; registering (raccommandazione) 25 c. 

Letters by town-post 5 c. ; throughout Italy 20 c. prepaid, 30 c. 
unpaid; post-cards 10 c, with card for answer attached 15 c. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily (including 
Sundays and holidays) from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 39 c, France 14, Germany 18, Switzerland 6-14, 
Austria 6-14, Belgium 19, Holland 23, Denmark 23, Russia 49, 
Norway 36, Sweden 38 c. — To America from 3 3 / 4 fr. per word 
upwards, according to the distance. 

In Italy, 15 words 1 fr., each additional word 5 c. Telegrams 
with special haste (telegrammi urgenti), which take precedence of 
all others, may be sent in Italy at thrice the above rates. 

XII. Climate and Health of Naples. 
Climate. The hills in the vicinity of Naples only afford it par- 
tial protection against the winds. The Posilipo and the heights of 
S. Elmo and Capodimonte shelter it tolerably well on the N.W. 
and N. ; but the N.E. (Tramontana), S.E. (Scirocco), and S.W. 
(Libeccio) winds are opposed by no such natural barrier. The alter- 
nation of these air-currents from the N. and S. exercises the most 
material influence upon the temperature of the different seasons 
at Naples , and is the usual cause of the extreme variations which 
sometimes occur in the course of a single day. The first half of 
September is apt to be uncomfortably warm (70-75° Fahr.) and the 
scirocco is then often an unwelcome visitor, but the close of Sep- 
tember and the beginning of October form as a rule a favourable 
season for a visit to Naples, the mean temperature being about 
65" Fahr., and the sky generally bright and cloudless. In Novem- 
ber the rainy S. wind prevails, while in December, when the N. 


■wind blows , many fine clays are enjoyed. The -weather at this 
season is often remarkably mild. The mean winter temperature is 
about 50°, but in the cold nights of January the thermometer 
sometimes sinks 5-6° below freezing-point. Snow seldom falls in 
Naples itself, but in January the surrounding mountains are some- 
times covered with a mantle of snow which imparts a bitter keen- 
ness to the E. and N.E. winds. Fogs are very rare. Towards the 
end of January, or in February at latest, the S. winds again 
predominate, and a rainy season sets in , which often lasts till 
April. March resembles an English April in its changeableness, 
while April (mean temperature 60°) is perhaps the most delightful 
month of the whole year. May (68°) is also an exceedingly plea- 
sant month. In June, July, and August the prevalent winds are 
from the N. and N.E. The heat sometimes rises to 100° (mean 
72-77°), but is pleasantly tempered by the sea-wind , which rises 
in the forenoon and blows till about 4 p.m. , an advantage un- 
known at Rome or Florence. 

In Mt. Vesuvius the Neapolitans possess a gigantic barometer. 
The direction in which the smoke issuing from the crater blows 
often announces a change of weather twenty-four hours beforehand. 
When it blows towards Capri , good weather may be expected (in 
winter a clear sky and cool temperature); when it is turned towards 
Ischia, we may look for E. wind (Greco Levante) and cold weather. 
Indications of the approach of the Scirocco are specially important, 
as during the prevalence of this depressing wind, perfect repose is 
desirable. Thus, when the crater is concealed by a thick layer of 
clouds, we may expect S. wind, often accompanied by heavy rain. 
Another premonition of the scirocco is afforded when Capri appears 
of a dark blue colour and unusually near and distinct. Long, low, 
and regular waves rolling in from the Bocoa Piccola also as a rule 
betoken the approach of the scirocco. 

Health. The sanitary condition of Naples is on the whole 
not unsatisfactory , and epidemics have not shown themselves so 
deadly here as in many large towns in cooler climates. The mistaken 
idea, however, that no change whatever need be made in his mode 
of life often exposes the traveller to risks which a little caution 
would easily evade. The principal danger to visitors to Naples con- 
sists in the so-called Neapolitan fever, a variety of typhus to which 
numerous strangers fall a prey. In the great majority of cases, 
however, this illness takes a favourable course ; and it is only when 
complicated with other maladies that danger to life need be feared. 
It is only lately that Naples has secured a supply of wholesome 
drinking-water. Formerly rain-water cisterns and the neglected 
conduits from the neighbourhood of Caserta were the only sources 
of this important necessity; and the violent outbreak of cholera in 
18S4 may in a great measure be traced to the fact that in many in- 
stances the cisterns were separated from cess-pools only by defective 


walls. The epidemic, however, has had the effect of accelerating 
the necessary improvements. By far the most important of these is 
the construction of the immense Aqueduct, which now brings a 
copious supply of good water to the town from the Serine*, a river 
in the Apennines, several miles distant. Measures have also been 
taken to open up the crowded and infected lanes and alleys by 
demolishing houses and forming new streets, and finally a general 
canalization of the whole town has been begun. It is to be hoped 
that these measures will remove some of the evil sanitary reputation 
of the town. 

Whatever be the primary causes of this often exaggerated evil 
reputation , the immediate or exciting cause may almost inva- 
riably be traced to imprudence on the part of the travellers, 
especially of those who wish to see everything in the shortest 
possible time, allow themselves no time for repose, and neglect 
the commonest sanitary precautions. It cannot be too emphatic- 
ally asserted that nearly all the acute diseases by which visitors 
to Naples are attacked are due to imprudences in diet, to neg- 
lected colds, or to excessive fatigue. Even the hardiest traveller 
from the N. should take the utmost care in avoiding these three 
provocatives of disease. On the smallest symptom of indisposition, 
all excursions should be given up until the nervous system has 
recovered its usual tone. A physician should also be consulted. 
Malarial affections are most generally incurred on excursions 
to Lago Agnano or Baise, or in drives to Pianura or other places 
in the Phlegraean Fields. Paestum and the railway -journey 
through the Roman Oampagna are also more or less dangerous in 
this respect. The best prophylactic measures consist in warm 
clothing, an avoidance of the hours of sunset, and the shutting of 
the windows in the railway-carriage. Those who, notwithstanding 
all precautions, are attacked by malaria should at once seek change 
of air in Sorrento, Capri, or La Cava. In many respects Naples is 
unsuitable for persons with weak lungs , who will find a residence 
in Pozzuoli or Capri much more congenial. 

Rooms, or at least bedrooms, facing the S. are almost essential 
for the delicate and highly desirable for the robust. If such can- 
not be obtained , those facing the "W. are the next best in win- 
ter, those facing the E. in summer. Corner rooms and lodgings 
on the groundfloor should be avoided. The uppermost floors of 
house are often damp on account of the thinness of the walls and 
ceilings. Care should be taken to see that all the doors and win- 
dows close satisfactorily. The healthiest parts of the town are the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele, the Rione Principe Amedeo, and the Pizzo- 
falcone. The upper part of the Strada Santa Lucia may be recom- 
mended to those who do not fear a little wind and dust. There are 
also numerous comfortable and healthy dwellings in the Strada 
Chiatamone , the Riviera di Chinja, and the Mergellina , although 


the drains here emptying themselves into the sea often pollute the 
air very perceptibly when the wind blows inshore. One of the 
physicians mentioned at p. 25 should, however, in this case he 
consulted in the choice of a dwelling, as many of the houses here 
are so defective in hygienic arrangements that they are positively 
unhealthy and dangerous. 

The visitor to Naples should as a general rule wear warmer 
clothing than he would at home in a similar temperature. Natives 
are generally much more careful in this respect than strangers , as 
they know from experience that a cold at Naples is too likely to 
usher in a severe illness. The traveller should therefore always he 
provided with a greatcoat or shawl, which lie should make use of in 
the evening, when sitting in a carriage or boat, or when exposed 
to sudden alternations of sun and shade. Long walks should be 
avoided as much as possible ; fortunately the low fares of the cabs 
and tramways make driving comparatively inexpensive. It is also 
necessary to be warmly covered during sleep; the supply of bed- 
clothes at the hotels and lodging-houses is often apt to be scanty. 

Moderation in eating and drinking is, of course, imperative. 
The appetite gradually decreases under a southern sun, but at first 
strangers are sometimes apt to eat excessive quantities of macca- 
roni, cheese, fruit, etc. The traveller should adopt the Neapolitan 
custom of rejecting fish that are not quite fresh (see p. 22). Oysters 
are also dangerous here when not fresh ; and cases of typhus have 
been traced to the consumption of oysters from S. Lucia (p. 35) 
where the shell - fish are kept in undesirable proximity to the 
mouths of the sewers. Ripe fruit eaten in moderation is perfectly 
wholesome , but the fruit offered at table-d'hote even in the best 
hotels is often unripe , as the Neapolitans prefer it in this state. 
A free indulgence in fruit should be especially avoided in autumn, 
when the excessive heat predisposes to diarrhoea. The Sorbe, a 
kind of fruit resembling the medlar and containing a large quan- 
tity of tannin , is often useful in counteracting a diarrhceic ten- 
dency. A dozen or so of this fruit may be eaten at once without 
fear of prejudicial consequences. Diarrhoea induced by violetit 
exertion in hot weather may often be cured by the use of Qrnnitii 
(p. xxi). The ordinary red wines of the country are usually sound 
and good, and a moderate use of them when pure may be thoroughly 
recommended. Those who find them unpalatable should drink claret. 
The native white wines, though getiurally lighter than the red, are 
too astringent in their action. Heer-drinking is not advisable. 


from the German of 
Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

We store 

The sculptured relics of the Past, 

And deplore 

The beautiful as lost at last. 

The traveller whose attention is directed to the treasures of 
the National Museum at Naples, to the relics of antiquity scattered 
throughout Southern Italy and Sicily , and who , possibly setting 
foot on the soil of Attica, finds himself, if favoured by fortune, in 
the presence of her glorious ruins — has in all probability had 
his appetite whetted in Rome, and has there collected such data as 
he will readily apply to all that presents itself as new to his obser- 
vation. But even he who turns himself at once to the contemplation 
of an heritage of antiquity such as that comprised in the favoured 
regions of Campania and Sicily has the promise of a rich and ab- 
undant harvest, if he but know how to prize its fruits. 

The National Museum partakes in many of its departments of 
the same character as tHe Vatican with its statue world , and in- 
cludes many works in marble which have indeed been brought 
thither from Rome, notably those formerly belonging to the Farnese 
family. By the careful observer many of the statues will be re- 
cognised as repetitions of those already seen in Rome. They belong 
to the numerous class of copies made from renowned masterpieces, 
which in the old Roman time were indispensable adjuncts to 
a display of wealth and refinement. Many of these marbles betray, 
owing to a certain redundancy and pliancy of outline, a taste 
peculiar to people of these coasts upon which Nature has lavished 
her choicest gifts. The exquisite Greek coins remind us that we are 
in a land that was once the thriving and envied seat of Greek cul- 
ture : innumerable tripods, candelabra, lamps, braziers, jars, jugs, 
caskets, bracelets, needles, house and kitchen-utensils of all kinds, 
weapons of warriors and gladiators, the numerous figures in bronze, 
above all a stately array of some hundreds of wall-paintings, unique 
in the world , indicate with sufficient clearness that here are col- 

xxviii ANCIENT ART. 

lected the results of excavations which present as in a mirror a 
complete and charming picture of ancient life, and that we are in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Pompeii , Herculaneum, and 
Stabire, long buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

His first impression of purely Greek art the Northern traveller 
in Italy receives at Paestum. The drive through a lonely, silent 
country ; the picturesque beauty of the ruins and landscape with 
the glittering sea in apparently close proximity; the melancholy re- 
flection that these proud temples before their decay looked upon 
a thriving Hellenic city amid the smiles of nature, instead of a 
fever-stricken pestilential wilderness : all this serves so to excite 
the susceptibility of the beholder, that he will find the impression 
produced by these ruins, conspicuously that of the Temple of 
Jupiter, almost more overpowering than even the spectacle of the 
Roman forum. There the scale , the solidity and splendour of the 
edifices, as well as the surpassing wealth of form and sculptured 
ornament, are imposing. Here the architecture appears externally 
poor in merely superficial decoration : poorer than it had originally 
been. The coating of stucco , so fine and firmly set that it gave to 
the porous limestone a surface smooth as marble, is shattered and 
weather-stained , the forms themselves have extensively suffered ; 
wind and weather have obliterated the coloured leaves which de- 
corated the heavy collars of the capitals together with all that gay 
adornment bestowed according to Greek custom. But precisely in 
this absence of adornment, in a simplicity which brings to view 
only what is indispensable and essential, does this stern Doric 
temple with its dense array of mighty columns, with its lofty and 
ponderous entablature and far-reaching projection of cornice, in 
the clear and simple disposal of the masses, in solemnity and 
strength of proportion, in beauty and distinctness of outline, pre- 
seiit itself as a revelation of the spirit of Greek architecture, which 
so fills us with amazement that we are apt to overlook the very 
slight expenditure of material space employed to produce this in- 
comparable impression of grandeur and sublimity. One who has 
seen the ruins of Paestum will have the more pleasure in examin- 
ing less impressive mementoes of the Greek ages from the city dedi- 
cated to Poseidon — the fine monumental paintings from Paestum 
in the National Museum of Naples : Warriors departing for the 
combat whence they are never to return. 

The Temple of Poseidon at Piestum is ascribed to the close of 
the 6th century B.C. From a far remoter past, however, dates 
the fragment of art-history which we are enabled to trace in Seli- 
nunto, although it cannot of course be deciphered on the spot from 
its ruins alone. The imagination is less severely taxed to supply 
all that is lost to the beauteous ruins in Segestn and OiryentL In 
Selinunto the effects of earthquakes have been so destructive that a 
clear r.niic.optinn of the temples can only be attained by reference 


to the architects' plans and drawings. The sculptures belonging to 
these temples, brought to light by recent excavations, are to be found 
in the Museum of Palermo. The oldest temple, usually distinguish- 
ed by the letteT C, is that on the Acropolis. This was probably de- 
dicated to Apollo as god of succour, and was erected immediately 
subsequent to the foundation of the city, an event assigned variously 
to B.C. 651 and B.C. 628. The neighbouring and northernmost 
temple of the Acropolis, D, presumably sacred to Athena, is scarcely 
more recent. In «the three metope-reliefs which belong to the first- 
named temple C, scarcely a trace of Grecian beauty is discernible ; 
indeed they are almost ludicrously primitive and rude. And yet 
they afford an instructive insight into the rudimentary Sculpture of 
the Greeks. Possibly, in the place for which they were designed, 
aloft between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze, and set in a frame- 
work of strong and clearly denned architectural lines , the reliefs 
may have had a less repulsive effect. But it is curious to ob- 
serve how the same stage in art which had in architecture attained 
to an essentially coherent system , primitive perhaps in its severity 
and unwieldiness , yet conveying the impression of harmony in its 
completeness, should in the rendering of such figures as would con- 
tribute to its architectural ornamentation be beset by a childish 
restraint and uncertainty of aim ; how the same eye that watched 
over the ordered arrangement of each part and proportion as 
well as the delicate rendering of each line and ornament of the 
building, could be content to give representations of mythical 
events , which, as it appears to us, must have exhibited an aimless 
and startling conspicuousness and a grotesque vivacity, entailing 
the disfigurement of the human form and the entire sacrifice of 
natural proportion. And yet in these characteristics lies the germ 
of a mighty future, in the religious enthusiasm which anim- 
ated the artist as he strove to give intelligible expression to 
the sacred history which he had to relate, in the independence 
and directness with which he embodied its purport in sculp- 
tured forms. Not that we can suppose such scenes to have been 
altogether new to him. He might have seen them in other 
places and in earlier times. But he had to mould them anew 
and from his own individual resources , without available pattern, 
and without that readiness in execution which the hand can only 
acquire by frequent exercise. The head of Medusa alone, this 
earliest figurative expression of destruction and horror, is clearly 
and unfailingly pourtrayed. To the artist as well as his contem- 
poraries this poverty in execution was not apparent. Their sucess- 
ors were not slow to make far different pretensions. If a kind 
fate had preserved the single statue of the youthful god that stood 
in the sanctuary, or at some future time should discover it to us, 
we should probably be overwhelmed with astonishment at the con- 
trast presented by the statue to the reliefs. At a time when such 


reliefs as these were possible, Greek art had already possessed itself 
of a definite type for the statue of Apollo, and for the youthful 
form generally, in archaic stiffness, but conformable with the law 
of nature in shape and proportion ; while by constant comparison 
with nature it continued to gain in purity and truthfulness. 

By the same process representation in relief is gradually en- 
nobled. Offences against proportion and drawing are more easily 
overlooked in relief than in a lifesize work in the round ; the sus- 
ceptibility of the eye moreover is more readily forgotten in the in- 
terest excited by the pictorial narration. The monuments of Seli- 
nunto are pre-eminent in the opportunity they afford for observing 
on the spot what has sprung from these beginnings. Of the group on 
the Eastern hill the Temple F in point of time is next to those of 
the Paean Apollo and of Athena. Then come Temple 0, likewise 
dedicated to Apollo, one to Juno E, and lastly Temple A, occupy- 
ing the Acropolis. Temple F still belongs to the 6th century B.C., 
a period when the building of the Apollo Temple G had begun, to 
be completed at a later period. The Ileneum (Temple of Juno) E 
and temple A date from the middle of the 5th century B.C. or 
not much later. Two halves of metope-slabs have been brought 
to light which adorned the temple F (a god and goddess contend- 
ing with giants), and four similar slabs from the Heramm are so 
far preserved that they furnish a sufficiently intelligible repre- 
sentation of Zeus and Hera, Artemis and Actaeon, Heracles and 
the Amazons, and Athena contending with the Giants. 

In both metopes from F extraordinary clearness and animation 
again arrest the attention. The impetuous rush of the victorious 
goddess, the dying agonies of the fallen giant, his head convulsive- 
ly thrown back, his mouth open and grinning, his utter helpless- 
ness, are rendered with a turbulence , and with an expenditure of 
means, which appear to us very much in excess of what is needed 
for clear expression, and which simply outrage instead of satisfying 
one's sense of the beautiful. The two art -stages to which these 
reliefs, and the quaint rudeness of those of the Apollo Temple on 
the Acropolis belong, offer a certain analogy. In both cases all 
available means are applied with recklessness and in excess. Those, 
however, at the disposal of the later artist were infinitely richer 
and more perfect. While his predecessor had not altogether mastered 
the forms of art, he had acquired a certain familiarity with them, 
though at the cost of much toil and trouble; but his power was so 
new and unwonted that he could not refrain from abusing it. The 
Metopae from theHerceumou the other hand, which mark the maturity 
of archaic art, show a command of expression ennobled by a fine 
perception of the beautiful. These qualities declare themselves most 
felicitously in the two compositions which represent the meeting 
of Zeus and Hera on Mount Ida and Artemis punishing Actaeon. 
The expression of godlike serenity and joy which pervades the first 


scene transcends all similar efforts whether of earlier or later art: 
while the second is scarcely less admirable from the way in which 
the unmistakable wildness of the subject is subdued to something 
like softness by modulation of movement and occupation of allotted 
space. The technical method employed in the more recent metopes 
is peculiar. In the antique vases with black figures on a red ground 
the men are usually black, and the women, as far as the body itself 
is visible, white. Here the indication of the lighter and darker flesh 
colour of the two «exes has superficially supplied a necessary char- 
acteristic. But the perfected art also resorted to this distinction in 
rendering flesh-colour. In the paintings of Pompeii the bronzed, 
sunburnt bodies of the men form an effective contrast to the deli- 
cate and fairer forms of the women. Something of the same kind 
is found in the metopes of the Heraeum. As the entire temple is of 
tufa, they too are of the same material. Owing to the rugged and 
faulty nature of the material the architect resorted to a coating 
of stucco upon which he displayed his gaudy decoration. In the 
reliefs on the other hand the nude forms of the women are given 
in white marble. The harmony of the different portions of the 
reliefs, multiform as they were , was restored by a profuse appli- 
cation of colour, which the purely architectural accessories also re- 

These beautiful reliefs, which may appear somewhat primitive 
in our eyes, are contemporaneous with, or perhaps even more recent 
than the building and plastic decoration of the Parthenon in Athens. 
Compared with the works of Attica they exhibit a distinctly dif- 
ferent order of art, a Doric fashion of sculpture, which we again 
meet with in the older metopes from Selinunto. At a time when 
Greek art was in the zenith of its splendour, the Western Hellenes, 
who like the Greeks of Asia Minor had been once in advance of the 
mother-country, lost their'advantage. Magna Grsecia and Sicily can 
boast of no name comparable with those of Phidias and Polycletus. 
The reliefs of Selinunto have more in common with the works of 
Polycletus, than with those of the Attic school. In the National 
Museum at Naples there is a fine reproduction of the Doryphorus of 
Polycletus, from which we learn what Dome Peloponnbsian sculp- 
ture was at its best ; in like manner the Farnese Head of Juno 
(p. 67), surpassing all similar conceptions of the goddess in majestic 
severity and repressed energy, fitly affords an idea of the master- 
piece of Polycletus. In a well-known passage in his history of art, 
"Winckelmann describes perfect beauty as twofold, as having a double 
grace : the one as winning, — 'she descends from her eminence, 
revealing herself to the observant eye with a suavity devoid of 
self-abasement: she is not over-anxious to please, but would 
not be overlooked'. The other is self-satisfied and would be sought 
rather than court attention , — 'she holds converse only with the 
wise, appearing to the populace inimical and morose, she locks 


within her breast the soul's vibrations, and nearly attains to the 
blessed repose of the divine nature: and thus according to ancient 
writers the greatest artists sought to pourtray her'. To those who 
know how to observe will be revealed beneath the morose solemnity 
of this Famese Juno an impressive picture of godlike repose and 

The Old Attic School is represented in Naples by the group 
of the tyrant-slayers Hurmodius and Aristogiton{j>. 66), a copy of that 
work of Anterior which stood in the market-place at Athens. The 
two Athenians rush to the attack , the sword of the younger being 
raised to strike ; the older of the two (the head of this figure does 
not belong to it, the original was bearded) is at hand to protect his 
brave comrade, as soon as the time comes for him to interfere ; and 
here the words of the great authority already quoted, in reference to 
the attributes of a severe style , are applicable : 'The drawing was 
impressive but hard , powerful but devoid of grace. The force of 
expression detracts from the beauty' . . . 'Art was hard and severe as 
the justice of the time which punished the most trilling offence with 
death'. Those who can retain in the eye a correct impress of forms 
may compare the two metopes of Temple F with this Attic group 
of the murder of Hippias. The same violence of action and render- 
ing of form are observable in both. But the reliefs appear wild, 
almost disordered and devoid of beauty, beside the symmetrical ac- 
curacy and precision , the concentrated power, the beautiful flow of 
lines in the group of statues. Farther, a comparison of the finest 
metopes from the Hera temple with this and other Attic works will 
give an insight into the various phases of subtlety and grace which 
lind a place in the collective Greek character. Above all, such a 
comparison will direct attention to the widely differing conditions 
requisite for the execution of reliefs intended for architectural de- 
coration from those imposed upon the author of a self-contained 
work in the round on the grandest scale. This distinction must 
neither be overlooked nor too lightly estimated. 

Though in the National Museum there may not be found any 
very pure or important example of the Attic school of Phidias' time, 
a succeeding school is most happily illustrated by the Orpheus Relief 
(p. 70). Orpheus is permitted to bring his consort Eurydice out of 
Hades and to restore her once more to the light of the sun on con- 
dition that he shall not look upon her during the passage. He has 
failed to fulfil this condition. Hermes, the conductor of departed 
souls, with gentle measured gesture takes the hand of Eurydice to 
consignher anewto the realm of shades. In contemplating this com- 
position, beautiful in its simplicity as it is, hope and dismay altern- 
ately possess us. The advance of the train , Orpheus in the act of 
casting the fatal glance, the confiding communion of man and wife 
are quite unmistakable , as well as the interruption of their pro- 
gress and the subsequent return of Eurydice. And here we may 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

pause to wonder how antique art could present powerful effect 
clothed in persuasive beauty, or, if subdued , yet with striking ex- 
pression : and with what a modest expenditure of means she could 
assert 'this noble simplicity and grandeur of repose'. Even in its 
own time this work must have enjoyed a considerable reputation, 
as replicas are still to be seen in the Villa Albani at Rome and in 
the Louvre at Paris. The Neapolitan example is the most beauti- 
ful, and the severest too, of those extant. It may be remarked, by 
the way, that the, inscriptions introduced, though they may be cor- 
rect in the explanation they give , must be of doubtful antiquity. 
— By far the greater number of sculptures in Naples belong like 
those in Rome to a more recent period of Greek art. The prostrate 
Amazon stretched out in death, a Dead Persian, a Dead Giant, and 
the Wounded Oaul, which will be readily recognised from its re- 
semblance to a master-piece of the Pergamenian school, the Dying 
Gaul in the Museum of the Capitol (the so-called dying gladiator), 
are parts of a votive offering of King Attalus of Pergamum at Athens, 
of which single figures are to be seen in Venice and in Rome. 

The colossal group of the so-called Farnese Bull (p. 64), which 
brilliantly represents the Rhodian School, is more likely to arrest 
attention. This group will produce a powerful impression upon 
most beholders, and this not by force of its material bulk alone. 
The effect would have been even more impressive, had the work of 
restoration been successful, particularly in the standing female 
figure. It will be worth our while to analyse the nature of this 
effect, as well as the forces which contribute to it. An occurrence 
full of horror is presented to our view. Two powerful youths are 
engaged in binding on the back of a furious bull the helpless form 
of a woman. The mighty beast is plunging violently, and in another 
moment will be away, hurrying the burden he is made to bear to 
the terrible doom of a martyr. As soon as we have attained to an 
accurate conception of what is passing before us, horror and dismay 
rather than pity take possession of us. What impels the youths 
to the deed? How is it that they are allowed to effect their purpose 
undisturbed? The answer is to be found outside the work itself. 
Antiope, expelled by her father, has given birth to Amphion and 
Zethus and abandoned them. The sons grow up under the care 
of an old shepherd. Antiope has yet other sufferings to endure at 
the hands of her relation Dirce who maltreated her. Dirce wander- 
ing on Mount Cythaeron in bacchanalian revel would slay the 
victim of her persecutions. She bids two young shepherds bind 
Antiope to a bull that she may thus be dragged to her death. The 
youths recognise their mother before it is too late : they consign 
Dirce to the doom prepared for Antiope. The ancient Greeks were 
familiarised with this myth by a celebrated tragedy of Euripides ; 
the subordinate work on the base, the mountain-god Cythaeron 
decked with Bacchic ivy, and the Bacchic Cista on the ground, 
Baedeker. Italy III. 9th Edition. c 


would help to recall all the minor incidents of the story. A doom 
pronounced by the gods is executed ; the fateDirce had prepared for 
another recoils upon herself. But all this, or at least as much as 
will suffice for a satisfactory understanding of the work of art as 
such, cannot he gathered from the work itself. In the Orpheus 
relief we recognise without extraneous aid the separation of two 
lovers oalmly resigned to their fate, their severance by the conductor 
of souls. An acquaintance with the exquisite legend will merely 
serve to enhance the thrilling emotions evoked by the sculptured 
forms. The Bull will excite our abhorrence if the story be not 
known to us ; while the knowledge itself and such reflections as it 
would suggest could scarcely reconcile us to the cruelty of the 
deed, nor help us to endure without something akin to petrifaction 
these moments of horror. But when our thoughts are sufficiently 
collected to allow of our realising the event, we are again lost in 
admiring wonder at the aspiring courage, at the command of all 
artistical and technical resources possessed by the author of this 
sculpture which uprears itself with such unfaltering power. The 
base is adorned with suggestions of landscape and appropriate 
animal-life more elaborately than was then usual in works of this 
kind, although analogies are not wholly wanting. But the landscape, 
the figure of the mountain-god Cythseron, together with all minor 
accessories, are far surpassed in interest by the principal figures 
and their action. The lovely feminine form of Dirce vainly im- 
ploring the powerful youths whose utmost exertions scarcely suf- 
fice to restrain the infuriated beast, the vivid reality of the whole 
scene , the artistic refinement in the execution have scarcely yet 
been sufficiently admired. "We readily concede to one like "Welcker, 
who brought the finest perceptions to bear on the exposition of 
antique art, 'that it is impossible to attain to the highest excellence 
in any particular direction without at the same time postponing 
one or other consideration of value'. That which was esteemed as 
the highest excellence, the goal which must be reached at the cost 
of all other considerations, has varied with successive epochs of 
Greek art. In the present case repose and concentration are sacri- 
ficed to the overwhelming effect of a momentary scene. Even at 
a time when restoration could not have interfered with the original 
design , the impression of a certain confusedness must have been 
conveyed to the spectator, at least at the first glance. It is emin- 
ently characteristic of this group 'that it powerfully arrests the 
attention at a point where an almost wild defiance of rule declares 
itself. The contrast presented in the scene — the terribly rapid 
and unceasing movement as the inevitable result of a momentary 
pause, which the artist with consummate boldness and subtlety has 
known how to induce and improve, give life and energy to the 
picture in a wonderful degree'. But Welcker himself, from whom 
these words are borrowed, reminds us how this group first arrests 


attention 'by the uncommon character of its appearance'. The 
group of the Bull assuredly displays excellences which belonged 
to the antique of every epoch , especially the intuitive perception 
that truth in the sphere of art is not identical with an illusory 
realism. The conception of this group proceeds from a complete 
apprehension of the subject to be embodied. But this fulness of 
apprehension is derived from the Tragedy. From the very beginning 
plastic art and poetry have been as twin streams springing from 
one source ancUflowing separately, yet side by side. Often indeed 
their waters have met and mingled. But it was long e'er the tide 
of poetry seeking a separate channel helped to feed the sister 
stream. The scene presented to us by this Farnese group was 
illustrated by Euripides long before its embodiment by plastic art 
in his tragedy, where Dirce's death is related by the messenger. The 
artist found material for his inventiveness at hand, which his fancy, 
passionately stimulated, presently endowed with plastic form and 
life at a moment which promised 'an uncommon appearance', a 
majestic and overpowering effect which should command astonish- 
ment and admiration. We have already attributed the Farnese group 
to the Rhodian School in speaking of the origin and development 
of art. It was the work of two sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus 
of Tralles in Asia Minor ; for, according to the Roman author Pliny, 
the group is identical with one by these artists which was brought 
to Rome from Rhodes, and in all probability found its way thence 
to Naples. — The colossal group of a man who bears away the dead 
body of a boy on his shoulders is usually ascribed to the Rhodian 
School. It has been described as Hector with the body of Troilus. 
But the corpse of a beloved brother saved from the battle-field 
would hardly be seized in such fashion. It would rather appear 
to be that of a victim borne away in triumph by a ruthless victor. 

In Naples we have" a number of instructive examples of the 
two styles which are frequently designated as an antique Renais- 
sance, the New-Attic School, and the School of Pasiteles ; of 
the latter in the bronze figure of Apollo playing the Lyre from Pom- 
peii, and in the archaic simplicity of the affecting group of Orestes 
and Eleetra ; of the former in the Vase of Salpion, or better still in 
the Aphrodite from Capua, the so-called Psyche, and similar works. 
In Naples abundant opportunity will be found for continuing the 
study begun in Rome of the heroes of an ideal world, of portraits 
(among which the mild and melancholy head of M. Brutus, the 
murderer of Caesar, is conspicuous), sarcophagus-reliefs, or whatever 
else may especially engage the attention. Probably, however, 
curiosity and interest will be most excited by the appearance of 
antique paintings from Pompeii and the neighbouring cities of Cam- 
pania buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

The history of Greek Painting presents a problem difficult 
of solution. Happily we have outlived the superstition that the 


people amongst whom the Parthenon arose , and who gave birth to 
a sculptor such as Phidias , should have contributed in painting 
nothing worthy of Tecord. What we most desire, however, is still 
wanting. We are not in possession of any work by a master of the 
art ; hut only of the products of a subordinate and mechanical art, 
and these only from a single and comparatively recent period. 

The greatest painter of the older time — and probably one of 
the greatest artists of all times — was Polygnotus , a native of 
Thasos. He lived for the most part in Athens, where he was pre- 
sented with the rights of citizenship, and was, though a contemporary 
of Phidias, his senior. As Phidias was a favourite of Pericles and 
employed by him, it would appear that Polygnotus was a protege" of 
Cimon. Pausanias, the Greek author of travels (in the time of 
Antoninus), had seen two large paintings by Polygnotus covering 
the wall in Delphi, and has minutely described them. In the one 
the fall of Troy was represented, in the other scenes from the nether 
world. In the first the Trojan Cassandra is the centre figure. Ajax 
has offered violence to her: she sits on the ground, in her hand the 
image of the insulted Athena ; around her the Greek heroes are 
sitting in judgment upon Ajax. In the background is the citadel 
of Troy, the head of the wooden horse reaches ahove its wall, which 
Epeios, the huilder of the horse, is about to demolish. Right and 
left of the central group are scenes of destruction ; heaps of the 
slain , the savage Neoptolemus still persisting in his work of 
slaughter, captive women, and terrified children ; nor were more 
inviting scenes wanting. Close to the captive Trojan women yEthra 
was seen , the liberated slave of Helen , and farther back the tent 
of Menelaus is taken down and his ship equipped for departure. 
On the other side of the picture was recognised the house of An- 
tenor , which the Greeks had spared , while he himself and his 
family make ready to quit their desolated home and depart for 
foreign lands. Thus the entire centre of the composition has refer- 
ence to the crime committed after the conquest, which called aloud 
for punishment by the gods ; these scenes of death and horror were 
enclosed at the extremities by more peaceful incidents — the 
horror of the lower world whose shades envelope renowned heroes 
and heroines ; Odysseus compelled to descend to the abode of the 
departed — all this Polygnotus combined in one grand picture, 
skilfully alternating peace and the torments of hell, prodigious 
ghastliness and tender grace. Polygnotus had not only embodied in 
these pictures the mythical matter with which religious rites, epic 
poem, vulgar tradition and humour, as well as the earlier works of 
plastic art, could furnish him ; not only had he animated this 
material with captivating motives strongly appealing to the be- 
holder's imagination ; but he had, as may still be recognised, while 
painting, asserted his power as a poet and supplied much that was 
original in the realm of fancy. The technical means at the disposal 

ANCIENT. ART. xxxvii 

of Polygnotus were so limited, so simple and antiquated , that in 
the Roman times admiration of his pictures was ridiculed as a con- 
ceit of dilettantism — just as at one time it was customary to scoff 
at the admirer of Giotto. Nevertheless with these simple means, 
Polygnotus could express himself with so much clearness, so nobly 
and sublimely, that Aristotle boasted of him that his forms were 
more noble and grander than were commonly seen in life , while 
the painter Pauson presented men worse than they really were, and 
Dionysius was true to nature. Having regard to these separate qua- 
lifications he suggested that the youthful eye should receive its im- 
pressions from Polygnotus and not from Pauson. In later times the 
beauty of Polygnotus' pictures continued to charm : in the second 
century A. D. his Cassandra supplied an author of refinement and 
penetration, like Lucian, with the material for a description of fe- 
minine beauty. 

"While the fame of Polygnotus and his contemporaries rested 
principally on wall-paintings, later critics would maintain that 
those of his successors who first produced artistic effect in portable 
pictures were the only true painters. As the first painter in this 
sense the Athenian Apollodorus may be named. The work which 
he began was completed by Zbuxis of Heraclea and Parrhasius of 
Ephesus. We still possess a description by Lucian of the Centaur 
family by Zeuxis. The female Centaur reclines on the grass, the 
human upper part of the body being raised and supported by the 
elbow. One of her two infants she holds in her arms giving it 
nourishment in human fashion ; the other sucks as a foal her teats* 
The male Centaur looks down from above. He holds in his right 
hand a lion-cub which he swings over his shoulder as if jokingly 
to frighten his young ones. 'The further excellences of the picture,' 
modestly continues Lucian, though evidently an accomplished 
connoisseur , 'which to- us laymen are but partly revealed , but 
nevertheless comprise the whole of art's resources, correct draw- 
ing, an admirable manipulation and mingling of colour, man- 
agement of light and shade, a happy choice of dimension, as 
well as just relative proportion of parts to the whole, and the com- 
bined movement of the composition — these are qualities to be ex- 
tolled by one of art's disciples who has mastered the subject in its 
detail'. This eloquent description by Lucian has been made the sub- 
ject of a spirited drawing by Genelli. Unfortunately no such record 
of Parrhasius' works remains. The credit of having first applied 
symmetry, i.e. probably the systematic regard for the proportion 
recognised by later leaders in art , to painting, is claimed for Par- 
rhasius, as well as delicacy and grace in the artistic rendering of the 
countenance and hair. He is said, too, to have been supreme in 
the management of contour. But in later times Parrhasius was 
esteemed simple as a colorist compared with Apelles. 

The authors to whom are ascribed most of the notices of painters 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

that we possess, distinguish different schools. The Helladic 
School included the painters of Athens and those of the mother- 
country of Greece along with those of Sicyon. But owing to the 
pre-eminence achieved for Sicyon by the painter Eupompus, the 
Helladic school was again subdivided under the title of Sicyonic 
and Attic or Attic-Theban , after certain artists of these schools. 
To this, or these schools rather, was opposed the Asiatic (IonicJ. 
Pausias, whose name is known to us by Goethe's exquisite poem, 
was one of the Sicyonian School, and. go, it appears, was that spirited 
painter Timanthes, whose best-known work was his Iphigenia. She 
stood at the altar ready to be sacrificed, surrounded by the heroes 
of the Grecian camp, in whose persons, according to the character 
of each and with due regard to appropriateness, was pourtrayed 
every degree of mental anguish. Agamemnon himself veiled his 
head. Nicomachus, Aristides, Euphranor, likewise renowned as 
sculptor and master of heroic representation , and Nicias the friend 
of Praxiteles belong to the Theban-Attic school. Amongst the pic- 
tures of Aristides was one of a woman wounded during the siege. 
She is dying while her infant still clings to her breast. In the ex- 
pression of the mother's countenance could, it was thought, be read 
the fear lest her blood should be mingled with the milk the child 
was sucking. — The most brilliant master of the Ionic school — 
though he had had the advantage of studying his art in Sicyon — 
the most renowned indeed of the painters of antiquity, was Apelms, 
the contemporary of Alexander the Great, and incomparable in his 
power of expressing grace in all its forms. As yet we are not in pos- 
session of any distinct clue to the character of his most esteemed 
works, of Artemis , with her band of attendant Nymphs clustering 
around her, hurrying to the chase, nor of Aphrodite rising from the 
sea. We are more fortunate in the instance of two younger painters, 
Aetion and Timomachus. Of the nuptials of Alexander by Aetion 
we have again a masterly description by Lucian, with which all are 
acquainted who have seen the beautiful Raffaelesque composition in 
the Palazzo Borghese at Rome. The Medea of Timomachus is to 
be traced in a series of imitations or reminiscences, on monuments 
of different kinds, but most remarkably in a mutilated picture from 
Herculaneum, and again in another perfectly preserved from 

The services thus rendered us by the Campanian towns in 
bringing to light the works of Timomachus encourage us to hope 
that they may be repeated in the case of other Greek celebrities. 
It is in fact concluded with a considerable show of probability that 
in the Pompeian representations of the liberation of Andromeda by 
Perseus are to be recognised influences of a picture by Nicias. It 
has frequently been attempted with much pains, and with aid of 
more or less audacious assumptions anil combinations, to contrive 
copies of these renowned Greek masters, and when after all it has 

ANCIENT. ART. xxxix 

been found that such efforts are for the most part vain and futile, 
it has been urged in explanation of the failure that our acquain- 
tance with celebrated cabinet-pictures is too limited. We must, 
then, however unwillingly, accept the conclusion that anything more 
than a very qualified belief in Pompeian pictures is impossible. 
They are invaluable as a clue to many qualities which were com- 
mon to the painting of antiquity ; invaluable , too , because they 
assuredly possess , in obedience to the unvarying traditions of an- 
tique art — wlych having taken a theme in hand would work it out 
to the last possible variation — a wealth of imagery and redundance 
of lineament which connect them more or less closely with the works 
of the gTeat masters. But it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
authenticity of copies from celebrated cabinet-pictures of the best 
period should be so rarely established, or wear even the appearance 
of probability ; it were a wonder indeed if so much could be accom- 

Demosthenes reminds his countrymen in scathing words how 
in the palmy days of Athens the noblest edifices were erected in 
honour of the gods, while the dwellings of the most distinguished 
Athenians were simple and inconspicuous as those of their neighbours. 
Even at the time these words were spoken a change had come over 
Greek life. For the stern sublimity of the creations of an earlier time, 
Art had substituted a milder and more effeminate type of divinity, 
nor did she now disdain to enter the abodes of men. The splendour 
which had been reserved for the gods, now found its way into pri- 
vate dwellings. What at first had been a bold innovation and an 
exception , presently grew into a universal requirement. From the 
epoch of culture inaugurated by Alexander onwards , sculptor and 
painter alike contributed to the artistical beauty and sumptuous 
adornment of dwelling-houses. Inventiveness , displayed in the 
designing and ornamentation of household furniture of every kind, 
followed as a matter of course , and though in Athens and Hellas 
expenditure in this way remained moderate, in other great cities, as 
Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria , artist and handicrafts- 
man alike vied with the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants, not 
only in beautifying the cities externally, but in lavishing upon the 
dwelling-houses of the rich the utmost attainable splendour. Plans 
were extended and adapted to the employments and highest enjoy- 
ment of life ; floors, walls, and ceilings were arranged and decorated 
in ever new and varying style. Then decoration in stucco and 
painting was supplemented by mosaic work which enlivened the 
floors with an effect as charming as that of painting ; nor was it 
long restricted to the floors. Along with other elements of culture 
the Roman world had borrowed from the Greek the beautifying of 
their houses , and as movement is never absolutely suspended, this 
taste received in Roman times a farther impetus in its original 
direction. We may safely assume, however, reasoning from analogy, 


that it departed farther and farther from the purity and harmony of 
the Greek pattern. 

In the picture which Pompeii presents as a whole we see the 
last trace of that combined art and beauty which with the later 
Greeks permeated life in every vein and in all its phases : a feeble 
and faded picture it must remain, however active the fancy may 
be in investing it with attributes belonging to Hellenic art in the 
zenith of its splendour. From an earlier period, when the influence 
of the Greek was more directly felt, we have not received much from 
Pompeii that is instructive. The general impression is derived 
from the restorations consequent on the earthquake of the year 
A.D. 63. The great mass of decoration is the work of the sixteen 
years intervening between A.D. 63 and the town's final destruction 
in A.D. 79, and was in the newest fashion then prevailing in Rome, 
but necessarily on a scale commensurate with the resources of a pro- 
vincial town. As the Roman senate had ordered the rebuilding of the 
town, the pay of handicraftsmen would doubtlessly be attractive 
enough. The houses were made habitable with the utmost de- 
spatch, and received their decorations with the same haste. It is im- 
possible but to believe that the greater number of houses were thus 
completed by a comparatively small number of masters with their 
staffs of workmen. They had their pattern-books for the decoration 
of entire rooms and walls, as well as for simple pictures, and they 
resorted to these pattern-books more or less according to their need 
or fancy. The favourite motives and forms were so familiar to 
them that they had them literally at their fingers' ends : with incre- 
dibly certain and facile hand, and without concerning themselves 
about means or method, they fling their gaud and glitter over the 
naked walls. And very captivating is this stirring picture-pattern 
world which moved obedient to their will. Vistas of airy fantastical 
forms architecturally disposed and decked with wreaths and gar- 
lands delusively mask the narrow limits of the allotted space ; 
while, by way of completing the illusory effect of this mock archi- 
tecture, graceful figures move in the midst, or from the open window 
look in upon the chamber. Arabesques, sprays and borders of 
foliage and flowers, and garlands gracefully enliven and divide the 
walls ; while in the midst of the enclosed spaces, from a dark back- 
ground, figures single or in pairs stand out in dazzling relief, and 
vfhether winged or otherwise are always lightly and surely poised. 
Here and there lovely maidens are seen dancing in mid-air; Eros 
tinkles on the strings of the lyre which Psyche holds ; Satyrs and 
Nymphs, Centaurs and Bacchantes, female figures with candelabra, 
flowers and fruits people this airy realm of fancy. Separate pic- 
tures at intervals engage the attention. They tell the story of the 
handsome but unsusceptible Narcissus, of Adonis the favourite of 
Aphrodite, whose early Joss the goddess bewails with Eros, of Phae- 
dra's shameless passion for Hippolytus; the loves of Apollo anil 


Daphne , of Ares and Aphrodite , Artemis and Actseon , Ariadne 
abandoned by Theseus , the story of Leda , the life and pursuits of 
Bacchus and his followers, of the god finding the forsaken Ariadne, 
and of Satyrs pursuing Nymphs. Scenes of terror, too, there are : 
Dirce bound to the Bull, Medea meditating the murder of her 
children, the sacrifice of Iphigenia — but even these are rendered 
with an effect of sensuous beauty so entrancing that they are lost 
in the gladsome world of exuberant life about them. Mere tragedy, 
mere convulsive^effort, acquired no enduring power over the senses: 
they are rather beguiled by the remembrance of some captivating 
legend, some transient impulse, a throb of compassion, which infuse 
a wholesome element into pictures abounding with expressions of 
rapturous delight. Where passion exerts itself it is but for the 
moment — the power of love for good or evil , the beauty of the 
human form , moments of bliss whether of mortals or the immor- 
tals — such is the material for an ever-recurring theme. Bits of 
landscape , houses with trees, rocks, or a grotto on the strand are 
suggestive of idyllic delights. And around these more conspicuous 
figures are grouped an accompaniment of small friezes with pic- 
torial accessories grave and gay, still life, animals and incidents of 
the chase, pygmies, masks, fresh fruit, and household vessels. 

The liveliest impression is made by the best examples of 
figures separately poised on the walls. Curiosity is most excited 
by the separate pictures ; they are the last remnant of the historical 
painting of the old world. They rannot, however, enable us to 
form a just estimate of the works of the greatest ancient masters. 
If genuine and adequate copies of celebrated cabinet-pictures from 
the best period were to be found amongst Pompeian decorations it 
would be by an accident altogether exceptional and capricious. 
The artist-bands who subsequently to the earthquake of A.D. 63 
pushed their work so easily and so rapidly had neither these ca- 
binet-pictures nor the genuine and adequate copies to guide them, 
but simply the drawings of their pattern-books, j- Thoroughly trained 
as they were mechanically to the work , they turned their sketches 

t There have been long-standing differences of opinion about the me- 
chanism of painting practised in Pompeii. A solution of the problem is 
the result of researches conducted by the painter O. Donner (in a work 
published by Prof. Helbig, entitled 'Wall-paintings of the cities of Cam- 
pania destroyed by Vesuvius', Leipsic, 1868). According to this authority it 
is certain that the greater number of the pictures as well as wall-decora- 
tions were painted in fresco , i. e. upon a newly prepared and moistened 
surface — and only in exceptional cases and as a makeshift upon a dry 
ground. Conclusive evidence of this is afforded by the presence, to which 
Donner refers, of so-called Fresco-edges , i. e. of spots where the newly 
prepared surface came in contact with what was already dry. The sur- 
face intended for the reception of colour was prepared by the painters of 
antiquity with such care that it retained the moisture much longer than 
in recent times has been found attainable. They were thus enabled to 
cover large wall-spaces without interruption and in this respect had a con- 
siderable advantage over us moderns. — In 1873 Professor Helbig pub- 


to the best possible account, transferred them on the required scale, 
making additions or omissions as the case might be, varying, modi- 
fying and curtailing, as necessity, fancy, and the measure of their 
capacity might prescribe. The enclosed pictures, which in graceful 
inventiveness and execution often enough surpassed the forms oc- 
cupying the open spaces, cannot be considered apart from the 
general decoration with which in manner and method they are 
identical. They betray moreover in spite of all that is beautiful 
and admirable about them, symptoms of degeneracy; just as the 
wall - decorations of Pompeii descending from elegance to the 
trivialities of mock architecture exhibit a degeneracy which must 
not, however, be regarded as inherent in the art of which we see 
here but a feeble reflection. Thus we learn that the way from the 
great painters of Greece to the wall-pictures of Pompeii is neither 
short nor straight, but long and too often hard to find. Many of 
the forms and groups so gracefully poised in the open wall-spaces 
may in their origin have reached back so far as to the happiest 
period of Greek art; it is also possible, that, when framed pictures 
were for the first time painted on the walls of houses in the epoch 
of Alexander, or at whatever other period this style of decoration 
came into vogue, celebrated easel-pictures were copied or laid 
under contribution. The designers of the pattern-books may have 
betaken themselves to a variety of sources , they may have ap- 
propriated and combined, as old and new patterns, entire de- 
corations together with separate figures and finished pictures. Like 
the pattern-books for the sarcophagus-reliefs, they must have been 
full of ideas and motives derived from an earlier and nobler art. 
And as wall-painting is more akin to high art we may encourage 
the hope that patient research will often be rewarded by discovering 
— as hitherto amidst a tanglement of conflicting evidence — not 
the works themselves of the great masters, but those traces of their 
workwhich we so eagerly seek. In Pompeii, however, we learn the 
necessity of caution, for we there find examples of a much earlier 
style of decoration than the 'Pompeian'. 

No one could overlook the solemn dignity of aspect which makes 
the Casa del Fauno conspicuous amidst the mass of habitations in 
Pompeii. Here beauty reveals itself in column and capital, cornice 
and panelling, favourably contrasting with the gaudy frippery of a 
fantastical mock architecture with its pictorial accompaniments. 
The wealthy family which occupied this mansion may have rejoiced 
in the possession of many a costly cabinet -picture. But at the 
time the house was built it was not yet the custom, or it was not the 
owner's pleasure to follow the newest fashion. In their place a 

lished a supplement to his earlier work (Leipsic), and in 1879 a con- 
tinuation of his list of mural paintings appeared in Italian, under the 
title ' Le I'itlure Miiruli Cam/wni- scuperfr ni-ijH mini 18G7-7R , deseritle ,1a 
Antonio Hogliano'. 


complete series of the finest mosaics formed a part of the general 
decoration of the house. These are still partly preserved and to 
he seen on the spot. Here the celebrated Battle of Alexander was 
found, grand in composition, and a genuine example of high art, in 
which we recognise once more the magic touch of Greek genius : 
how with the simplest possible means the loftiest excellence was 
achieved; here, too, we gain an insight into the method pursued by 
the great painters in their works. A very different and far grander 
art declares itself in these mosaics than in the wall-paintings. The 
other mosaics found in this mansion also rank high in point of 
beauty as well as in precision and purity of drawing , and owing to 
the difficulties of reproduction in mosaic consequent on the nature 
of the material the fact becomes doubly suggestive that in effectual 
and complete mastery of drawing there is nothing in the whole 
range of Pompeian pictures to surpass the border of masks, garlands, 
foliage and fruits of the Casa del Fauno or the mosaics attributed 
to the artist Dioscorides. But we may well delight in the air of 
cheerful airy grace pervading these pictorial decorations of Pom- 
peii , in this precious heritage of Grecian — and in part old Gre- 
cian — life and beauty which a licentious posterity has scattered 
over its dazzling walls. 

His Wry of the Kingdom of Naples. 

The former kingdom of Naples contained at the end of 1879 
10,414,000 inhab. (including Benevento) , and is divided into 16 
provinces. In ancient times it embraced the tribes of the Volsci, 
Samnites, Oscans, Companions, Apulians, Lucanians, Calabrians, 
Bruttians , Siculians , and a number of others of less importance, 
all of whom were characterised by the most marked peculiarities 
of language , custom , and political constitution. The Oscan lan- 
guage , the one most generally spoken , predominated in Samnium, 
Campania, Lueania , and Bruttium. On the W. and S.W. coast, 
and especially in Sicily, Greek colonists settled in such numbers 
that the S. portion of the Italian peninsula received the name of 
Magna Graecia. After the war against Pyrrhus , king of Epirus, 
in the 3rd cent, before Christ, the Romans became masters of the 
land, but the Greek language and customs continued to predominate 
until an advanced period in the Christian era. That this was the 
case in the time of the early emperors has been distinctly proved 
by the character of the antiquities of the excavated Oscan towns of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. After the fall of the Western Empire 
this district was occupied by Ostrogoths and Lombards, then by 
Romans from the E. Empire , who in their turn were constantly 
harassed by Arabian bands which attacked them by sea , and who 
Anally succumbed in the 11th cent, to the Norman settlers. The 
Hohenstaufen family next held the country from 1194 to 1254. In 
1265 Charles of Anjou gained possession of Naples and established 
his dominion, which was secured by the cruel execution in 1268 
oiConradin, the lawful heir. His power , however, having been 
impaired by the Sicilian Vespers, 30th May, 1282, rapidly declined 
in consequence of the crimes and degeneracy of the royal family 
and of disastrous wars with the island of Sicily, then in possession 
of the Arragonese. Charles VIII. of France, as heir of the Anjou 
family, undertook a campaign against Naples and gained possession 
of the kingdom in a few days, but was unable to retain it. His 
successor Louis XII. allied himself with Ferdinand the Catholic of 
Spain with a view to conquer Naples , but in consequence of dis- 
sensions was compelled to abandon his enterprise after the victory of 
Qonsalvo dn Cordova on the Liris. Naples, like Sicily and Sardinia, 
then yielded to the power of Spain, which maintained her dominion 
till 1713. Gonsalvo da Cordova was the first of the series of Spanish 


viceroys, many of whom, such as Don Pedro de Toledo under 
Charles V. (1532-54), did much to promote the welfare of the 
country. The rule of others, especially during the 17th cent., was 
such as to occasion universal distress and dissatisfaction , a mani- 
festation of which was the insurrection under Masaniello at Naples 
in 1647. At the peace of Utrecht in 1713 Philip V. of Spain, of 
the house of Bourbon , ceded Naples and Sicily to the house of 
Hapsburg , but after prolonged conflicts they reverted to his son 
Charles in 1734,. under the name of the ' Kingdom of the Two Sici- 
lies'. Notwithstanding revolutionary disturbances, the Bourbons 
continued to reign at Naples until the close of the century. In 
1806 Napoleon I. created his brother Joseph king of Naples , who 
was succeeded in 1808 by his brother-in-law Joachim Murat. 
In June, 1815, King Ferdinand, who with the aid of the English 
had meanwhile maintained his ground in Sicily, returned to 
Naples , and in his person the Bourbon dynasty was restored. 
The following October , Joachim Murat ventured to land at Pizzo 
in Calabria, but was captured, tried by court-martial , and shot, 
15th Oct. 1815. Popular dissatisfaction, however, still continued, 
and in 1820 a rebellion broke out in Italy and Sicily , but it was 
speedily quelled by the Austrians under Frimont in 1821 , who 
occupied the country till 1827. King Ferdinand I. was succeeded 
in 1825 by his eldest son Francis 1. , and the latter in 1830 by 
Ferdinand II., whose reign was characterised by an uninterrupted 
succession of internal struggles, partly in Naples and partly in Si- 
cily , especially after the year 1848. In the spring of 1859, when 
the war between Sardinia and Austria broke out in N. Italy, which 
by the peace of Villafranca would have entirely changed the inter- 
nal condition of Italy, Ferdinand II. died, and his son Francis II. 
(married to the Princess Mary of Bavaria) was compelled to yield 
to the storm which burst forth afresh. In May, 1860, Garibaldi 
began his victorious march through Sicily and Calabria , which 
ended at Naples in August. In the meantime the Piedmontese 
troops, at the instigation of Cavour , had also entered the kingdom 
of Naples. On 1st Oct. Francis II. was defeated at a skirmish on 
the Volturno. On 7th Oct. King Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi 
entered Naples side by side amid the greatest popular enthusiasm. 
Francis was then besieged at Gaeta from 4th Nov., 1860, to 13th 
Feb., 1861, and at length compelled to surrender and retire to 

In a land , whose history , like its volcanic soil, has been dis- 
turbed by a long succession of internal struggles , and where so 
many and so different nations have ruled, repose and the develop- 
ment of civilisation must necessarily be difficult of attainment. 
The present government has adopted a wise course in endeavouring 
to raise the standard of national education , in energetically sup- 
pressing the brigandage in the provinces , and the 'Camorra' and 


gangs of thieves in the city , and in introducing a number of re- 
forms well adapted to improve the condition of the nation. 

Bates. The following are the most important dates in the 
history of the Kingdom of Naples (comp. pp. 244, 245). 

I. Period. The Norman/:, 1042-1194: 1042, William, son of 
Tancred of Hauteville , Comes Apulire. — 1059, Robert Guiscard 
(i. e. 'the Cunning'), Dux Apulife et Calabrife. — 1130, Roger, 
proclaimed king after the conquest of Naples and Amain , unites 
the whole of Lower Italy and Sicilv. — 1154-66, William I. ('the 
Bad'). — 1166-89, William II. ('the Good'). — 1194, William III. 

II. Period. The Hohenstaufen, 1194-1268: 1194, Henry VI. 
of Germany, I. of Naples. — 1197, Frederick II. — 1250, Conrad. 

— 1254, Manfred. — 1268, Conradin. 

HI. Period. House of Anjou, 1265-1442: 1265, Charles I. of 
Anjou. From 1282 to 1442 Sicily formed an independent king- 
dom under the house of Arragon. — 1285, Charles II., 'the Lame'. 

— 1309, Robert 'the Wise'. — 1343, Johanna I. (married Andreas 
of Hungary). — 1381, Charles III. of Durazzo. — 1386, Ladislaus. 

— 1414, Johanna II. — 1435, Renato of Anjou, banished by Al- 
phonso 'the Generous'. 

IV. Period. House of Arragon, 1442-1496: 1442, AlphonsoL, 
'the Generous'. After his death Sicily and Naples were again 
separated. — 1458, Ferdinand I. — 1494, Alphonso II. — 1495, 
Ferdinand II. — 1496, Frederick banished (d. 1554 at Tours, the 
last of the House of Arragon). 

V. Period. Spanish Viceroys, 1503-1707. — On 7th July, 
1707, during the Spanish War of Succession, Count Daun marched 
into Naples and established the Austrian supremacy. 

VI. Period. Austrian Viceroys, 1707-1734. — Charles III. of 
Bourbon , crowned at Palermo 1734 , recognised by the Peace of 
Vienna 1738, defeats the Austrians at Velletri 1744, finally re- 
cognised by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748. In 1758 Charles 
was proclaimed king of Spain , and resigned the crown of Naples 
and Sicily in favour of his son. 

VII. Period. The Bourbons, 1734-1860: 1734, Charles III. — 
1759, Ferdinand IV. (regency during his minority till 1767), mar- 
ried Caroline of Austria, sister of Joseph II., but a monarch of 
very different character from the latter. — 23rd Jan. 1799, the 
Repubblica Parthenopea proclaimed by General Championnet. — 
14th June, 1799, the French banished. Reaction of Cardinal Ruffo. 

— 14th Jan., 1806, Joseph Buonaparte established by Massena. — 
15th July, 1K08, Joachim Murat. king of Naples. — 1816, Ferdi- 
nand assumes the title of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. — 
LS25, Francis I. — 1830, Ferdinand II. — 1859, Francis II. — 
21st Oct. 1860. the Kingdom of Naples annexed to Italy by 


VIII. Period. House of Savoy. Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878). 
— Since 1878, Humbert I. 

Art. Iu art , as in literature , the attainments of the natives 
of S. Italy have been insignificant. The Norman Period, however, 
under Arabian influence , produced both on the mainland and in 
Sicily (p. 249) works of architecture and sculpture which at least 
hold their own when compared with the contemporaneous monu- 
ments of CentraJ Italy. These, however, are not found in the metro- 
polis, but at the seats of the princes and bishops, as Bari, Trani, 
Amalfi, Bavello, and Salerno. The art of decoration, as applied in 
mosaic flooring , pulpits , and choir-screens , was in particular 
brought to great perfection. The brazen doors , at first imported 
from Constantinople , were afterwards made in the country itself ; 
thus those at Canosa were executed by a master of Amalfi, and 
those at Bavello and Trani are the work of a native of the place 
last named. The arts of mosaic composition and mural painting 
were sedulously cultivated in S. Italy during the whole of the 
early middle ages , a fact mainly due to the constant intercourse 
maintained with Byzantium. — In the Period op Giotto, during 
which great advances in painting were made throughout the rest 
of the peninsula, S. Italy remained nearly inactive , content to 
depend on foreign artists for the supply of her artistic wants. 
Thus Arnolfo di Cambio , the famous Florentine architect, also 
practised his profession in the South ; and Pietro Cavallini , the 
most celebrated Roman painter at the beginning of the 14th cent., 
Giotto himself (in S. Chiara) , and probably Simone Martini of 
Siena, all left memorials of their skill in S. Italy. — During 
the Fifteenth Cbntury the realism of the Flemish school of the 
Van Eycks produced a marked effect on Neapolitan art. The 
most important works of this period are the frescos , unfor- 
tunately in poor preservation , in the cloisters of S. Severino at 
Naples. They are associated with the name of Antonio Solario, 
L lo Zingaro', an artist of whose life and work we possess most im- 
perfect and in part misleading accounts. To judge from these 
paintings he was related in style to the Umbro-Florentine school. 
Piero and Ippolito Donzello and Simone Papa are said to have 
been pupils of Lo Zingaro, but Piero Donzello at any rate learned 
his art at Florence. 

In the Sixteenth Century Raphael's influence extended even 
to Naples, as is apparent from the works, among others, of Andrea 
Sabbatini of Salerno, known as Andrea da Salerno, who flourished 
in 1480-1545. This artist studied under Raphael at Rome, and, 
like Polidoro da Caravaggio (1495-1543), was one of the foun- 
ders of the Neapolitan school of the 17th century. — In the Sev- 
enteenth Cbntury the Neapolitan school is characterised by its 
'naturalistic' style. Among the most prominent masters were the 


Spaniard Giuseppe Ribera, surnamed lo Spagnoletto (1588-1656), 
a follower of Caravaggio; the Greek Belisario Coremio (1558- 
1643), a pupil of the last; Giambattista Caracciolo (d. 1641), and 
his able pupil Massimo Stanzioni (1585-1656). The school of 
Spagnoletto also produced Anirtlo Falcone (1600-65), the painter 
of battle-scenes, and the talented landscape-painter Salvator Rosa 
(1615-1673). In 1629 Domenichino came from Rome to Naples, to 
decorate the Cappella del Tesoro for the Archbishop , but seems 
to have exercised no influence upon Neapolitan art. He fled to 
Frascati in 1635, to escape the plots laid for him by Ribera, but 
returned to Naples the following year and died there in 1641. In 
Luca Giordano (1632-1705), surnamed Fa Presto from his rapid- 
ity of execution, who also worked at Rome, Bologna, Parma, 
and Venice , Neapolitan painting reached a still lower level. — 
The history of Neapolitan art is as yet imperfectly investigated, 
but there seems little reason to doubt that farther research will 
serve to confirm the conclusion that Naples has never been able to 
dispense with the assistance of foreign artists. 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway. 

Two main roads lead from Rome to Naples: one along the coast by 
Terracina (R. 2), the ancient Via Appia ; the other through the valley of 
the Sacco and Garigliano, the Via Latina; both uniting near Capua. The 
Railway, following the latter route (162 M. in length), is now the most 
important means of communication between Central and Southern Italy. 
Duration of journey 6V2-IO hrs. ; fares by the through trains, 34 fr. 15 c, 
23 fr. 40 c. ; by the ordinary trains, 28 fr. 65, 19 fr. 85, 13 fr. 95 c. — Coinp. 
p. xvi. The finest views are generally to the left. — For a more detailed 
description of the stations between Rome and Segni, see Baedeker's Cen- 
tral Italy. 

The Sea Voyage from (Rome) Civita Vecchia to Naples is now 
seldom made. The steamers of the Societa Florio-Rubattino call at Civita 
Vecchia several times weekly, those of the French Compagnie Fraistinet 
once weekly on the journey from Genoa to Naples. The view on entering 
the Bay of Naples on a fine day is one of almost unparalleled beauty. The 
traveller should therefore avoid the steamers entering the bay in the dark. 
Duration of journey 26-32 hrs.; fares 1st cl. 49 fr., 2nd 31 fr. 

Soon after leaving the city, the train diverges from the Civita 
Vecchia line. The Sabine and Alban mountains rise on the left. 
Stations: 9 M. Ciampino, where the line to Frascati diverges ; 10 M. 
Marino; 17 M. Albano, 2 M. from the town. To the right we obtain 
a glimpse of Monte Circello (1771 ft. ; p. 13), rising abruptly from 
the sea ; nearer are the Volscian Mts. — 20 M. Civita Lavinia, the 
ancient Lanuvium. 

25 l /2 M. Velletri (Locanda Campana, Oallo, both good, with 
Trattorie), the ancient Velitrae, a town of the Volscians , which 
became subject to Rome in B. 0. 338, is famous for its wine (pop. 
8000). It stands picturesquely on a spur of the Monte Artemisia, 
6 min. from the station*. Velletri is the residence of the Bishop 
of Ostia. The loggia of the Palazzo Lancelotti commands a beautiful 
and extensive view. In the new cemetery, where Garibaldi defeated 
the Neapolitan troops on 19th May, 1849, a column of victory was 
erected in 1883. — From Velletri to Cori, see Baedeker's Central 
Italy; to Terracina, see R. 2. 

The train passes between the Alban Mts. on the left, and the 
Volscian Mts. on the right, and turns E. towards the valley near 
the Mte. Fortino. 30Y 2 M. Ontanese. — 35y 3 M. Valmontone, a 
small town on an isolated volcanic eminence, possessing a hand- 
some chateau of the Doria Pamflli. 

The train now enters the valley of the Sacco, the ancient 
Trerus or Tolerus, and skirts its left bank, running parallel with 
the ancient Via Latina. This well-cultivated valley , bounded on 
both sides by mountains rising to a height of 4000 ft., was the ter- 
ritory of the Hernici (see p. 2). To the right Monte Fortino, 
picturesquely situated on the hill-side. 

Baedeker. Italy III. 9th Edition. 1 

2 Route 1 . ANAGNI. From Rome 

40 M. Segni, situated on a hill to the right, about 5'/o M. 
from the railway, a very ancient place, the Signia of the Romans, 
and still possessing huge remnants of the ancient walls and gate- 
ways, see Baedeker s Central Italy. 

45 M. Anagni (*Locanda Oallo), once a flourishing town, and 
in the middle ages frequently a papal residence, lies on the heights 
to the left, 5M. from the station (omnibus 1 fr.). Pope Innocent III., 
Count of Segni, was born here in 1161 (d. 1216). At Anagni 
on 7th Sept. 1303, Pope Boniface VIII., then considerably ad- 
vanced in years , was taken prisoner by the French knight 
Guillaume de Nogaret, acting in concert with the Colonnas, by 
order of King Philippe le Bel, but was set at liberty by the 
people three days afterwards. The *Cattedrale di S. Maria, a well- 
preserved edifice of the 11th cent., and pure in style, is adorned 
with a mosaic pavement by the master Cosmas , and in the crypt 
with ancient frescos. The treasury contains ancient papal vest- 
ments, etc. A walk round the town is interesting. The ancient 
wall, which probably dates from the Roman period, is well pre- 
served, particularly on the N. side. Remains from the middle ages 
are abundant. 

The next towns, with the imposing ruins of their ancient 
polygonal walls, are also situated on the hills at a considerable 
distance from the line. This is the territory of the Hernici, 
with the towns of Anagnia, Aletrium, Ferentinum, and Verulae, 
which allied themselves with Rome and Latium in B. C. 486, 
but were subjugated by the Romans, after an insurrection , in 
B. 0. 306. The environs of these towns are picturesque. 

48'/'2 M. Sgurgola (from which Anagni may also be reached : 
o'/o M.) is a village on the hill to the right, above the Sacco ; still 
higher is Carpineto. 

55 M. Ferentino. The town (poor Locanda), situated on the 
hill (1450 ft.) to the left, 3 M. from the line, the ancient Ferenti- 
num, a town of the Hernici, was destroyed in the 2nd Punic War, 
and afterwards became a Roman colony (pop. 11,000). The ancient 
town-wall, constructed partly of enormous rectangular blocks and 
partly in the polygonal style, is still traceable throughout nearly 
its whole circuit; a gateway on the W. side especially deserves 
notice. The castle, the walls of which now form the foundation of 
the episcopal palace, occupies the highest ground within the town. 
The Cathedral is paved with remains of ancient marbles and mosaics. 
The font in the small church of S. Giovanni Evangelista is ancient. 
Interesting antiquities and inscriptions will also be observed in 
other parts of the town. 

Higher up among the mountains, 9 '/a M. from Ferentino (carriage 6-8 fr.), 
and about the same distance from the next station Frosinone, lies the town 
of Alatri (Locanda of Lttcia cTArpino, near the market-place, rustic), the 
ancient Aletrium, picturesquely situated on an eminence, and presenting 
an admirably preserved specimen of the fortifications of an ancient city. 

to Naples. CEPRANO. 1 . Route. 3 

The town with its gates occupies the exact site of the old town. The -Walls 
of the castle, constructed of huge polygonal blocks, are still entire; the 
gateway attracts special attention on account of the stupendous dimensions 
of the stones of which it is composed. The town and castle were provided 
with an aqueduct — At a distance of 3 M. is the famous "Grotta di Colle- 
pardo , extending upwards of 2000 ft. into the limestone rock, with 
beautiful stalactites. About 3 /i M. farther is observed an extensive depres- 
sion in the soil, called II Pozzo d'Aittullo , several hundred yards in cir- 
cumference and 200 ft. in depth, overgrown with grass and underwood. 

On a hill , about 5 M. to the S. E. of Alatri , is situated Veroli , the 
ancient Verulae, from which a pleasant road leads to Isold (p. 190; carriage 
from Alatri tolsola 10-12 fr.). 

59 J /2 M. Frosinone. The town (Locanda de Matteis; pop. 
11,000), situated on the hill, 2M. to the N.E. of the railway, is 
identical with the ancient Hernician Frusino, which was conquered 
by the Romans in B. C. 304. The relics of walls and other anti- 
quities are scanty, but the situation is very beautiful. 

64 M. Ceccano. The village is most picturesquely situated on the 
hill-side , on the right bank of the Sacco, the valley of which 
now contracts. At the foot of the hill, to the left of the river, 
once lay the ancient Fabrateria Vetus, numerous inscriptions from 
which are built into the walls of the church by the bridge. A 
road leads from Ceccano over the hills to Piperno and Terra- 
cina (p. 13). 

69 M. Pofi. — 75 M. Ceprano (Refreshment Room). Outside the 
station a pleasing glimpse is obtained of the valleys of the Liris and 
the Tolerus. The town of Ceprano is 2*/ 2 M. from the station. — 
The train now crosses the Liris , which descends from the N . , 
from the region of the Lago Fucino, forming the old boundary of 
the States of the Church. 76 M. Isoletta. 

In the vicinity, on the right bank of the Liris, in the direction of 
S. Giovanni in Carico , are the scanty ruins of the ancient Fregellae, a 
Roman colony founded in B. C. 328, and a point of great military im- 
portance, as it commanded the passage of the river. It was destroyed 
by the Romans in B. C. £25, in consequence of an insurrection, and Fabra- 
teria Nova was founded in its stead. A number of antiquities may be 
seen in the Giardino Cairo, at the village of S. Giovanni in Carico, 3 M. 
from the station. 

The train now traverses the broad and fertile valley of the Liris, 
or Qarigliano, as it is called after its union with the Sacco. 82 M. 
Roccasecca ; branch line to Arce, which is to be carried on to Sora 
and Avezzano, p. 191. 

85'/2 M. Aquino , the ancient Aquinum , a small town pic- 
turesquely situated to the left on the hill and on a mountain stream, 
is celebrated as the birthplace of the satirist Juvenal (under Dom- 
itian) and of the philosopher Thomas Aquinas. The illustrious 
'doctor angelicus', son of Count Landulf, was born in 1224 in the 
neighbouring castle of Rocca Secca, and was educated in the monas- 
tery of Monte Cassino (p. 5). The Emperor Pescennius Niger was also 
a native of Aquinum. By the side of the Via Latina may be distin- 
guished the relics of the ancient Roman town : inconsiderable frag- 
ments of walls, a gateway (Porta S. Lorenzo), a theatre, remains 


1 Route 1. 


From Rome 

of temples of Ceres (S. Pietro) and Diana (S. Maria Maddalena), and 
a triumphal arch. Near the stream are the ruins of S. Marin Libera, 
a basilica of the 11th cent., commonly called /( Vescovado, occupying 
the site of an ancient temple , and consisting of handsome nave 
and aisles. Above the portal is a well-preserved Madonna in mosaic. 

Beyond Aquino, on a bleak mountain to the left, the cele- 
brated monastery of Monte Cassino (p. 5) becomes visible. 

92 M. Cassino. — Carriage from the station to the town '/a tr- (tariff 
in the waiting room). — Inns, outside the town: *Alb. Pompei, i/jI. from 
the station , prettily situated and clean , E. 2, pens, from 5'/a fr. > Al ». 
Vakrone, on the site of the villa of M. Terentius Varro (p. 5). 

A visit to Monte Cassino may easily he accomplished within a stay of 
24 hrs. (Luggage may he left at the station in exchange for a receipt.) 


On arriving, the traveller , having partaken of some refreshment in the 
town, may either iirst explore the ruins of Casinum (for which , however, 
he would have time on the following day), or proceed at once to the mon- 
astery of Monte Cassino (Ufa hr. ; donkey l'/a fr.). The excursion should 
be so arranged that the traveller may return to the town a considerable 
time before sunset 5 at the same time it must be borne in mind that vis- 
itors are strictly excluded from 12 to 3. 30 o'clock. The monastery is 
justly noted for its hospitality, and affords good quarters for the night, 
although the fare is sometimes of a frugal description. No payment is 
demanded, but the traveller should give about as much as he would have 
paid at a hotel. Ladies are of course admitted to the church only. Tra- 
vellers who wish to spend the night or dine here should apply to the 
padre forestieraio. Letters of introduction will be found very useful. At 
an early hotir on Sundays and holidays the church and courts of the mon- 
astery are crowded with country -people from the neighbouring mountain 
districts, whose characteristic physiognomies and costumes will be scanned 
with interest by the traveller. Those who return to Cassino to pass the 
night should allow 5 hrs. for the whole excursion. 

to Naples. MONTE CASSINO. 1 . Route. 5 

Cassino, formerly called San Qermano , a town with 13,500 
inliab. , is picturesquely situated in the plain at the foot of the 
Monte Cassino, on the small river Rapido (Lat. Vinius), 3/ 4 M. from 
the station, and is commanded by a ruined castle, called La Rocca. 
It occupies nearly the same site as the ancient Casinum, which was 
colonised by the Romans in B. C. 312, and was afterwards a flourish- 
ing provincial town. On its ruins sprang up San Germano during 
the middle ages. Pillars of great antiquity are still to be seen in 
the churches. Various courts have been held here by popes and em- 
perors, and in 1230 peace was concluded here between Gregory IX. 
and Frederick II. The foggy character of the climate is alluded to 
by the ancients. 

The town presents few objects of interest. Following the Ro- 
man road to the S. for V2 M., we see on the right, the colossal re- 
mains of an * Amphitheatre, which, according to an inscription pre- 
served at Monte Cassino , was erected by Ummidia Quadratilla at 
her own expense. The foundress is mentioned by Pliny in his letters 
(vii. 24) as a lady of great wealth, who even in her old age was an 
ardent admirer of theatrical performances. Farther on, and a little 
higher up, stands a square monument built of large blocks of tra- 
vertine, with four niches, and surmounted by a dome, now convert- 
ed into the church *Del Crocefisso (custodian 3-4 soldi). On the 
opposite bank of the Rapido lay the villa of M. Terentius Varro, 
where, as we are informed by Cicero (Phil. ii. 40) , M. Antony 
afterwards indulged in his wild orgies. — The path leading back 
to the town from Crocefisso is probably the ancient Via Latina, and 
traces of ancient pavement are occasionally observed. From this 
path, by keeping to the high ground to the left, we may proceed 
to Monte Cassino without returning to the town. 

The monastery of * Monte Cassino, situated on a lofty hill 
to the W. of the town, is reached in 1^2 nr - The path, which 
cannot be mistaken, affords exquisite views of the valley of the 
Garigliano and the surrounding mountains. The monastery was 
founded by St. Benedict in 529, on the site of an ancient temple 
of Apollo, to which Dante alludes (Parad. xxii. 37), and from 
its magnificent situation alone would be entitled to a visit. 

The extensive edifice, the interior of which resembles a castle rather 
than a monastery, is approached by a new entrance , to the right of the 
low passage through the rock which was formerly used; near the latter 
St. Benedict is said to have had his cell , which has lately been restored 
aud decorated with frescos. Several Courts are connected by arcades. 
The central one has a fountain of very good water, adorned with statues 
of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. On a square space higher 
up, enclosed by columns from the ancient temple of Apollo', stands the 
Church, erected in 1727 to replace the ancient edifice founded by St. 
Benedict. The fortunes of the abbey are recorded in Latin above the 
entrance of the hall. The principal door of the church is of bronze 
and is inscribed with a list, inlaid in silver, of all the possessions of the 
abbey in 1066. It was executed at Constantinople by order of the Abbot 
Desiderius, afterwards Pope Victor III. The interior is richly decorated 

6 Route 1. MONTE CASSINO. From Rome 

with marble, mosaics, and paintings. On each side of the high - altar 
is a mausoleum; one to the memory of Pietro de' Medici (p. 19), who 
was drowned in the Garigliano in 1503, executed by Francesco Sangallo hy 
order of Clement VII. ; the other that of Guidone Fieramosca, last Prince 
of Mignano. Beneath the high-altar, with its rich marble decorations, re- 
pose the remains of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastics. The sub- 
terranean chapel contains paintings by Jfarco da Siena and Mazzaroppi. 
The choir-stalls are adorned with admirable carving (by Coliccio, 1696), 
and the chapels adjoining the altar with costly mosaics. Above the doors 
and on the ceiling are frescos by Ltica Giordano (1677), representing the 
miracles of St. Benedict and the foundation of the church. The organ is 
one of the finest in Italy. In the refectory is a 'Miracle of the Loaves', 
by BanHtno. 

At a very early period the Library was celebrated for the MSS. 
executed by the monks. To the Abbot Desiderius of the 11th cent, we 
are probably indebted for the preservation ofVarro, and perhaps of other 
authors. The handsome saloon at present contains a collection of about 
10,000 vols., among which are numerous rare editions published during the 
infancy of the printer's art. The MSS. and documents are preserved in the 
archives, in the passage leading to which a number of inscriptions are built 
into the wall, most of them rescued from the ruins of the ancient Casinum. 
Among the MSS. are : the commentary of Origen on the Epistle to the 
Romans, translated by Rufus, dating from the 6th cent. ; a Dante with mar- 
ginal notes, of the 14th cent, (the archives contain an interesting portrait 
of the poet); the vision of the monk Alberic, which is said to have sug- 
gested the first idea on which Dante founded his work ; various classical 
authors, the original MSS. of Leo of Ostia and Riccardo di San Germano. 
The "Archives comprise a still rarer collection, consisting of about 800 
documents of emperors, kings, dukes, etc., and the complete series of 
papal bulls which relate to Monte Cassino, beginning with the 11th cent., 
many of them with admirable seals and impressions. Among the letters 
are those exchanged by Don Erasmo Gattola, the historian of the abbey, 
with learned contemporaries. At the end of an Italian translation of 
Boccaccio's 'De Claris Mulieribus' is a letter of Sultan Mohammed II. to 
Pope Nicholas IV., complaining of the pontiff's preparations for war and 
promising to be converted as soon as he should visit Rome, together 
with an unfavourable answer from the pope. An ancient bath-seat in 
rosso antico, found on the bank of the Liris, is also preserved here. The 
tower in which St. Benedict is said to have lived contains pictures by 
Xarclli, Spagnulelto, and others. 

The monastery, which has been declared to be a 'National Mon- 
ument', and which continues its existence in the form of an edu- 
cational establishment, has ever been conspicuous foT the admirable 
manner in which its inmates have discharged their higher duties. 
They are the intelligent keepers of one of the most precious libraries 
in the world, and they educate about eighty students of theology. 
The monks at present number about thirty, and there are ten lay 
brethren, twenty pupils of the upper classes, and numerous ser- 
vants. The institution also comprises a telegraph-office and a print- 
ing-office. The revenues once amounted to 100,000 ducats per an- 
num, but are now reduced to about 20,000. 

The monastery commands a magnificent prospect in all di- 
rections, which the visitor should not omit to enjoy from the 
different points of view. To the \V. and S. extends the broad 
valley of the (Jarigliano with its numerous villages, separated from 
the Gulf of Gaeta by a range of bills, and the sea is occasionally 
dNtinjsimhable. To the K. is the valley of S. Germano, nun- 

to Naples. CAPUA. 1 . Route. 7 

manded by the rocky summits of the Abruzzi. To the N. a wild 
mountainous district. 

Close to the monastery rises the Monte Cairo (5480 1 ), which may be 
ascended in 3-4 hrs.; the view from the summit is considered one of the 
finest in Italy. 

Continuation op Journey to Naples. To the left, beyond 
S. Germano, we perceive the villages of Cervaro, S. Vittore, and 
8. Pietro in Fine. 100 M. Rocca d'Evandro. The train quits the 
valley of the Garigliano, and enters a richly cultivated delile, 
beyond which the country towards the right becomes flatter. 
104V2 M. Mignano. The train now runs through a a barren, un- 
dulating tract. 107 M.Presenzano, which lies on the slope to the left. 

112M. Caianello- Vairano, whence a high-road leads viaSolmona 
(R. 14) to Pescara on the Gulf of Venice, and to Aquila and Terni. 

116 M. Riardo ; the village, with an old castle, lies on the left. 

120 M. Teano; the town (Locanda dell' Italia; 5000 inhab.) 
lies at some distance to the right, at the base of the lofty Rocca 
Monfina, an extinct volcano (3420 ft.), which may be visited from 
this point. The extensive, but dilapidated old castle was erected 
in the 15th cent, by the dukes of Sessa. Ancient columns in the 
cathedral, inscriptions, remains of a theatre, and other antiquities 
are now the sole vestiges of the venerable Teanum Sidicinum, once 
the capital of the Sidicini, which was conquered by the Samnites 
in the 4th cent. B.C., afterwards subjugated by the Romans, and 
in Strabo's time the most flourishing inland city of Campania after 

124 M. Sparanisi, whence a road leads to Gaeta (p. 17). 

About 4 M. to the N. E. of the railway to the left lies Galvi, the 
ancient Gales, a Roman colony founded B. C. 332, the wine of which 
(vinum Calenum) is praised by Horace. It now consists of a few houses 
only, hut contains an ancient amphitheatre, a theatre, and other anti- 
quities. Carriage with one horse from Capua, and back, 2-3 fr. 

As the train proceeds' we obtain for the first time a view of Mt. 
Vesuvius in the distance to the right, and then of the island of 
Ischia in the same direction. 124 1 / 2 M. Pignataro. The train now 
intersects the plain of the Volturno, a river 94 M. in length, the 
longest in Lower Italy. We now enter upon the vast plains of the 
ancient Campania (now Terra di Lavoro), one of the most luxuriant 
districts in Europe , which is capable of yielding , in addition to 
the produce of the dense plantations of fruit-trees, two crops of 
grain and one of hay in the same season. 

133 M. Capua. — Inns. Albergo & Trattoria del Centro , in 
the Piazza de' Giudici. — Carriage from the station to the town with 
one horse (cittadina) 30, with two horses (carrozza) 50 c. ; per hour, 1 or 
2 fr. ; to Caserta 1 fr. 90 or 3 fr. 90 c. ; to Aversa 3 or 6 fr. ; to S. Maria 
Capua Vetere 90 c. or 2 fr.; to S. Angelo in Formis 1 fr. 20 or 2 fr. 50 c. ; 
to Naples 35 or 40 fr. 

Capua, a fortified town with 14,000 inhab., the residence of 
an archbishop, lies on the left bank of the Volturno, by which the 
greater part of it is surrounded. It was erected in the 9th cent., 

8 Route 1. S. MARIA DI CAPUA VETERE. From Rome 

after the destruction of the ancient Capua, on the site of Casi- 
linum, a town which was conquered by Hannibal after an obstinate 
resistance, and fell to decay in the time of the emperors. 

Turning to the right on entering the town, and taking the first 
street to the left, we reach the Piazza de' Giuclici, or market-place, 
in 6 min., and then enter the Via del Duomo to the right. 

The Cathedral, dating from the 11th cent., possesses a hand- 
some entrance court with ancient columns, but in other respects 
has been entirely modernised. 

Interior. 3rd Chapel on the left: Madonna della Rosa of the 13th 
century. 3rd Chapel on the right: Madonna with two saints by Silvestro 
dc 1 Buoni. The Crypt, dating from the Romanesque period, but now mo- 
dernised, contains Mosaics from an old pulpit, a Roman Sarcophagus 
with a representation of the Hunt of Meleager, and a Holy Sepulchre by 
Bernini, being one of his best works. 

The Via del Duomo, passing through an archway, leads to the 
Corso Museo Campano. (Proceeding thence in a straight direction, 
we may reach the ramparts, which command a pleasing view of 
the Volturno.J In this street, on the right, is situated the Museo 
Campano, which is entered from the first side-street on the right. 
It is open to the public daily, 9-3 o' clock, except on Sundays and 

The Court contains reliefs from the amphitheatre of Capua (see p. §}; 
inscriptions; ancient sarcophagi, including one of the period of Con- 
stantine; mediaeval tomb-monuments; a sitting statue of Frederick II. 
(sadly mutilated and without its head), which formerly surmounted the 
gateway of the tete-de-pont constructed by him on the right bank of 
the Yolturno about 1240, and destroyed in 1557 ; heads of statues of Pe- 
trus de Vineis and Thaddseus of Suessa, and a colossal head of 'Capua 
Imperiale 1 (casts at the Museo Nazionale in Naples), also from Frede- 
rick II. ^s tete-de-pont. The rooms in the Interior contain ancient ter- 
racottas, vases, coins, a few pictures of little value, and a small library. 

The bridge across the Volturno, restored in 1756, is adorned 
with a statue of St. Nepomuc. Beyond it is an inscription in 
memory of the Emperor Frederick II. The Torre Mignana within, 
and the Cappella de' Morti without the town commemorate the 
sanguinary attack made on Capua by Caesar' Borgia in 1501, on 
which occasion 5000 lives were sacrificed. 

On our left after the train has crossed the Volturno, lies the 
battle-field on which King Francis II. was defeated by the Gari- 
baldians and Piedmontese on 1st Oct., 1860. 

iSG 1 /^ M. S. Maria di Capua Vetere (Locanda Roma) is a pro- 
sperous town , on the site of the ancient Capua, containing consi- 
derable ruins. 

Capua, founded by the Etruscans and afterwards occupied by Samnite 
tribes, entered into alliance with the Romans B.C. 343, for the sake of protec- 
tion against theattacks of theSamnites of themountains. Owing to the luxur- 
iant fertility of the district, the power and wealth ofthe city developed them- 
selves at an early period. It was the largest city in Italy after Rome, but soon 
became noted for its effeminacy and degeneracy. In the 2nd Punic War, after the 
battle otCanna:(H. C. 21G), it entered into an alliance with Hannibal, who took 
up his winter-quarters here. That his soldiers became so enervated by their 
residence at Capua as no longer lobe a match lor the Romans, is doubtless a mere 

to Naples. CASERTA, 1. Route. 9 

hypothesis. Certain, however, it is, that the Romans soon obtained the su- 
periority, and after a long siege reduced the town, B.C. 211. Its punishment 
was a severe one, and the inhabitants were entirely deprived of all civic pri- 
vileges. It was rescued from its abject condition by Ceesar, and under his suc- 
cessors regained its ancient splendour. It continued to prosper until the wars 
of the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards. In the 8th cent, it was destroyed by the 
Saracens, and the inhabitants emigrated to the modern Capua (p. 7). 

Proceeding straight from the station, taking the first street to 
the left, and following the Via S. Sebastiano in nearly the same 
direction to its farther end (5 min.), we turn to the left into the 
Via Anflteatro which leads in a curve round the town to (10 min.) 
the ancient amphitheatre. Before reaching it, we cross an open space 
where we observe on the left the ruins of a Roman Triumphal Arch, 
now a gate, through which the Capua road passes. 

The *Amphithbatrb of Capua (adm. 1 fr. for each pers.), 
which is said to be the most ancient, and after the Colosseum at 
Rome the largest, in Italy, is constructed of travertine. The longer 
diameter is 185 yds., the shorter 152 yds. in length. The arena 
measures 83 yds. by 49 yds. 

Three of its passages are tolerably well preserved, but of the 80 en- 
trance-arches two only. The keystones are decorated with images of gods. 
The Arena, with its substructures, passages, and dens for the wild beasts 
(to which a staircase descends from the passage to the left), is, like that 
of Pozzuoli, better defined than the arena of the Colosseum at Dome. The 
Passages contain remains of ancient decorations, fragments of columns, 
bas-reliefs, etc. To the right, near the entrance, the visitor may ascend 
to the upper part of the structure, in order to obtain a survey of the ruins 
themselves, and of the extensive surrounding plain. Large schools were 
once maintained at Capua for the training of gladiators, and it was here 
in B.C. 83, that the dangerous War of the Gladiators under Spartacvs the 
Thracian broke out, which was with difficulty quelled by Crassus two 
years later. 

Above Capua rises Mons Tifata, once the site of a temple of Jupiter, 
now crowned by a chapel of S. Nicola. At its base, about 4'/2 M. from 
S. Maria, stands the old church of S. Angelo in Formis, with Byzantine 
frescos of the 11th cent, (valuable in the history of art), occupying the 
site of a celebrated temple' of Diana, around which a village had 
established itself. 

The high-road from Capua to Maddaloni (p. 10) by S. Maria 
and Caserta presents a scene of brisk traffic ; and a drive by 
carriage (p. 7) through this garden -like district is preferable to 
the railway journey. The road from S. Maria to Caserta (a drive of 
3 /4 hr.) passes two handsome Roman tombs. 

140 M. Caserta. — Hotels. "Vittoria, with garden, R. 2, B. 
l'/2, pens. 7-10 fr.; Villa Reale, well spoken of; both in the Via Vittoria; 
Villa di Fikenze , near the palace; all with trattorie. — In the round 
piazza with its colonnades, at the entrance to the town from the palace, 
is a favourite Cafi. 

Carriage with one horse, per drive 35 c. ('vettura semplice' still 
cheaper), with two horses 60 c. •, to S. Maria di Capua Vetere 1 fr. 40 or 
2 fr. 30, to Capua 2 fr. 75 or 3 fr. 90 c. 

For a Visit to the Palace (interior only, Sun. and Thurs. 12-4 ; the garden 
till sunset) a permesso from the royal intendant at the Palazzo Reale at 
Naples (p. 36) is required, but it may if necessary be obtained through 
one of the hotelkeepers at Caserta. Fee 1 fr.; for the chapel 25 c. 

Cuserta, a clean and well-built town with 19,000 inhab. ('com- 

10 Route 1. MADDALONI. 

mune' 30,6001 and a large garrison, may be called the Versailles 
of Naples. It possesses several palaces and barracks, and is the 
residence of the prefect of the province of Caserta. It was founded 
in the Sth cent, by the Lombards on the slope of the hill, but the 
modern town stands on lower ground. 

The * Royal Palace of Caserta, opposite the station, was erected 
in 1752, by Vanvitelli, by order of King Charles III., in the richest 
Italian palatial style. It forms a rectangle. The S. side is 830 ft. 
long and 134 ft. high, with thirty-seven windows in each story. 
The courts of the palace are traversed by a colonnade, from the 
centre of which ascends the handsome marble staircase, with 116 
steps. The marble statue of Vanvitelli , by Buccini , was erected 
in 1879. The palace is at present unoccupied. 

The Chapel, lavishly decorated with marble, imitated lapis lazuli, 
and gold, contains a 'Presentation in the Temple 1 by Mengs, five paintings 
by Conca , and an altar-piece by Bonito. — The Theatke is adorned with 
twelve Corinthian columns of African marble from the temple of Hera- 
pis at Pozzuoli, and contains forty boxes, besides that appropriated to 
the royal family. 

The *Garden, with its lofty pruned hedges, contains beautiful 
fountains and cascades, adorned with statues. The grand terrace 
above the cascade (2 M. from the palace) affords beautiful points 
of view. The Botanical Garden is interesting as proving that the 
trees of the colder north can be grown here with success. The Ca- 
sino Reale di S. Leuci, in the park, about 2 M. to the N., com- 
mands another fine prospect. 

From Caserta and from Capua there are roads to Caiw.zo (about 9 M.) 
and on to Piedimonte (PAlife (rustic Inn), prettily situated about 15 Jl. 
from Caiazzo, with flourishing mills, founded by Swiss merchants, at the 
foot of the Matese, the highest summit of which (Monte Mile/to, 6726') may 
lie ascended from Piedimonte in 5-6 hrs. On the top there is a lake sur- 
rounded by woods. View as far as the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea. 

Caserta is the junction of the Naples and Foggia railway 
(K. 10) , which runs above our line as far as Maddaloni , the next 
station , and for the branch - line to Castellammare (SO 1 /^ M. , in 
2 hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 90, or 2 fr. 50 c). The latter follows the 
main line as far as Cancello, where it diverges to the left and runs 
round the E. and S. sides of Mt. Vesuvius, past the stations of 
Mariyliano , Ottaiano, S. Giuseppe, , Terzigno, and Boscoreale, to 
Torre Annunziata , the junction of the railway from Naples to 
Castellammare and Gragnano (pp. 118, 153). 

1 i-4 M. Maddaloni. The town (20,000 inhab.), situated to the 
left, with an extensive deserted palace of the Caraffa family, is 
commanded by a ruined castle. On the Foggia line, 2'/.2 M. distant, 
are situated the Ponti della Valle (see p. 201), a celebrated aque- 
duct constructed by Vanvitelli to supply the gardens of Caserta 
with water, and usually visited from Maddaloni. 

I4S M. Cancello, whence branch-lines diverge to Castellam- 
mari' (see above) and to Avellino (K. 11). 

About l'/vM. to IIm.'S.W. orC:inccll'o, anions the woods (Bosro tlAreiTti). 

VIA APPIA, 2. Route. 11 

are the insignificant ruins of the ancient Oscan Suessula. The rich se- 
pulchral remains found here, chiefly vases and bronze ornaments, are 
preserved in the neighbouring Villa Spinelli. 

Since the opening of the railway (R. 16) the high-road feom Cancei.lo 
to Benevento (25 M.) has been used for the local traffic only. It leads 
by 3. Felice and Arienzo, and then passes through a narrow defile, con- 
sidered by many to be identical with the Furculae Cmidinae which proved 
so disastrous to the fortunes of Rome, whence it ascends to the village of 
Arpaia (the ancient Caudium according to some). It next passes the 
small town *of MontesarcMo, with its castle, once the residence of the 
d'Avalos family, and recently used as a state prison, in which, among others, 
the well-known Poerjo (d. 1867) was confined (comp. p. 42). 

To the left we observe Monte Somma (p. 126), which conceals 
the cone of Vesuvius. 152'/2 M. Acerra (14,500 inhab.) was the 
ancient Acerrae, to which the Roman citizenship was accorded as 
early as B. C. 332. The train crosses the trenches of the Regi 
Lagni, which drain the marshes of Pantano dell' Acerra, the 
ancient Clanius, now VAgno, and form the boundary between 
the provinces of Caserta and Naples. 154 M. Casalnuovo. Vesu- 
vius becomes visible on the left. 

162 M. Naples. Arrival, see p. 20. 

2. From Rome to Naples by Terracina and Gaeta. 

This road, formerly the principal route between Central and South- 
ern Italy, is the most ancient in the peninsula. During the Samnite 
war, B. C. 312, the Via Appia from Rome to Capua (p. 1) was constructed 
by the censor Appius Claudius, and with it the present road is nearly identical. 
Since the opening of the railway it has been used for the local traffic 
only, but it is still strongly recommended to the notice of the traveller, 
as it traverses a singularly attractive district, and is one of the most beautiful 
routes in Italy. The drive by carriage from Rome to Naples is also prefer- 
able to the railway journey in this respect, that the transition from the 
one city to the other is thus rendered less abrupt. In the height of sum- 
mer the journey is not recommended. The malaria which prevails then 
in the marshy districts is cansidered especially noxious during sleep. 
The diligence conductors regard tobacco smoke as the most effectual anti- 
dote to the poison of the atmosphere. No risk need be apprehended 
during the colder seasons. Since the annexation of the States of the Church 
by the Italian government, the brigandage which formerly flourished in these 
districts has been suppressed, though the first stage as far as Velletri is 
still considered to be not always quite safe. 

The whole journey occupies three davs : — 1st Day. Railway to Vel- 
letri in 3/4-IV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c; express, 6 fr. 40, 
4 fr. 30 c.) ; thence by diligence (starting on the arrival of the first Roman 
train ; fare 7 fr. ; provisions should be taken) or in separate carriages (one- 
horse carr. at the Societa di Bonis-Fasselli, Strada Vittorio Emanuele 117, 
25 fr., incl. driver's fee, prepaid in exchange for a receipt) in 7 hrs. to 
Terracina (visit Theodoric's palace). — 2nd Day. Diligence (5'/2 fr.) to For- 
mia in 5 hrs. If the diligence does not start before noon , the excursion 
to Gaeta is more easily made on the same day by hiring a carriage from 
Terracina to Formia. — 3kd Day. Diligence (starting at 6 p.m. ; 3 3 /4 fr.) to 
Sparanisi in 3'/2 hrs., and railway thence to Naples in l'/WA hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 45,4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10 c. ; express, 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 75 c). The diligence from 
Sparanisi starts very early in the morning. 

To Velletri, %b l /» M., see p. 1. The high-road here descends to 
the plain to the right. About Vfc M. before reaching Cisterna the 

12 Route 2. PONTINE MARSHES. From Rome 

roarl again unites with the ancient Via Appia. The extensive 
oak forests here were once a notorious haunt of banditti. On the 
height to the left we observe the villages of Cori and Norma (see 
Baedekers Central Italy). 

Farther on , below Norma , stands Sermoneta on an eminence, 
with an ancient castle of the (iaetani family, who thence derive 
their ducal title. Towards the sea, to the right, rises the isolated 
Monte Circello (p. 13). Cisterna (La Posta), 7'/o M. from Velletri, 
a small town with a castle of the Gaetani , situated on the last 
hill before the Pontine marshes are reached, was called Cisterna 
Reroute in the middle ages, and is believed to occupy the site of 
the ancient Tres Tabernae. 

17 M. (from Velletri) Torre ire Ponti, a solitary post-house 
(miserable tavern), where the diligence halts for an hour and changes 
horses. Terracina is 22 1 /^ M. distant. (Sermoneta, 5M. distant from 
Torre tre Ponti, may be visited thence; see above.) About i/a M. 
farther the road crosses the Ninfa by an ancient bridge, restored, 
as the inscription records, by Trajan. 

We now reach the Pontine Marshes (Paludi Pontini), which 
vary in breadth between the mountains and the sea from 6 to 
1 1 M., and from Nettuno to Terracina are 31 M. in length. A 
considerable part of them is now cultivated ; particularly, however, 
they afford extensive pastures , the most marshy parts being the 
resort of the buffalos. Towards the sea the district is clothed 
with forest (macchia). The malaria in summer is a dreadful 

According to Pliny (Hist. Nat. iii. 5) , these marshes were anciently 
a fertile and well-cultivated plain, occupied by twenty-four villages, but 
towards the close of the republic gradually fell into their present con- 
dition owing to the decline of agriculture. A want of fall in the sur- 
face of the soil is the cause of the evil. The streams and canals are 
totally inadequate to carry off the excess of water which descends from 
the mountains during the rainy season, and its escape is further impeded 
by the luxuriant vegetation of the aquatic plants. Attempts to drain the 
marshes were successively made by the censor Appius Claudius in B. C, 
3L2 (so says tradition), by the consul Cornelius Cethegus 130 years later, 
by Ctesar, Augustus, Nerva, Trajan, and finally by Theodoric, King of the 
Moths, all of which were of temporary benefit only. Similar operations were 
undertaken by the popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., and Pius VI. 
To the last is due the present admirably constructed road across the 
marshes, the cost of which amounted to 1,622,000 scudi (350, 100 1, sterling). 
At present the drainage is carried out in a most practical and comprehen- 
sive manner by the proprietors themselves , under the direction of the 
'Ufficio delta bonificazione delle paludi Pontini 1 at Terracina. 

For some distance the road follows the track of the ancient Via 
Appia in a straight direction, skirting the Canal delle Botte, 
which was constructed before the time of Augustus, and on which 
Horace performed part of his journey to Brundisium (Sat. i. 5). 

About 4 M. from Torre tre Ponti is Foro Appio , the ancient 
Forum Appii, described by Horace as 'iliffertum nautis cauponibus 
atqne malignis'. Here, and at Tres Tabernre, the Apostle Paul met 
his friends from Koine (Acts, xxviii). 

to Naples. PIPERNO. - 2. Route. 13 

The road pursues a perfectly straight direction, shaded by a 
double or quadruple avenue of stately elms. But for the moun- 
tains to the left, where Sezza has for some time been visible, the 
traveller might imagine himself transported to a scene in Holland. 

A conveyance in correspondence with the diligence from Velletri runs 
from Foro Appio to Sezza, the ancient Volscian Setia, which yielded a 
favourite wine. It is situated above the marshes on a hill which the old 
road to Naples skirted. The fragments of the old walls and of a so-called 
Temple of Saturn are still to be seen. — Instead of ascending the hill of 
Sezza, we may follow the road skirting its base to — 

Piperno (6 M.), the ancient Privernum of the Volsci, which long with- 
stood the attacks of the Romans, and afterwards a Roman colony, the traces 
of which are seen 3 /* "• '° 'b e ^- i n the plain, on the way to Frosinone. 
This plain is enclosed by lofty mountains, studded with ruined castles 
and villages: Rocca Oorga, Maenza, Rocca Secca, Prossedi, etc. About 3 M. 
farther, in the valley of the Amaseno, is situated the Cistercian monastery 
of Fossa Nuova, where Thomas Aquinas died in 1274 while on his way to 
the Council of Lyons. Sonnino, 41/2 M. distant, and San Lorenzo, in the 
valley of the Amaseno , about 9 M. distant , are both famous for the 
picturesqueness of the costume of the women, and were formerly notorious 
for the audacity of the brigands. 

The road pursues a straight direction on a raised embank- 
ment, and leads to Bocca di Fiume and Mesa. At the entrance 
of the post-house at Mesa are two ancient mile-stones of Trajan. 
In the vicinity are the ruins of a tomb on a square basement 
of massive blocks of limestone, obtained from the neighbouring 
Volscian mountains. 

Ponte Maggiore is the next post-station. Beyond it the road 
crosses the Amaseno, into which the Vfente empties itself a little 
lower down. 

A little farther on, the ancient and modern road divide. The 
Via Appia ascends the hill-side to the left, where palms and pome- 
granates, interspersed with orange groves and aloes, apprise the 
traveller of his entrance into Southern Italy, to the old town of 
Terracina ; while the other Yoad, to the new quarters of the town, 
skirts the sea. About l^M. before Terracina we pass the locality 
which Horace mentions as the site of the grove and fountain of 
Feronia (Sat. i. 5, 23), but no traces of either are now visible. 

To the right, towards the sea, thePromontorioCirceo, or Circello (1771 ft.), 
which was visible even before Velletri was reached, now becomes more 
conspicuous. This was the Circeii of the ancients, the traditional site of 
the palace and grove of the enchantress Circe, daughter of the sun, described 
by Homer. It is an isolated limestone rock, partly overgrown with wood, 
and may be reached in 3-4 hrs. (11 M.) from Terracina by a good path 
along the shore. Accommodation of a rustic character may be obtained at 
S. Felice. The hill is strewn with the ruins of several mediseval towers, 
and also with a few fragments of the ancient town of Circeii, which 
became a Roman colony in B. C. 393 and still existed in Cicero's time. 
Thus, about halfway up the hill, under a group of lofty trees, is a low 
parapet of Roman workmanship enclosing a well called the Fontanel 
di Mezzo Monte. At another point is the Fonte della Bagnaia , also with 
fragments of Roman masonry, and on the summit are the remains of a 
Temple of Circe. The "View from the top is magnificent: to the S.E. 
Ischia, Capri, and Mt. Vesuvius are distinctly visible ; to the N. the dome 
of St. Peter's can be distinguished; to the E. and N.E. we see the moun- 
tains as far as Velletri ; to the W. and S.W. is the sea, with the Pontine 

I 1 Route •>. TERRACINA. From Rome 

Islands (sec below). The rock is honey-combed with grottoes, some of 
which are of great extent. Cicero and Atticus, Tiberius and Domitian fre- 
quently resorted to this spot. — Remains of Roman palaces and aqueducts 
have also been found at Lago di Paolo., a small lake at the N. base of 
the promontory, where large oyster-beds were maintained by the Romans. 

Terracina. — Hotels: Grand Hotel Royal, the stopping -place of 
the diligence , at the S. entrance to the town , with a view of the sea 
at the back; Locanda Nazionale, in the Piazza, less expensive. 

Terracina, situated conspicuously on a rocky eminence (Hor. 
!>at. i. 5, 26), the Anxur of the ancient Volsci, and the Tarra- 
cina of the Romans , was formerly on the confines of the papal 
dominions, and still constitutes the natural frontier town between 
Central and Southern Italy. Pop. 7500. It is an ancient episcopal 
residence, and is one of the most picturesque spots in Italy. The 
high-road intersects the extensive but thinly peopled quarter of 
the town which was founded by Pius VI. , while the old town is 
built on the slope of the hill. Above the latter extend the ruins of 
the ancient city, crowned by the remains of the palace of Theodoric 
the Ostrogoth. 

The *Cattedrale S. Cesareo, in a large square, the ancient Fo- 
rum, the pavement of which is well preserved, occupies the site 
of a Temple of Roma and of Augustus, dedicated to that emperor 
by A. Aemilius, who also caused the forum to be paved. In the 
travertine slabs the inscription 'A. Aemilius F. F.' is distinctly 
legible in large letters. The vestibule of the cathedral rests on 
ten ancient columns, with recumbent lions at their bases. On the 
right is a large granite basin, which, according to the inscription, 
was used in torturing the early Christians. The beautiful fluted 
columns of the Canopy in the interior belonged to the ancient 
temple. The Pulpit, with its ancient mosaics, rests on columns 
with lions at their bases. — The Clock Tower (ascended by 91 
steps) commands an extensive prospect. 

The summit of the promontory may be attained directly from 
the new town in 8/4 hr. , but more conveniently from the old 
town, the route being partly by an ancient road passing remains 
of tombs and ancient walls, and then to the right by a gap in the 
wall encircling the olive plantations, and through the latter along 
the dividing wall. The whole excursion requires about 3 hrs.; 
guide unnecessary. The so-called *Palace of Theodoric, King of 
the Ostrogoths, erected about 500 A.D. and afterwards converted 
into a castle, occupies the summit. A corridor of twelve arches 
opens towards the sea on the S. side. The purposes of the dif- 
ferent parts of the structure cannot now be ascertained. *View ad- 

Towards the W. the prospect embraces the plain as far as the Alban 
Jits., then the .Monte Circello; towards the S. are the Pontine or Ponza 
Islands, the N.W. group of which comprises Ponza (Pontia;, once a Ro- 
man colony), Palnitmda (Palmaria), and Zannone , all of volcanic origin, 
and the S." group Yeutoteae and S. Stefano; between the groups lies the 
small island of La Bolie. The islands are still used, as in ancient times, 

to Naples. FONDI. l>. Route. 15 

as a place of detention for convicts. Ventotene is the Pandateria of 
melancholy celebrity, to which Augustus banished his abandoned daughter 
Julia, and Tiberius relegated Agrippina, the daughter of Julia, and where 
Nero is said to have caused his divorced wife Octavia to be put to death. 
Towards the E. the plain of Fondi is visible ; the village on the sea is 
Sperlonga (p. 16) ; farther off is the promontory of Gaeta with the Torre 
d'Orlando (p. 18), and finally the island of Ischia. 

The Harbour of Terracina, still recognisable by the break- 
water, was of great importance during the Roman period, but 
is now entirely filled with sand. A new Molo affords indif- 
ferent shelter to Coasting vessels. The galley-slaves at the bagno 
here are partly employed in the harbour works, and partly in 
the quarries. 

At the S. egress of the town is the Taglio di Pisco Mon- 
tano, an interesting piece of Roman engineering. Beyond the 
Hotel Royal the Monte Angelo with its picturesque and massy 
rocks approaches close to the sea, in consequence of which Ap- 
pius originally conducted his road over the hill. At a later 
period the rocks were removed for the construction of a new 
and more spacious road. On the perpendicular wall thus pro- 
duced the depth is indicated at intervals of 10 Roman feet, be- 
ginning from the top; the lowest mark, a few feet above the 
present road , is CXX. On the top , on a detached rocky pro- 
tuberance, is a hermitage, now abandoned. 

Beyond Terracina the road follows the direction of the Via 
Appia, and is flanked by remains of ancient tombs. The moun- 
tains which we skirt approach so near the sea as occasionally 
to leave barely space for the road. This pass was the ancient 
Lautulae. Here, in B. C. 315, the Romans fought a battle with 
the Samnites, and in the 2nd Punic War Fabius Maximus kept 
Hannibal in check at this point. On a hill about l / 2 M. to the 
left is situated the monastery of Eetiro , on the site of the 
villa in which the emperor Galba was born. Then to the right 
is the Lake of Fondi, the Lacus Fundanus or Amyclanus of 
the ancients , named after the town of Amyclae which is 
said to have been founded here by fugitive Laconians. The vil- 
lage towards the E. on the slope facing the sea is Sperlonga 
(see p. 16). 

The papal frontier was formerly at Torre dell' Epitafla. We 
next reach the gateway of the tower de' Confini, or La Portella, 
4 M. from Terracina. On a height to the left is the village of 
Monticelli; by the Toad-side are fragments of tombs. We now 
enter the extremely fertile Terra di Lavoro (p. 7). 

The next place (11 M. from Terracina) is Fondi (5000 inhab.), 
the ancient Fundi, where Horace derides the pride of a civic of- 
ficial 'with broad purple border and censer' (Hor. Sat. i. 5 , 34). 
Change of horses, and halt of !/ 4 nr - (tolerable inn). The Chateau, 
part of which adjoins the cathedral, is miserably dilapidated. Some of 
the window-frames and decorations in the most tasteful Renais- 

1(5 Route 2. ITRI. From Rome 

sauce style testify to its ancient splendour. In the 16th cent, it 
belonged to the Colonnas, and in 1534 it was occupied by the beau- 
tiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga. One night the countess narrowly 
escaped being captured by the daring pirate Haireddin Barbarossa, 
who purposed conveying her to the Sultan Soliman II. Exasperated 
by his failure , he wreaked his revenge on the town , as an in- 
scription in the church records. The town was again destroyed 
by the Turks in 1594. In the vicinity is the church of S. Marin 
in the Gothic style, with an ancient facade and portal, disfigured 
in the interior by whitewash. It contains an ancient pulpit adorned 
with mosaic, and on the right a Madonna by Silvestro de' Buoni. 
A chapel is shown in the Dominican monastery in which Thomas 
Aquinas once taught. Considerable remains of the ancient town- 
walls are preserved. The principal street coincides with the an- 
cient Via Appia. In other respects the town is a sombre looking 
place, and like Itri (see below) was for centuries a haunt of bri- 

Beyond Fondi the road traverses the plain for 3 M., after 
which it ascends Monte S. Andrea through mountain ravines, 
where additional horses are necessary. It then descends to the 
poor town of Itri, with a ruined castle , where remains of sub- 
structures of the ancient Via Appia , built into the houses, are 
visible from the road. Itri was once notorious for the robberies 
committed there. It was here that the robber - chief Marco 
Sciarra promised a safe conduct and protection to the poet 
Tasso ; and Fra Diavolo (whose real name was Michele Pezza) was 
also a native of Itri. He was at last captured by the French 
near Salerno and executed. Anecdotes are still related of this 
daring brigand, and Washington Irving's sketch ' The Inn of 
Terracina', the foundation of Auher's opera, has greatly contri- 
buted to maintain their interest. 

A mountainous path leads from Itri, to the right, in 2'/4 hrs. to the 
fishing village of Sperlonga, situated on a sandy promontory, and deriving 
its name from the grottoes (speluncae) in the neighbouring rocks. In one 
of these, as Tacitus informs us (Ann. iv. 59), Sejanus saved the life of Ti- 
berius, which was imperilled by a falling rock. On the way to the grotto 
we observe Roman ruins, and the grotto itself contains benches and stucco 
ornaments. The excursion may best be made by boat from Gaeta , from 
which Sperlonga is about 9'/2 if. distant. 

From Itri the road descends for some distance on galleries, 
and finally between woods and vineyards towards the coast, re- 
vealing an exquisite view of the bay of Gaeta, with its glittering 
villas and other edifices; in the distance are Ischia and Procida; 
still further off rise the Monte S. Angelo (p. 155) and Vesuvius. 

Farther on, we perceive to the right, in the middle of a 
vineyard , on a square base, a massive round tower, believed 
to be Cicero's Tomb. It was in this neighbourhood, not far 
from his Formianum, that the proscribed orator, who sought 
to elude the pursuit of the triumvirs Octavian, Antony, and 

to Naples. FORMlA. 2. Route. 17 

Lepidus, was murdered by the tribunes Herennius and Popilius 
Laenas , 7th Dec, B.C. 43, in the 64th year of his age. On a 
height above the road may be traced the foundations of a temple 
of Apollo, said to have been founded by Cicero. Numerous re- 
lics of ancient buildings are still extant on the whole bay, which, 
like the bay of Naples, was a favourite resort of the Roman nobles, 
and was covered with the most sumptuous villas. Tradition has 
assigned several of these to Cicero, but without the slightest 
historical foundation. The road now descends to Formia. 

Formia (*H6tel dei Fiori , on the coast, R. l 1 ^ fr-> pre- 
ferable to the inns at Gaeta), the ancient Formiae, a town with 
10,000 inhab., was called Mola di Gaeta under the former regime. 
The beauty of its situation constitutes its sole attraction. The 
mountain-range on the N. side of the bay rises abruptly from the 
sea, the lower slopes being clothed with gardens of lemons, OTanges, 
and pomegranates, and with vineyards and olive-plantations. 

One of the most delightful points is the so-called Villa of 
Cicero , or Villa Caposele , above the town , formerly a favourite 
residence of the kings of Naples. It now belongs to Sign. Gaetano 
Rubino (permission to visit it obtained by leaving a card at his palazzo 
opposite the prefecture; boy to act as guide 1 /2 I ' r 0- 

At the entrance are ancient inscriptions and statues. The lower 
part of the garden contains considerable remains of an ancient villa, 
supposed to have belonged to Cicero, but evidently from its construction 
dating from the 1st or 2nd cent, of the Roman imperial era Among the 
vaulted halls is one with eight columns and a semicircular apse, now 
converted into offices. During the siege of Gaeta, General Cialdini es- 
tablished his headquarters here. The upper terrace commands an un- 
interrupted survey of the charming bay, Gaeta, Ischia, the promontories 
of the Bay of Naples, and the mountain range to the S. of the Liris, which 
separates the latter from the region of the Volturno. 

Excursion to Gaeta, - 4-5 hrs. there and back. 

Formia carries on a brisk traffic with Gaeta, 4 3 /4 M. distant. Seat 
in public conveyance >/« fr. ; one-horse carr. there and back, according 
to tariff, 2 fr., or with a stay of some hours 3 fr., a drive of 3/4 hr. ; by 
boat somewhat longer, 3-4 fr. 

The road ascends through Formia, and beyond it descends 
to the coast, which it then skirts. Numerous remains of villas, 
which the Romans were in the habit of building out into the sea 
as far as possible, are passed. Among them a spot is pointed 
out as the scene of the assassination of Cicero (see above). Country 
attractive. Outside the town extends a long row of houses, called 
the Borgo. The road next passes the fortifications, and reaches 
the Piazza. 

Gaeta (Albergo Villa Oaeta, well spoken of; Italia; Caffe 
Nazionale), the ancient Portus Caieta, with 19,000 inhab., is an 
important fortress, but insignificant as a commercial town. The 
promontory of Gaeta resembles the cape of Misenum in formation, 
presenting from a distance the appearance of a gigantic tumulus. 
Tradition has pointed it out as the tomb of Caieta, the muse of 

B A1 O 

18 Route 2. GAETA. From Rome 

.Eneas, and Munatius Plancus accordingly erected a conspicuous 
and imposing monument on its summit. From this eminence 
projects a lower rock which bears the citadel and the town. 

The strength of the place was first put to the test during the bar- 
barian immigrations. Gaeta successfully resisted the attacks of the Germanic 
invaders, and with Amain and Naples constituted one of the last strong- 
holds of ancient culture. It afterwards became a free city, presided over 
by a doge, and carried on a considerable trade with the Levant. It bade 
defiance to the assaults of the Lombards and Saracens, and preserved its 
freedom down to the 12th cent., when with the rest of Southern Italy it 
was compelled to succumb to the Normans. The fortress was extended and 
strengthened at various periods by the Arragonese, by Charles V., and 
especially by the last Bourbon monarchs. In 1501 it surrendered to the 
French, in 1504 to the Spaniards under Gonsalvo da Cordova, in 1734 to 
the Spaniards again, and in 1798 to the French. In 1806 it was gallantly 
defended by the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal, who, aided by the Eng- 
lish fleet, held out for nearly six months against a powerful French army 
under Massena. Pope Pius IX. when banished in Nov. 1848, sought an 
asylum here, and remained at Gaeta until his return to Rome in April, 1850. 
In Nov. 1860, Francis II. of Naples, the last of the Bourbon kings, sought 
refuge here, and his queen Mary, Duchess of Bavaria, took a prominent 
part in the defence of the fortress, but the town was at length compelled 
tii capitulate by the Italian fleet on 23rd Feb., 1861. The king was conveyed 
tu Rome by a French man-of-war. 

The Cattedrale di S. Erasmo has a remarkable campanile ; at 
the entrance are four ancient columns and relics of old sculptures. 

Interior modernised. At the back of the high-altar (covered) is the 
banner presented by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the hero of 
Lepanto, representing the Saviour with SS. Peter and Paul. The crypt is 

Opposite the principal portal of the church is a sculptured Go- 
thic column resting on four lions. 

Among the antiquities of the town may be mentioned the re- 
mains of an amphitheatre and of a theatre, and also a column bear- 
ing the names of the twelve winds in Greek and Latin. 

The chief object of interest, however, is the so-called *Torre 
d 'Orlando, or tomb of Munatius Plancus, the contemporary of Au- 
gustus, and founder of Lyons (B. C. 42), situated on the summit of 
the promontory and now enclosed by the new fortifications (permis- 
sion of the commandant of Gaeta necessary). We ascend from the 
Piazza to the Gothic church of S. Francesco, begun by Ferdinand II. 
in 1H49, seriously damaged in 18(30, and since completed; then 
turn to the left and reach the Torre by a good winding road in 
2") minutes. The tomb consists of a huge circular structure of 
travertine blocks, resembling that of Csecilia Metella at Rome. Round 
the top runs a frieze with warlike emblems. On the N. side is the 
inscription: L. Munatius L. f. L. n. L. pron. Plancus cos. cens. 
imp. iter. VII vir epulon. triump. ex Itaetis, aedem Saturni fecit de 
mnnibis, ayros ilivisit in Italia Beneventi, in Gallia colonias deduxit 
I.wjudunum el llauricam. A more magnificent site for such a 
monument cannot well be conceived. The **Vik\v (which has been 
impaired by the new fortifications) embraces towards the N.W. 
the coast as far as Mte. ('hveo to the W. the sea with the 

to Naples. SESSA. -2. Route. 19 

Ponza Islands , to the E. and S. the bay of Gaeta, Ischia, Procida, 
Capri, and the mountains of Misenum. 

Leaving Formia, the road now turns into the plain of the 
Oarigliano, the Litis of the ancients, which falls into the Bay 
of Gaeta. To the left, before reaching the bridge, we observe 
a long series of arches of the ancient aqueduct; then nearer 
the road, by the post-house, remains of the theatre and amphi- 
theatre of the, venerable city of Minturnae, on the ruins of 
which, on the hill to the left, has sprung up the small town 
of Traetto. In the plain towards the Liris are situated the marshes 
where Marius once sought to elude the pursuit of the hirelings 
of Sulla. On the right bank of the Garigliano, 27th Dec. 1503, 
Bon Gonsalvo da Cordova fought the decisive battle with the 
French which placed Naples in his power. Pietro de' Medici, who, 
having been banished from Florence, had followed the French, 
endeavoured to escape to Gaeta in a boat with four field-pieces. 
The boat, however, sank, and all its crew were drowned. Pietro 
was buried at Monte Cassino (p. 6). 

The suspension-bridge over the Garigliano (7 J /2 M. from 
Formia), constructed in 1832, is the oldest in Italy. Before 
it is reached the present road quits the Via Appia, which is 
distinctly traceable on the right bank as far as Mondragone, near 
the Sinuessa of Horace (destroyed by the Saracens in the 10th 
cent.), where to his great joy he was met on his journey (Sat. 
i. 5, 39) by his friends Plotius, Varius, and Virgil. Horace then 
crossed the Savo (Savone) by the Pons Campanus and proceeded 
to Capua. The present road, however, turns to the left towards 
the heights of Sant' Agata (change of horses, halt of i / i hr.), 
a busy post-station, where it is crossed by a road leading from 
Sessa to Mondragone. The volcanic peaks of the Campagna Felice, 
and among them the lofty Bocca Monfina, now become visible. 

The Rocca Monfina, 4Va M. from Sant' Agata, is easily visited thence. 
On the way thither, '/a M. from Sant' Agata, on a volcanic eminence, lies 
Sessa, the ancient Suessa Aurunca, with interesting ruins of a bridge, 
amphitheatre, etc. Other relics are preserved in the ancient cathedral 
and the churches of S. Benedetto and S. Giovanni. In the principal street 
are memorial stones with inscriptions in honour of Charles V., above 
which is an old crucifix with a mosaic cross. From the hills of Sessa to 
Mondragone, towards the S., extends Monte Massico, whose wines Horace 
and Virgil have immortalised. In the vicinity, towards the Volturnus, 
was the Ager Falernus, where excellent wine is still produced. 

The road from Sant' Agata to Sparanisi passes the village of 
Cascano , noted for the beauty of its women. The same repu- 
tation might indeed be fairly extended to the whole district around 
the Bay of Gaeta. About 4 M. from Cassano a road to the left 
leads to Teano (see p. 7). The road then crosses the Savone, not 
far from the picturesque castle of Francolhi, and (1 '/._) M. ) reaches 
the railway-station of (Sparanisi (see p. 7), whence Naples is reached 
by railway via Capua in about 2 lirs. 



3. Naples. 

To obviate the necessity of unfolding a large sheet of paper at every 
consultation, the large Plan of Naples (scale 1: 16,000) is divided into 
two sections, the upper of which (I) contains the horizontal layers 1, 2, 3, 
the lower (II) the layers 4-7. Its use will be further facilitated by reference 
to the small Plan (scale 1: 37,700), the division of which into perpen- 
dicular and horizontal layers exactly coincides with that of the large plan. 

a. Arrival, Hotels, Pensions, Restaurants, Cafes, etc. 

Arrival, (a) Br Railway. The station (Stazione Centrales PI. G, 3) is 
situated at the E. end of the town. The principal hotels all send Omnibuses 
(l'/a fr.) to meet the trains. Cabs: with two horses (nearest the entrance) 
1 fr. 40 c, each trunk 20c. ; with one horse (outside the railings, farther 
distant; seats for two persons only) 80 c, each trunk 20 c. ; no charge is 
made for smaller articles of luggage. The Facchini who take the luggage 
to the cab are paid, according to tariff: 10 c. for a travelling-bag or a hat- 
box, 20 c. for heavier articles, 40 c. for boxes weighing 2>0-4001bs.; but 
a few soldi more are usually given. As a long delay often takes place 
before the delivery of the luggage, it is perhaps the best plan to take a 
cab direct to the hotel and send some one for the luggage, though, of 
course , this incurs a little extra expense. The services of officious by- 
standers should be declined. The formalities of the municipal douane are 
soon terminated , the declaration of the traveller that his luggage con- 
tains no comestibles liable to duty being generally accepted. 

(b) Bt Steamboat. As soon as permission to disembark is granted, 
a small boat (1 fr. for each person, with luggage l 1 /-.. fr.) conveys the 
passengers to the Dogana near the Immacolatella (PI. F, 5), where luggage 
is examined. This done, one of the 'facchini della dogana' places the 
luggage on the fiacre or other conveyance (40 c. for each trunk, 10 c. for 
each small article). The offices of the steamboat companies are close to 
the harbour. 

Police Office (Questura), Palazzo S. Giacomo (Municipio; PI. 20; E,5), 
on the side next the Via Paolo Emilio Imbriani. The guardians of the 
public peace consist of Carabinieri (black and red coat with three-cornered 
hat), the Guardic di Pubblica Sicurezza (dark uniform with white buttons 
and military cap), and the Gnardie Municipali (with yellow buttons and 
numbers on their caps). The latter are specially entrusted with the super- 
vision of vehicles. — Complaints about cabmen should be made at the 
I'fftcio Centrale del Corso Pubblico, in the Municipio, 1st floor (p. 37). 

Hotels (comp. also Introd. XII: Climate and Health of Naples). 
Families visiting Naples in spring, when the influx of visitors is at its 
height, had better secure rooms by letter, some time before their arrival. 
In summer the principal hotels are comparatively empty, and therefore 
cheaper. The average charges at the 1st class houses during the season 
are about as follows": R. 3-6 fr. and upwards, B. l'/a-2, D. 4-6, A. 1 fr. ; 
travellers who do not dine at the table d'hote pay more for their rooms. 
Pension at some of the hotels 10-12 fr. and upwards, if a stay of several 
days is made ; on the other hand, many of the pensions mentioned below 
receive travellers even for a single day if they have rooms disengaged. 

In the Corso Viltorio Emanuele and the adjoining Rione Principe Amedeo 
(PI. B, C, 6, 5), in a healthy situation and with the finest view: 'Hotel 
Bristol (PI. b; C, 0), with good sanitary arrangements, R. 3-6, B. lij._., 
lunch 3, D. 5, L. 1, A. 1, pension 10-12 fr. ; "Hotel Tramontano-Beauki- 
vaoe (PI. c; C, 6), I!. from 2'/2, D. 5, B. l'/z, pens. 10-12 fr. , these two 
bolli in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele; Uit.vNii Hotel Nomlb (PI. a; C, 6), 
Via Principe Amedeo, with view only from the uppermost floor, H. 3-(j, 
P>. I '/a, lunch 3 1 ,-, 1>. 5, pension from 12 fr. 

Lower Town, near the sea. In the new Quarter adjoining the Mergel- 
liim: "(iKANii Hotel (PI. s; IS, 7), a large establishment in an open and 
liralthv situation clips.- to tin: sea. with ;i splendid view, It. 3-li, 1!. I, lunch 
'■> 1. I ).\"i. pens, il-12 fr. — In the Uirimi di Chiaja I PI. II, C. P.. 6|, near the 

'Otrsrpli. insl.v W;i££ier t'Dntc-fj^eipzi^ 0_ 


































mmm m 


■J|fl|. , 









V^j~=S<). ■*; -c _if> 














Ss . Gwofak 


4> _ 



















' ti.iruxpiTw J 



w i u-ifeK ff / vJiui-' . — *^ 




1. Albagu deTaveri 

2. Banco diPieta 
Z. Bursa 

I E.5. 

4 . Catacwnbe, oocca delle. ID.?. 

a . CoTleffffij) de'dnesi .11.2. 

6. Conservatoria d&Musica, IE. 4. 

7.J)ogana JC F.5. 

8. Fantanu, Medina. 

9. Mxtseo tw* zionale. .IE. 3. 

10 . Orto dotardco IF.!. 

11 . Osserratorio astron. I E.2 . 

12 . Palazzo Jaigii JI E .4 . 

13. ' Arrirescovilr II.J. 

It. " di Capodimonte . IE.l. 

15. * Cellammare X D.6. 

16. ■ Fondi IE.V 


33. S.SJngcloeMU) IE.4. 

34. S.Anna JCDE.6. 

35. S^Anrnaixiata. .1 (r.3. 

36. S-jtntonia XD.4. 

37. S- Antonio Abb ate I 6.2. 

38. S.S. ApostaK . . .11.8. 

39. S.Barbara I E.5. 

40. S. Carlo all Arena IF. 3. 

41 . .V. Catrrina, XD.6. 

42. S.CJiiara JTE.4. 

43 . Coneezione. I D . 5 . 

44 . S. Croce al Mara to ........ I 6.1 . 

15. S.Domenico IE.4. 

46 . Duomo IF. 3. 

47. S.Mtzppo2Teri IF.3. 

48. SFramesco diPaola ■ JC E.6. 

49 . S. Gennaro deToreri ...... ..ID. 2. 

50 . Gesu, nnoro I E .4 . 

51. Gesii e-Maria ID.3. 

52 . S.GiacvTno degti. SpagnuoW. IE.5 

5& ■ S.Giorgio Maggiore. JCF.4. 

54 . S. Qumanri a Carbonaro . . . IF.3 

55. S.Gregorio XF.4 

U.Palaszo detta Foretteria Ohrfittura,)XE . 6 . 

18. • 


20. • 

21 " 

22. • 



Zb.Teatro S.CarUno 

26. ■ S. Carlo 

Maddaloni fSanca. naz.) I 


Beale . . . 



I D.6. 

I E.5. 

JC E.6. 

H F.4. 

I S.4. 

I F.5. 

I E.5. 

I E.6. 

27. • Feniee-. . U E.5. 

28. » de'Fwrentmt. . . . JC E.5. 

29. • dehPondo X E.o. 

30. , mwvo . X E.5. 

VLTrifoaudi IF.G.3. 

M.ThdravitA. . I F.4, 


itHJnroronata. IE. 5. 

■rf.S.lorenjo IIF.3.4. 

b&S.Liuxw I E.6. 

W.S.Maria del Carmine I G.4. 

60.5, J/aria de'CostantinopoU I E.3. 

61.5. Maria, la nvxmx X E.5. 

6Z.S.Martino I D 5- 

K.S.Mateo. ....... X E. 5. 

ii.S.Mchele.. . . I E.4. 

65.1&/ite CdJbmrio JI D ■ 5 . 

WMtmte Olireto I E.4. 

67.S.PaoloMaggiore I F.3. 

ZSPietra Santa . I E4. 

W.S.Ptetro a Majellou JC . E.4.. 

70.S.Pi£troMartire I P.4. 

7l.S.nejttituta . I F.3. 

72. S. Sebastian/) JC E.4. 

73.5. S.Sererino e Sosio X F.4. 

74.5. Sercro, CapeJla di X E.4. 

7b.Spirito Santo I E.4 . 

7b.S.Tere*a I E.3 . 


Scala nel 1:16.000 

WO tOO 300 MO 30 

000 700 800 000 1000 

1 Ciiloxnetro 



Hotels, NAPLES. J. Route. 21 

Villa Nazionale, with a view of the Villa and the sea, but in a sanitary 
respect less favourably situated than those mentioned before : No. 276, 
Gran Bbetagna (PI. f; D, 6); No. 127, Hotel-Pension de la Rivieba 
(PL h ; B, C, 6), R. 2-3, L. 1, B. l'A, lunch 2i| 2 , D. 4, pension 8-10 fr. — 
In the new Via Partenope, facing the sea: "Hotel du Vesuve (PI. v; E, 7), 
entrance from the Strada Pizzofalcone, R. 4-6, B. l'/ 2 , lunch 3-4, D. 5, pens, 
in winter 12-15, in summer 10-12 fr. ; "Hotel Royal des Etrangebs (PI. e ; 
E, 7), with lift R. from 3j B. life, lunch 3, D. 4'|2, L. and A. li| 2 , omnibus 
l'|2, pension 11-12 fr. ; Hotel Meteopole (PI. u; E, 7), somewhat less pre- 
tentious, R. from 2, B. li| 2 , lunch 2'/ 2 , D. 4, L. and A. 1, pension from 

8 fr., with baths (p. 25). — In the Strada CMatamone, at the foot of the 
Pizzofalcone , in a sanitary position similar to those just mentioned : 
Washington (PI. d; E,7), with garden; Hotel Hasslee, pension 11-12 fr., 
patronised by Germans. — In the Strada S. Lucia, to the E. of the Pizzo- 
lalcone: "Hotel de Rome (PI. i; E, 6), close to the sea, with good bathing 
arrangements, R. 4, B. l'/ 2 , lunch 3'/2, D. 5, A. 1, L. 1 fr., pens, from 

9 (in winter from 10) fr. upwards; "Hotel de Russie (PI. k; E, 6), R. 3-5, 
B. l'/2, lunch 2 l / 2 , D. 4, L. and A. H/2 fr., patronised by the English. 

The following second-class hotels, though not on the coast, are con- 
veniently situated near it. In the busy Strada Medina (PL E, 5) , not 
far from the harbour: "Hotel de Geneve (PI. m ; E, 5), entrance by No. 13 
Strada S. Giuseppe, with lift, R. 3, B. l ] / 2 , D. 5, L. & A. I1/2 fr.; Hotel 
Central (PL n), Strada Medina 72, commercial, similar charges; Hotel 
Chambeey, opposite the Hotel de Geneve, pension 7-8 fr. ; Hotel National, 
Strada Medina 5. — In the Strada del Molo (PL E, F, 5), opposite the 
pastel Nuovo: No. 24, Hotel & Pension Milano (PL o), unpretend- 
ing. — In the Piazza del Municipio (PL E, 5): Hotel Vittoeia, corner of 
the Strada S. Brigida; Hotel Mkeidional, Strada del Molo; La Patria, near 
the Hot. de Geneve, unpretending. — In the Largo S. Ferdinando, at the 
beginning of the Toledo (PL E, 6): Hotel d'Eueope and Hotel d'Orient, 
belonging to the same landlord, entrance by Strada Nardones. — In the 
Largo delta Carita: Hotel de l'Univers, moderate. — In the Largo Fioren- 
tini: Albergo dei Fioei, near the Teatro Fiorentini (PL 28; E, 5>. — 
Near the Railway Station (PL G, 3): Sieena (PL x), Favorita (PL w), 
Rebecchino (PL y), three small houses in the Italian style. 

Pensions {Boarding Houses). The following may all be recommended 
for a stay of from 3-4 days upwards (comp. p. xix). — CMatamone: No. 23, 
Hotel <fe Pension d'Allemagne, pension S-9 fr., also R. without board. — 
Riviera di Chiaja: No. 118, Hot. & Pens, de la Ville, 7 fr. — Near the 
Chiaja: Pens. Turnee-Guidotti, Strada Mergellina 202, Villino Consiglio ; 
Pension de Famille, Villa Alicorno, Strada Posilipo 8, near the tramway 
terminus, pension 7 fr. — In the Higher Quarters of the Town (comp. p. 20) : 
"Hotel & Pens. Britannique (Mme. Macpherson; Pl.q; B, C, 6), Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele 38, near the large hotels, with a magnificent view, 9-11 fr., 
patronised by the English; Hotel & Pension Bellevue (PL r; B,6), Corso 
Principe Amedeo 14, small, but well spoken of; "Maison Bo_uebon, Rampe 
Brancaccio 20, with furnished rooms to let (30 fr. a month and upwards); 
Pens. Stoeey, Strada Brancaccio 8, 4th floor (on the 3rd floor furnished 
apartments). — On the Posilipo: Villa Postiglione, pension 8-12 fr. ; ViLLA 
Cappella (Miss Baker), pension from 7 fr., both patronised by the English ; 
Pension Sabelli, Villa Alicorno, 7 fr., also for a short stay. 

Hotels Garnis. For a stay of some duration (10 days and upwards) 
the traveller may prefer to take rooms at a private hotel, where he will 
be more independent than at a hotel or a pension. Charges vary with the 
season , culminating on unusual occasions , such as an eruption of Mt. 
Vesuvius, which invariably attracts crowds of visitors. The rooms are 
generally large and fitted up for two persons : with one bed 2V2-4 , with 
two beds 4-6 fr. per day. The number of days for which the room is 
engaged should be expressly stated, otherwise the visitor may be required 
to leave unexpectedly, and a distinct bargain should be made as to charges 
(e. g. : A. •/» fr -i L - 3° c - P er day )- Breakf ast may usually be obtained in 
the house, but better at a cafe. The best lodgings are in the new houses 
in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the Rione Principe Amedeo, with 

22 Route :i. NAPLES. Restaurants. 

splendid view (50-60 fr. monthly, incl. attendance): e. g. in the Case 
Amedeo, CorsoVitt. Emanuele 138-160; Fkau Sohlegel, Rampe Brancaccio 
20 (PI. D, 6); Frau M. Heherle, Via Brancaccio 8, 3rd floor. Not so 
generally commendable are the houses on the side of the lower town 
next the sea, from S. Lucia and Chiatamone to the Chiaja and the Mer- 
gellina, or those in the side-streets near the Chiaja. Thus in S. Lucia 
Nos. 28, 31, 92 (1st and 3rd floor); in the Chiaja, Nos. 143, 171, 260, 263; 
in the 'Vermouth di Torino 1 (see below), opposite the Hotel du Vesuve 
(II. 2-5 fr., also pension); S. Caterina a Chiaja 67, etc. The well-known 
Casa Combi, formerly in S. Lucia, is now at Strada Vittoria 38. There are 
also hotels garnis in the Corso Vitt. Eman. and in the Rione Princ. Amedeo. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie) very numerous. Italian cuisine. Dinners usually 
a la carte ; three dishes with fruit and wine 2-2V2 fr. ; iced water (acqua 
gelata) 5 c. ; good table-wine 30-40 c. per half-litre (when only the half is 
used, 15-20 c); bread, 15 c. (best the pane mecanico, or bread made by 
machines; comp. Introd. p. xx). Most of the restaurants also give dinners 
at a fixed price (prezzo fisso) varying from 2'/'j to 5 fr. ; gratuity 5-10 c. 
for each franc of the bill. — Smoking universal ; ladies, however, may visit 
the better of these establishments. 

On the W. Side of the Toledo, or Via Roma : "Grand Cafi-Restanranl 
d' Europe, Largo S. Ferdinando, table d'hote at 5, 5.30, or 6p.m. according to 
the season, 5 fr. ; "Restaurant d^Europe, above the cafe of that name at the 
corner of the Strada di Chiaja and the Toledo, much frequented for lunch 
about noon (oysters from the Lago del Fusaro, p. 109) ; Cafi-Restaurant de 
Naples, Toledo 236, entrance Vico Carminello a Toledo 63; Restaurant della 
Reyina d" Italia, opposite the Strada S. Giacomo, entrance in the side-street. 

On the E. Side of the Toledo: Antica Trattoria dei Giardini di Torino, 
entrance Vico delle Campane 70, moderate. Then, corner of the Strada 
S. Brigida, 'Restaurant du Louvre , good cuisine, moderate charges; Villa 
di Torino , Via Paolo Emilio Imbriani, a side-street between the Toledo 
and the Piazza del Municipio , entrance by Vico del Fico 3, viands good, 
one of the oldest trattorie in Naples, formerly the chief resort of strangers. 
Farther up the Toledo, No. 143, Trattoria d'ltalia ; No. 125, Trattoria della 
Nuova Italia ; both well spoken of, not expensive. 

The following may also be mentioned: "Al Vermouth di Torino, S. 
Lucia, opposite the liotel du Vesuve, the largest and most frequented 
restaurant of Naples, with garden and beautiful view, lunch 2'j2-3, D. incl. 
wine from 4 fr. ; "Cafe'du Commerce, Str. Medina, table-d'hote at 6 o'clock 
3 fr. ; Birreria Dreher, see p. 23; "Restaurant Walty-Hassler, Strada Guantai 
Nuovi 46 (PI. E, 5); Restaur. Giuseppe Bacca, Strada Montoliveto 40, near 
the post office, well spoken of; Restaur. Gambuli, Via S. Carlo 40, nearly 
opposite the Teatro S. Carlo; Trattoria Milanese, opposite the post office; 
Restaur, de Vlldtel Vittoria, Piazza del Municipio (p. 21); Rest, des Etran- 
gers, Str. di Chiaja 134; Cafe di Napoli, in the Villa Nazionale; Trattoria 
delta Birena, S. Teresa a Chiaja 53, 54; Cafe Santanaelo, in the Galleria 
Principe di Napoli (p. 42), lunch H/2-2, D. 3-4 fr. incl. wine; Cafe' al Mtiseo, 
corner of the Piazza Cavour, mediocre: the last two convenient luncheon- 
rooms for visitors to the museum. 

Good Fish may be procured at the Trattorie di Campagna, by the Po- 
silipo, close to the sea; e. g. "Trattoria della Sirena, close to the ruins 
of the Palazzo di Donn 1 Anna (p. 87), l'/a M. from the W. end of the 
town ; about V4 M. beyond it is the "Antica Trattoria dello Scofflio di Fri- 
sio; both of these are much visited on summer evenings and command 
superb views, especially by moonlight. The following are somewhat 
cheaper houses: Trattoria del Firjlio di Pietro, Strada Nuova del Posilipo ; 
Trait, della Stella d'ltalia, beautifully situated on the Posilipo, near the 
tramway-terminus. — Those who wish to make sure of the freshness of 
their fish may ask to see them before they are cooked, a request to which 
the restaurant-keepers are quite accustomed, the Neapolitans often extend- 
ing this scrutiny to the meat and fowls. 

Wine. The wine of the environs is generally excellent, 50-80 c. per 
litre, such as Graguano, Ischia, Vino di Procida, del Monte di Procida, and 
di Posilipo; whereas Marsala, Falerno , Capri, and Lacrimse Christi are 

Cafis. NAPIiES. 3. Route. 23 

generally adulterated. Wine-stores: Str. di Chiaja 136, 146, 238; Via 
Paolo Emilio Imbriani, 42, etc. Good Neapolitan, Sicilian, and S. Italian 
wines may also be obtained at numerous small wine-stores, such as the 
Cava de 1 Gesuiti, Str. S. Sebastiano 19 (PI. E, 4), which is very primitively 
litted up; Luigi di Scala, Vico Campone 31, near the Piazza del Muni- 
cipio ; and Don Vincenzo, Strada Conte di Molo a Toledo. Foreign wines 
at Luigi Caflisch, Toledo 315, the Buvette Parisienne, Toledo 270, etc. 

Cafes (comp. p. xxi). The best cafes are at the S. end of the Toledo, 
near the Piazza del Plebiscito. Here are situated: Grand Cafi-Restau- 
rant d'Europe (p. 22) ; adjacent, at the corner of the Str. di Chiaja, Cafi 
d'Europe , with restaurant (p. 22). There are also several smaller cafes 
in the Toledo: No. 236, Napoli; No. 316, Gran Cafi d' Italia. — We may 
next mention: Italia Meridionale, Str. di Chiaja 85; Fratelli Comito, Str. 
di Chiaja 140-141, corner of the Str. Alabardieri ; Commerce, Piazza Medina, 
see p. 22. — At the Villa Nazionale : * Cafe di Napoli and Cafi Nazionale, 
adjoining the Aquarium, concerts in the afternoon or evening (according 
to the season). — Coffee prepared in the Oriental styie, at the two Cafes 
Tterco, in the Piazza del Municipio and Piazza del Plebiscito. 

Beer: at the "Birreria Dreher, Largo S. Francesco di Paola 1-3, near 
the Piazza del Plebiscito; Vienna beer, 30c. for a small, 60c. for a large 
glass ; this is also a good restaurant. — Munich beer at the * Vermouth di 
Torino (p. 22) , and at the Restaurant Walty-Hassler (p. 22). At other 
places the slightly effervescing beer of the Wital - Caflisch Brewery, Strada 
Nuova di Capodimonte (50 c. per bottle), is usually drunk. 

Confectioners: Caflisch, Toledo 253-255; Van Bol d- Feste^, Toledo 256^ 
with a branch at Toledo 246; Lombardi, Toledo aSi ; jPecronJ,B.Tirigida 3, 4. 
— Boulangerie Francaise, Largo S. Ferdinando 51, 52. — English Grocery 
Stores, Piazza dei Martiri, 57. 

Cigars at the government shop, Toledo 248, on the left coming from 
the Piazza del Plebiscito. Imported Havannahs from 25 c. upwards. 

b. Carriages, Tramways, Boats. 
Information about cab-fares , and the tramway and railway communi- 
cations in the environs of Naples will be found in the Orario, published 
monthly, and sold everywhere in the streets (5 c). 

Carriages. The distances in Naples are so great, carriage-fares are so 
moderate , and walking in the hot season is so fatiguing , that most tra- 
vellers will prefer driving to walking. A private two-horse carriage for 
excursions costs 20-25 fr. per day, or 12-15 fr. for half-a-day, besides a 
gratuity of 2-3 fr. — Carriages may be hired at the hotels , etc. The 
ordinary cabs are of course the cheapest conveyances. In choosing a carriage 
for a longer drive, care should be taken with regard to the horses, those 
of a small and stout build being the most durable. In order to avoid 
imposition, the best course is to pay the exact fare, and not a single soldo 
more. Those who are disposed to pay liberally are sure to be victimised. In 
case of altercations, application should be made to the nearest policeman, 
or at the office of the Corso Pubblico on the first floor of the Municipio. 
Cab Fares. — a. Within the City pkopek (the limits of which are 
shaded in our survey plan, p. 19), extending W. to the Mergellina (PI. 
A, 7), N. to the Tondo di Capodimonte (PI. D, E, 1), and E. to the Ponte 
della Maddalena (PI. H, 4). 

Open one-horse carriage ('carrozzella', for two By day By night 
persons, or three at most): • (M ]J°Jf s h e ' ) ,0 

Per drive — 70 c. 1 fr. 10 c. 

By time (generally disadvantageous), first hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. 10 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 10 c. 1 fr. 50 c. 

Closed one-horse carr. (vetture-coupee), per drive 1 fr. — 1 fr. 50 c. 

By time: first hour 2 fr. — 2 fr. 50 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. — 

With two horses: per drive 1 fr. 40 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

First hour 2 fr. 20 c. 3 fr. 20 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 70 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

Each box from the station to the town ?0 c, smaller articles free. 

24 Route !i. NAPLES. Tramway/'. 

(h) Outside the Citt: — One-horse Two-horse Coupee 

Villaggio di Posilipo 1. 50 2. 25 1. 75 

Villaggio di Fuorigrolta 1. 20 1. 75 1. 50 

Bagnoli and Larjo (TAgnano (Dog Grotto) 2. — 3. — 2. 50 

Arenella, Antignano, Vomero, S. Martino, 

or Villaggio di Gapodimonte .... 1. 50 2. 25 1. 75 

Miano, Marianella 2. — 3. — 2. 50 

Gampo di Marie or Qimetevio Nuoeo . . 1. 50 2. 25 2. 25 

Portici 1. 70 2. 50 2. 10 

Resina 2. — 3. — 2. 50 

Torre del Greco 2. 50 3. 75 3. — 

S. Giorgio a Oremano or Barra ... 1. 70 2. 50 2. 10 

These are the fares from the stands nearest to the respective points. Un- 
less a special bargain be made, the fares from other stands are 70 c. to 1 fr. 
20 c. in excess of the above. For longer excursions, an agreement should 
be made with the driver beforehand. On being informed of the distance 
of the intended drive , he generally makes an extravagant demand. In 
answer, the hirer offers what he considers a fair sum, and quietly with- 
draws if the driver objects. This course seldom fails to produce the de- 
sired result. On Sundays and holidays the fares are somewhat higher. 

Tramways in the town. — Fare 15-30 c, according to the distance. 
The 2nd class seats, which are cheaper by 5c, cannot be made use of 
bv the better classes. 

1 (Horse Cars). From (he Post-Office (PI. 23; E, 4) across the Pi- 
azza del Municipio (PI. E, 5), by the Via K. Carlo, the Laego S. Fee- 
dinando (PI. E, 6; p. 37), Piazza del Plebiscite, Slrada S. Lucia (PI. D, 6, 7), 
Ghiaja, past the Toeeetta (junction of the tramway to Pozzuoli, see below) 
and through the Mergellina (PI. A, 7) to the E. end of the Steada Nuova 
m Posilipo (p. 92). 

2 (Horse Cars). From the Laego S. Feedinando (PI. E, 6; p. 37), by 
the Piazza del Municipio (PI. E, 5), Slrada del Molo (PI. E, F, 5), Slrada 
del Piliero (PI. F, 5), etc., past the Castel del Caemine (PI. F, 4; p. 40) 
to Portici (p. 114; every 10 min.) and Torre del Greco (p. 117; every 20 min.). 

3 (Horse Cars). From the Laego S. Feedinando (PI. E, 6; p. 37) as 
above to the Castel del Caejiine (PI. F, 4; p. 40), then to the N. through 
the Corso Garibaldi past the Central Station (PI. G, 3) to the Poeta Capu- 
ana (PI. G, 5; p. 53), and by the Slrada Carbonara (PI. F, 3), Slrada 
Foria, and Piazza Cavour to the Museum (PI. E, 3; p. 59). 

4 (Horse Cars). From the Eeclusoeio (PI. F, G, 2, 1) by the Strada 
Foria and Piazza Cavour to the Museum (PI. E, 3; p. 59). 

5 (Steam tramway, opened in May, 1887). From the Museum (PI. E,3) 
by a rack-and-pinion line to the Via Salvator Rosa (PI. E, D, 3) and the 
Cousu Vittoeio Ema.nuele (PI. D, 4); then by ordinary steam tramway 
along the whole Corso Vitlorio Emanuele (PI. D, 4, 5; C, 5, 6; B, 6; A, 6, 
7) to La Touketta (PI. B, 7), near the Grotto of Pozzuoli. 

Tramways in the Environs. — 1 (Horse Cars). The line mentioned 
above (No. 2) to Portici and Torre del Greco. 

2 (Horse Cars). From the Poeta Capuana (PI. G, 3; p. 53) by the 
Strada Kunva di Poggio Beale (PI. H, 1, 2, 1) to the Camposanto (p. 54) 
and Poggio Reale. 

3 (Steam tramway). From the Reclusoeio (PI. F, G, 1, 2) by Capo- 
dichino, S. Pietro a Patierno, Casoria, Afragola, and Cardito to Caivano 
(every hour or V/z hr.). 

4 (Steam tramway). From the Beglusoeio by Capodichino, Secon- 
digliano, Melito, and Giugliano to Aversa (p. 202), every 2 hrs. 

5 (Steam tramway). From the Toeeetta (PI. B, 7) through the Grolte 
di Pozzuoli (PI. A, 7; lift to the Vomero, comp. p. 88) to Pozzuoli (p. 99). 

Omnibuses are not recommended to strangers. Fare on all the lines, 
20c. for a whole route, 10 c. for half. An important starting-point is the 
Laego S. Feedinando (PI. E, 0; p. 37), whence among others start the 
omnibuses ascending the Toledo in the Museum (PI. E,3), and plying thence 
to Cfipodiwoutv (PL E, 1). 

Boats. Charges vary according to circumstances. Boat with four row- 

Baths. NAPLES. 3. Route. 25 

ers about 15 fr. per day. Row in the harbour l-l'/a fr. for the first, 1 fr. 
for each additional hour. A previous agreement should be made. Boats to 
the mail steamers, 1 fr. ; to the Ischia, Sorrento, and Capri steamers 30c. 

c. Bankers, Money Changers, Consulates, Physicians, Hospitals, Baths, 
Post and Telegraph Office, English Church, etc. 

Bankers. A. Levy et Comp. , Palazzo Cavalcante, Toledo 348; W. J. 
Turner & Co., S. Lucia 64; Meuricoffre et Comp., Piazza del Municipio 52; 
Minasi & Arlotta , Strada Montoliveto 37 ; Banca del Credilo Meridionale, 
Strada Montoliveto 39 ; Holme & Co., Strada Flavio Gioia 2; Felice Hermann, 
Piazza del Municipio 15. Bills of exchange must be stamped on presentation 
for payment with, a x bollo straordinario* , obtainable from the bankers. 

Money Changers, employed by the bank for public convenience, 
are stationed at several of the most frequented parts of the streets. Small 
amounts of 1-2 fr. may be exchanged here gratuitously for copper. In 
changing silver, the traveller should beware of false or obsolete coins (see 
p. xi). No other banknotes should be taken than the Biglietti di Slato, 
or those of the Banca Nazionale and the Banca di Napoli. The change 
should of course be counted. In order to avoid imposition and many a trial 
of patience, the traveller should always be well provided with copper coins. 

Consulates. American (Mr. Camphausen), 95 Strada S. Lucia, opposite 
the Hotel de Rome (11-3); Austrian, Via Medina 5; British (Capt. Hartwell, 
R.N.), 4 Monte di Dio, Pizzofalcone (10-3); Danish and Swedish, Str. Vitto- 
ria 29; Dutch, Piazza del Municipio 52; French, Via Poerio 34; German, 
Str. Guantai Nuovi 69 ; Russian , Via Umberto I. 16 ; Spanish, Str. Pace 
24; Swiss, Piazza del Municipio 15. 

Physicians. Dr. C. Wright Barringer, Riviera di Chiaja 267; Dr. Tweedie 
Slodart, Palazzo Beato , Corso Vittorio Emanuele 40; Dr. Johnston Davis, 
Chiatamone 7; Dr. Gairdner , Pal. Traja, Rione Prin. Amedeo; Dr. Can- 
lani (of Prague), director of the Clinica Medica at the university, Str. 
Fuoriporta Medina 23 ; Dr. Malbranc, Via Amedeo 145, Palazzo Grifeo ; Dr. 
Schrbn, professor of anatomy at the university, Palazza Montemiletto, Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele 440, hour of consultation 9-10; Dr. Obenaus, physician of 
the German hospital (see below), Palazzo Cassano, Str. Monte di Dio 14 a 
Pizzofalcone; Dr. Imfeld, Eldorado, Largo Mondragone ; Dr. Scotli (oculist), 
physician to the International Hospital (see below) ; Dr. Tommasi, S. Potito 
22 ; Dr. Cardarelli, Strada Costantinopoli 33 ; Dr. De Martini, Strada Trinita 
Maggiore, Pal. Cassaro ; Dr. Ernesto Chiaradia, 31 Bisignano (speaks English). 
— Dentists. Dr. Kessel, Piazza dei Martiri; Dr. Atkinson, Largo S. Fer- 
dinando 48. 

Chemists. English, Kernot, Strada S. Carlo 14. German, Berncastel, Piazza 
Carolina 24 (beyond the Piazza del Plebiscito) ; Farmazia Internazionale, 
Via Calabritta 4. Homeopathic Druggist, Toledo 388. Drug-dealers, Fratelli 
Hermann, Piazza del Municipio 73, 74. Surgical and hygienic articles, mineral 
water, etc., H. Petersen, Strada S. Anna dei Lombardi49, near the post office. 

Hospitals. In the event of serious illness travellers are strongly re- 
commended to procure admission to one or other of the following hospi- 
tals: (1) Ospedale Internazionale, Villa Bentinck, Via Tasso (PI. B, 6), in 
a most healthy situation, supported by voluntary contributions, and open 
to strangers of all nationalities, under the superintendence of Dr. Scotti 
(1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 6 fr. per day); (2) Ospedale Tedesco, Cappella Vecchia 
18, superintendent, Dr. Obenaus. 

Baths. Warm: "Bains du Chiatamone near the Hotel Metropole (p. 21), 
also Russian and Turkish baths; Bagni delta Pace, entrance between 
Nos. 16 and 18 Strada della Pace, near Chiatamone (bath in summer 
1 fr., in winter 1 fr. 50 c. ; six baths in summer 4 fr., in winter 6 fr. ; gra- 
tuity for each bath 2 soldi). Others near the Hotel de Rome at S. Lucia ; 
Vico Belle Donne a Chiaja 12 and Loggia Berio alia Speranzella, both be- 
longing to a Swiss proprietor, Via Bellini 44-46 ; Calata S. Marco a Fontana 
Medina 6. — Sea-Bathing in summer. The most frequented place is beyond 
the Villa Nazionale, but as the drains of the town empty themselves in the 
vicinity, the water is not very clean. A better place is at the Posilipo near 
the Villa Monplaisir, immediately beyond the precincts of the city; large 

26 Route 3. NAPLES. Shops. 

cabinet 1 fr. with towels, small cabinet 50 c. ; fee 5 c. — On entering the 
water, bathers should take care to observe the number of their cabinet, and 
to avoid touching the stakes, which are encrusted with very sharp shells. — 
The baths by S. Lucia and the Marinella cannot be recommended to strangers. 

Lieux d'Aisance (Latrine Pubbliche ; 10 c.) at the Villa, by the egress 
towards the sea; near the Hotel du Vesuve, Chiatainone; also by the 
promontory of S. Lucia, to which a (light of steps descends, to the left; 
at the harbour, near the Immacolatella; in the Toledo, to the left of the 
Museum; at the Eeclusorio; in the Strada del Molo ; Strada S. Brigida; 
near the Birreria Dreher; on the stairs ascending to the Ponte di Chiaja. 

Post and Telegraph-Office in the Palazzo Gravina (PI. 23; E, 4), Strada 
Montoliveto. Branch Offices in the Largo S. Caterina a Chiaja, the rail- 
way-station, Str. del Duomo 58, at the Immacolatella on the quay (PI. F, 5), 
in the Ospedale del Sacramento , Via Salvator Rosa 287, in the Torretta 
(PI. B, 7), opposite the Museo Nazionale (p. 59), at the Vermouth di To- 
rino (p. 22). Letters should be posted at the branch-offices 2 hrs., and at 
the general post-office \ hr. before the departure of the mail-train for which 
they are intended. — The chief Telegraph Office, on the first floor of the 
Palazzo Gravina, is open day and night. Branch Offices : Str. S. Giacomo 
42, 43, Str. del Duomo 136 (63), Corso Garibaldi 45, nearly opposite the 
station, and Largo Garofalo a Chiaja 12. 

English Church in the Str. S. Pasquale, at the back of the Str. di 
Chiaja, on the site presented to the English residents by Garibaldi when 
dictator in 1860; service on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 3p.m.; Wed. and Thurs. 
at 11 a.m. — Presbyterian Church (Chiesa Scozzese), Vico Cappella Vecchia 
2; service on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 3.30 p.m., on Wed. at 3.30 p. m. — 
Italian Service of the Waldensian Church, S. Tomaso d'Aquino, Vico Por- 
taria a Toledo, on Sun. at 11 a.m. and 7 p. m. — French and German 
Protestant Church, Str. Carlo Poerio, Piazza dei Martiri (PI. D, 6). — Me- 
thodist Church, S. Anna di Palazzo. 

The Evangelical /Schools for Italian children (supported by the Evan- 
gelical Aid Committee), in the building connected with the Presbyterian 
Church (see above) and at No. 66 Magno Cavallo, may be visited on 
Monday forenoons, 9-12. — A visit to the Kindergarten School in the E.x- 
Collegio Medico, Largo S. Aniello, may also be found interesting. 

d. Shops. 

Gloves, coral, tortoise-shell, and lava ornaments 'may be mentioned 
as specialities of Naples. Copies of ancient bronzes, Etruscan vases, 
etc., are also well executed here. Bargaining is absolutely necessary in 
order to prevent extortion. If a number of different articles are bought 
in one shop, a round sum should be offered for the lot, 25-30 per cent 
below the aggregate of the single prices. Those who know something of 
the language will of course buy to the best advantage. The buyer should 
be careful to maintain a polite and unexcited demeanour. 

Antique Bronzes. Copies may be obtained in the photograph-shops 
of Sommer, Scala, Amodio, etc. (Narcissus 100-150 fr. ; Dancing Faun 130- 
160 fr.). The bronzes executed by Sabatino de Angelis, Strada Nuova di 
Capodimonte , beyond Caflisch's Brewery, are said to be especially good; 
specimens of his work may be seen in the Galleria Principe di Napoli 
(p. 42), near the Cafe Santan'gelo. — The green bronzes are cheaper than 
the copper-coloured. 

Antiquities. Barone, Str. Trinita Maggiore 6, first floor, nearly oppo- 
site S. Chiara ; Scognamiglio, Via Gigante 20, etc. 

Booksellers. Furchheim , Piazza dei Martiri 59; Detken <(■ Rocholl, 
Piazza del Plebiscite ; at both of these English and foreign books, circulat- 
ing library, newspapers, etc.; Marghieri, Toledo 140. Dorant, English 
reading-room, Riviera di Chiaja 267. 

Bookbinder, Str. di Chiaja 65. 

Bronzes, sec Antique Bronzes. 

Chemists, see p. 25. 

Coral and Lava, Cameos, Gold Ornaments. Achillc Squadrilli, Piazza 
Vittoria, opposite the entrance to the Villa Nazionale, an old-established 

Shops. NAPLBS. 3. Route. 27 

house with a large assortment and fixed prices (5 per cent discount allow- 
ed). "Casalla, Piazza dei Martiri 60, 61 (7), gold ornaments after Pompe- 
ian models ; Rocco Morabito, Piazza dei Martiri 32 ; Merlino , Strada del 
Gigante 18, 19; M. Piscione, Riviera di Chiaja 271; JV. Piscione, Str. Ca- 
labritto 35-36; Giacinto Melillo, Chiaja 286; De Caro, S. Lucia 70. — Ca- 
meos : Stella, Str. Pace 9 (portraits in lava, coral, etc.). — The so-called 
lava-ornaments are manufactured of a kind of calcareous tufa, also found 
on Mt. Vesuvius, having been probably thrown up by former eruptions, 
and presenting various tints of grey, brown, greenish, and reddish colours. 

Qjjilips. Numerous shops in the Strada di Chiaja. 

Habekdashek, Ville de Londres, Strada Chiaja 198. 

HAiKDKES8ER,»see Perfumer. 

Hatter, Mammolino, Toledo 258. 

Marbles op Vttulano. These beautiful coloured marbles , from the 
quarries which furnished the adornments of the grand staircase at Caserta 
(p. 10), may be seen at Piazza Cavour 54, near the Museum. 

Millinert. Ricco, Piazza dei Martiri 30, 1st floor ; Pszenny-Fass, Piazza 
dei Martiri 63; Gutteridge & Co., Toledo 192 and Salita Museo 92-94; Jour- 
dan, Strada di Chiaja 209, first floor; Shilton <k Co., in the prolongation 
of the Strada S. Brigida, near the Cafe Turco; AW Unione delle Fabbriche, 
Strada Chiatamone. 

Music, see Pianos. 

Opticians. Heinernann, Toledo 213; Tailor, Toledo 229; Angelo Oclis, 
Toledo 314; Schnabel, Toledo 231; Talbot, Chiaja 215; Bettamini, Toledo 
381 and 146. 

Perfdmeks. Zempl, Str. Calabritto 33, 34 (the pleasant, soft Neapoli- 
tan soap is sold here); Furlai, Strada di Chiaja; Aubry, near the Cafe 
d'Europe (p. 22). 

Photographs are sold by Sommer, Largo Vittoria, where views of 
every part of Italy, copies of bronzes, terracottas, etc. may be purchased ; 
Scala, S. Lucia 73; Amodio, Largo Vittoria 16; both of these also sell 
bronzes, terracottas, etc.; Giac. Brogi of Florence, Strada Chiatamone 
19bis; and at FvrchheirrCs (p. 26). 

Pianos (also for hire). G. Helzel, Strada di Chiaja 138; Vitt. Giulianv, 
Via Montoliveto 61 ; De Meglio , Vico Lungo Celzo 53. — Music : Societa 
Musicale Napolelana (German manager), Largo S. Ferdinando 2; Cottrau, 
Largo S. Ferdinando 49; Ricordi , Strada S. Carlo 18. — Music Masters, 
very numerous ; addresses obtained at the music-shops. 

Shoemakers. Finoja, Strada Gaetano Filangieri (Str. Alabardieri) 53, 
54; Baldelli, Strada di Chiaja 169; De Nolaris, Str. di Chiaja 189; Cal- 
zoleria Reale di M. Forte, Toledo 259, Piazza del Municipio 4, etc. 

Stationers. Richter , Colonnade di S. Francesco di Paola 10-12 and 
Toledo 309; Laltes, Via S. Giuseppe 25 and Strada di Chiaja 81; Tipaldi, 
Str. Montoliveto 51 (artists' requisites); also at Furchhenrfs (p. 26). 

Straw -Plaiting from Ischia , where this industry has been intro- 
duced since the earthquake of 1883; Lavoro e Carita, Chiaja 84. 

Tailors. Lenon <C Murray (English), Str. Calabritto 2; Scocca, Via 
Gennaro Serra 24 (ascending at the back of the Birreria Dreher); Kieper, 
Str. Montoliveto 61. 

Tortoise Shell. M. Labriola, Via Calabritto 41; L. Labriola, Str. 
Chiatamone 23bis ; Tagliaferri, Strada Calabritto 43. Also at the numerous 
small shops in the Strada S. Carlo, opposite the Teatro S. Carlo. 

Umbrellas and Fans. Gilardini, Toledo 335, 336 ; De Martina, Strada 
di Chiaja 210. 

Vases, Majolica, Terracottas, and Statuettes (of Neapolitan fig- 
ures, very characteristic): Industria Geramica Napoletana, Via Chiaja 5; 
Cacciapuoti, Via Chiaja 84; Ginori, Strada S. Carlo, opposite the theatre; 
Scala, S. Lucia 73; Mollica, Strada S. Lucia 27. Also at several of the 
photograph-shops (see above). 

Watchmakers. Gutwenger, Str. Calabritto 6(1; Eberliard, Str. di Chiaja 
207; Wyss, Str. S. Brigida 47; Chinet, Strada Guercia 20; Franconeri, Largo 
S. Ferdinando; Lista, Via S. Brigida 7. 

Wood Carvings from Sorrento: Gargiulo, Via Calabritto 5. 

28 Route ;). NAPLES. Theatres. 

Goods Agents. Hmjo Petersen, Vico Carogiojello a Toledo 15: G. 
<{uesla <t Co., Grande Piliero 32; //. Humbert, Via Vittoria 29; C. Stein, 
Strada Flavio Gioia 84. 

e. Theatres, Street Scenes, Religious and National Festivals. 

Theatres (comp. p. xxi). The 'Teatko S. Caklo (p. 37), one of the 
largest theatres in Europe, contains six tiers of boxes, 32 in each. Operas 
and ballet only. Parterre (pit) 6 fr. (arm-chair 12 fr.); boxes, 1st tier 
55 fr., 2nd tier 65 fr., 3rd 40 fr., and so on. — Teatko del Fondo (or Mer- 
cadante), in the Str. del Molo. Dramas and comedies, and in summer operas. 
I'it 2 fr. (arm-chair 4 fr.) ; boxes, 1st tier 15 fr., 2nd tier 20 fr., etc. — 
Teatko Nuovo, in the Vico del Teatro Nuovo, a side-street of the To- 
ledo. Comic opera. — Teatro Bellini, Strada Bellini (PI. B, 3), en- 
trance by Ihe Via Conte di Ruvo. Pit 2 fr. ; boxes 6, 10, 14 fr., etc. — 
Teatro Sannazaro, Str. di Chiaja, a pleasing little theatre Pit 3 fr. — 
Teatro Politeama, Strada Monte di Dio. Musical entertainments, operet- 
tas, circus. — Teatro Fiorentini (PI. 28; E, 5), in the street of that 
name. Dramas. Pit 1 fr. 20 c, arm-chair 2 fr. 70 c, boxes, 1st tier 11 fr., 
2nd tier 12 fr., etc. — Since the removal of the old Teatro S. Carlino, the 
visitor may become acquainted at two Popular Theatres in the Strada 
Foria (PI. F, 2) with 'Pulcinella', the 'Punch and Judy' of the Neapoli- 
tans, to whom the spectacle is an unfailing source of amusement. These 
performances (twice daily) are said to derive their origin from the ancient 
Oscan comedy of Atella. Those who have some knowledge of the Nea- 
politan dialect will find them not beneath their notice. At Christmas and 
Easter curious religious plays are performed in these theatres. — The 
numerous Marionette Theatres, in the Strada Foria and elsewhere, with 
their bloodthirsty plays of melodramatic chivalry, are also characteristic. 

Street Scenes. — The life of the people in Naples is carried on with 
greater freedom and more careless indifference to publicity than in any 
other town in Europe. From morning till night the streets resound with 
the cries of the vendors of edibles and other articles. Strangers especially 
are usually besieged by swarms of hawkers, pushing their wares, and all 
eager and able to take full advantage of the inexperience of their victims. 
The most medley throng is seen in the Toledo (p. 41), especially towards 
evening and after the lamps are lit. At fixed hours (see p. 29) the im- 
portunate tribe of news-vendors makes itself heard , and later in the 
evening appear the lanterns of the Trovalori, hunting for cigar-ends and 
similar unconsidered trifles. In most of the side-streets between the Strada 
Medina (PI. E, 5) and the Piazza del Mercato (PI. G, 4), itinerant cooks 
set up their stoves and drive a brisk trade in fish, meat, or maccaroni, 
while other dealers tempt the crowd with fragments from the trattorie or 
trays of carefully assorted cigar-ends. Every Monday and Friday morning 
the streets in the neighbourhood of the Porta Nolana (PI. G, 4) break 
out in a curious and animated rag-fair, where all kinds of old clothes 
change hands. The vicinity of the Porta Capuana (PI. G, 3) is another 
centre of variegated life and bustle. Here may be seen Public Readers 
(comp. p. 40), Quack Doctors, extolling their nostrums in interminable 
harangues, and not seldom Funeral Processions, escorted (as at Rome, 
Florence, etc.) by the fantastically disguised members of the brotherhood 
to which the deceased has belonged. The gorgeous coffins, however, 
which appear in the processions, are usually empty, the corpse having 
a;; a rule been previously conveyed to the cemetery. — The Corso, men- 
tioned at p. 84, takes place in the afternoon in winter, and in the even- 
ing in summer, in the Via Caracciolo, near the Villa Nazionale. — The 
numerous restaurants and eating-houses on the Posilipo (p. 92), Fuorigrolta 
(p. 89), etc., are filled every fine Sunday afternoon with gay crowds, 
amusing themselves with songs and careless merriment. 

Shoe-blacks, whose knocking is intended to attract passers-by, 10 c. 

Matches. A box of vestas (ceriiii , 5 c.) is a desirable acquisition , as 
matches are never provided at the hotels. 

Vendors of Iced Water (acquahioli) carry on a very brisk traffic in 
summer. They are usually provided with two large tubs filled with snow, 

Festivals. NAPLES. 3. Route. 29 

in which the water is cooled, and a supply of lemons, etc. Iced water 
2 c. per glass; with lemon, amarena, or anisette 5 c. ; with lemon, syrup, 
and anisette 10 c. — There are also several mineral springs in the town, 
containing sulphur, iron, and carbonic acid gas ; the best known is at S. 
Lucia. The water has a slightly medicinal effect, but the smell is disa- 
greeable (5 c. per glass). 

Newspapers (5 c. each). The most important are : the Corriere del 
Mattino, and the Roma, both published about noon ; in the evening II 
Piccolo and the popular II Pungolo (il pungolo = a goad for driving 
cattle). 'E uscit 'o pung', or 'volit 'o pice' (the o being strongly emphas- 
ised), i. e. 'e uscito lo Pungolo', or 'volete lo Piccolo' (lo being the Neapol- 
itan form of the aiticle il) are calls which resound everywhere between 
8 and 10 p. m.). 

The National and Religious Festivals have lost much of their former 
significance, but the more important are still extremely interesting. The 
Festival of the Veegine di Piedigrotta (p. 87), celebrated since 1845 on 
7th and 8th Sept. with great magnificence in memory of the victory 
of Charles III. over the Austrians at Velletri, was formerly the greatest 
of all , but under the present government has lost its importance. — A 
more interesting sight is how presented by the pilgrimages at Easter to 
the shrine of the Madonna di Monte Vebgine near Avellino (p. 180), 
which are prolonged for three days , when the surrounding population 
assembles from all quarters in carriages and on foot, tricked out in all the 
magnificence they can command. The Neapolitans then return to the town 
by Nola in a gay procession which vies with those of the Bacchanalians of old. 
On the following day they proceed to celebrate the festival of the Madonna 
dell' Arco, 6 M. from Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma, from which they 
again return in procession in the most exuberant spirits. — On Ascension 
Day the festival of the Madonna of the baths of Scafati (p. 167) takes 
place near Pompeii. — On 15th Aug. is celebrated the festival of Capodi- 
monte. — On the last Saturday in August the Fishermen's Festival at 
S. Lucia (p. 35) presents many interesting scenes. — In October every 
Thursday excursions with gaily decorated horses and carriages take place, 
the so-called Otttobrate. — An enormous crowd assembles in the cemeteries 
on 2nd Nov. (All Souls' Day). — Other festivities of a more strictly ec- 
clesiastical character are celebrated at Christmas , Easter , on Ascension- 
day, on the festivals of Corpus Christi (Fete de Dieu) , St. Antony , and 
above all on that of St. Januarius in May , September , and December. 
The Good Friday procession at Sorrento (p. 156) and the procession on 
Corpus Christi Day at Torre del Greco (p. 117) are particularly worth seeing. 

The Festival of the Constitution (la Fesla dello Statuto), of more 
recent origin, is celebrated throughout Italy on the first Sunday of June. 
In the forenoon military parade in the Piazza del Plebiscito. In front of 
S. Francesco mass is celebrated, accompanied by the thunder of the 
guns from the vessels of war and the harbour-batteries. Concerts are given 
at different places in the evening, and fireworks are displayed, especially 
at the Villa. 

The Carnival is seen to best advantage in the Toledo and near the 
Royal Palace. On the afternoon of Ash Wednesday everywhere merry en- 
tertainments are met with. 

The Tombola, which takes place every Sat. at 4 p.m., always attracts 
a large concourse of spectators. 

f. Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. Guides. 

With respect to the duration of the visitor's stay it is difficult to 
offer a suggestion; the taste and inclination of the individual must here 
more than almost anywhere else decide the question. Suffice it to ob- 
serve that within a period of ten days all the most interesting points 
may be visited, whilst many months may be delightfully spent in explor- 
ing the incomparable beauties of the environs. Where time is limited, 
it should be devoted almost exclusively to the latter, as the town con- 
tains few objects of interest, with the exception of the Museum and one 
or two of the churches. Those to whom the town is unbearably distaste- 

30 Route 3. NAPLES. Disposition of Time. 

ful should go at once to Sorrento, Capri, etc. ; in returning their antipathy 
will probably be mitigated. Choice of season, see p. xxiii. 

The Chief Sights of the city may be seen hastily in 3-4 days. The 
mornings may be devoted to the churches, the middle of the day to the 
JIuseum, and the afternoons to walks or drives in the neighbourhood. 
The evening may then be spent at the Villa Nazionale or in the theatre. 
The following are specially worthy of mention: — 

'" Museo Nazionale (p. 59) daily 9-3 o'clock, in winter 10-4, admission 
1 fr., Sundays gratis. 

Museum and Church of S. Martino (p. 90), with "View, 10-4, admission 
1 fr.. Sun. 9-2 free. 

"Aquarium (p. 86), adm. daily 2 fr., in July and August 1 fr., on Sun- 
day and holiday afternoons half-price ; season-tickets at the office. 

Catacombs (p. 43) daily, admission 1 fr. 

Palaces: Reale (p. 36), Capodimonte (p. 44). 

Churches: Cathedral, best seen about noon (p. 55), "Sta. Chiara (p. 48), 
"S. Domenico7-l t a. m. (p. 49), "Montoliveto (p. 47); "L'Incoronata, early in 
the morning (p. 46); Cloisters of S. Severino (p. 52); S. Giovanni (p. 54) ; 
S. Maria del Carmine (p. 40) ; S. Lorenzo (p. 58) , S. Paolo Maggiore (p. 58). 

Views: " ' Camaldoli (p. 95), "Sant' Elmo (p. 91), "Strada Nuova di Po- 
silipo (p. 92), Via Tasso (p. 92). — ®S. Martino (p. 90), "Campo Santo 
(p. 54). — "Villa Nazionale, in the afternoon or, in summer, in the eve- 
ning (p. 85). 

Most of the Excursions in the Environs (RR. 4-11) may be made 
from Naples in one day, but both time and money may often be econo- 
mised if the traveller combines several of them so as to avoid the ne- 
cessity of returning to Naples every evening. Those who intend to 
explore the surrounding scenery should therefore give up their rooms at 
Naples, but leave behind them all superfluous luggage, in order that 
they may start on their tour unfettered. In making these excursions it 
is generally advantageous to travel as a member of a party of 3-4 per- 
sons, by whom carriage and boat fares, fees, and other expenses are shared. 
In this case too 'pension' charges may often be stipulated for at the hotels 
for a stay of even one or two days (6-10 fr. for board and lodging). 

Small Change is even more frequently required in the environs of 
Naples than in the city itself. Contributions are levied on the traveller 
on every possible occasion, whether for admission to a point of view, 
or for leave to cross a field, or for services rendered. An abundant supply 
of small silver and copper should therefore be procured at a money- 
changer's (p. 25) before starting. 

A week or a fortnight may be very pleasantly spent as follows : — 

Pozziioli, Baiae, Capo Miseno (R. 4) l-l 1 /-' day. 

Procida and Ischia (R. 5) IV2 ,, 

Ascent of Mi. Vesuvius (R. 7), Herculaneum (p. 115). 1 ,, 

Pompeii (R. 8) l /t-l „ 

Castellammare, Sorrento, Capri (R. 9) 2-3 ,, 

Amalfi, Salerno, Paestum (R. 10) 2-3 „ 

Caserta and Capita (pp. 7-10) 1 ,, 

6V2-12 days. 

A visit to the islands, especially those of Procida and Ischia, should 
not be undertaken in winter unless the weather be calm and settled. 

Commissionnaires charge 6 fr. a day, or for a single walk 1 fr. ; but 
travellers who intend making purchases had better dispense with their ser- 
vices. Some of I lie best guides are Swiss and Germans. Johann Iluber, Aler- 
mann, Hefli, Sluub, and others organise excursions in the environs. Thus 
Iluber generally escorts a party weekly to Amalfi, Ravello, and Piestum, 
the excursion lasting from Monday morning to Tuesday evening, and the 
charge, including quarters for I lie night, being 50 fr. for each person. 
Trustworthy information may be obtained at the book-shops (p. 26). 

Especially among the Knglisli tourists, the excursions arranged by the 
well known lirm of Thus. Cook <(■ Sun an' now much !u vogue (agent, M. 
Farrber, a Swiss; office in the Piazza dei Martiri 52, fill. Pf. D, 0; p. 41). 

History. NAPLES. 3. Route. 31 

The fares are as follows: Town of Naples (1 day) 12 fr. ; excursion to 
Baja (i day) 16 fr , to Pompeii (1 day) 14 fr. ; to Capri, Sorrento, and Pom- 
peii (2 days) 45 fr.; to Pompeii, La Cava, Paestum, Salerno, Amalfl, Eavello 
(3 days), 75 fr. ; railways, carriages, steamers, board, guides, and sight- 
seeing are included in the fare. The traveller must necessarily surrender 
his independence in these excursions. , 

' Vedi Napoli e poi mori ! ' 

Naples , the capital of the former kingdom of Naples , now of a 
province, the seat of a prefect , of an archbishop and of the com- 
mander-in-chief of the 8th Italian army-corps, with 505,133 inhab. 
(31st Dec, 1885), is the most populous town in Italy,and occupies 
one of the most beautiful situations in the world. The magnificent 
bay has from the most ancient times been the object of enthusiastic 
admiration , and it is annually visited by thousands of strangers in 
quest of enjoyment or health. In historical interest this part of 
the Italian peninsula is singularly deficient. Nature, it would 
appear , has so bountifully lavished her gifts on this favoured 
spot, that the energy and strength of the most powerful nations 
have invariably succumbed to its alluring influence. Greeks, Oscans, 
Romans, Goths, Byzantines, Normans, Germans, and Spaniards have 
in succession been masters of the place ; yet it has rarely attained 
even a transient reputation in the annals of politics, art, or lite- 
rature. Those who have recognised in Florence the focus of the 
Italian Renaissance, in Rome the metropolis of a bygone age, in 
Venice and Genoa, and even in Pisa and Siena, the splendour of 
mediaeval republics, cannot but experience a feeling of disappoint- 
ment on beholding Naples. The dearth of handsome buildings and 
indigenous works of art creates a void, for which Herculaneum and 
Pompeii with their matchless treasures of antiquity alone in some 
measure compensate. The domestic architecture of the older part of 
Naples, the narrow, dingy streets, the highand narrow houses, with 
flat roofs and balconies in front of every window, are far from attrac- 
tive. The never-ending noise , the clatter of wheels at all hours of 
the day and night, the cracking of whips, braying of donkeys, and 
shrill shouting of hawkers , render Naples a most distasteful place, 
especially to those whose stay is limited. To these annoyances 
are added the insolent importunities of drivers, guides, street-ven- 
dors, beggars, etc., who often combine the most cringing manners 
with the grossest attempts at extortion. 

The History of the City of Naples extends back/ to a very remote age. The 
origin and name ofthecity are Greek. About theyear B.C. 1056 JSolians from 
Chalcis in Eubcea founded the colony of Kyme, Lat. Cumae, on a rocky 
eminence in the bay of Puteoli, which soon became a powerful and pros- 
perous commercial town. From Cumse the colony of Phaleron or Parthe- 
nope (named after the tomb of a Siren of that name, Plin. H. N. iii. 5) 
appears to have emanated at a very early period, and to have been at va- 
rious times re-inforced by immigrants from Greece, who founded the A'ea- 
polis (or new city), whilst Parthenope, the portion erected by the original 
colonists, was named Palaeopolis (old city). The latter was probably situa- 
ted on the Pizzofalcime (p. 35), whereas the site of Xeapolis is bounded 

32 Route 3. NAPLES. History. 

towards the E. bv the present Castel Capuano (PI. F, G, 3; p. 53), to the 
N. by the Strada Orticello (PI. F, 3), to the W. by the Strada S. Sebas- 
tiano (PI. E, 4), and to the S. by the declivity towards the present harbour, 
between S. Giovanni Maggiore (PI. E, F, 4) and S. Maria Maddalena (PI. H, 4). 
This distinction was maintained till the conquest of Palseopolis by the Romans, 
B.C. 326. After that period Naples remained faithful to Rome, both in the 
wars against Pyrrhus and against Hannibal, and owing to the beauty of its 
situation it soon became a favourite residence of the Roman magnates. Lu- 
cullus possessed gardens here on the Posilipo and the hill of Pizzofalcone, 
where, in A. D. 476, Romulus Augustulus, the last feeble monarch of the 
Western Empire, breathed his last. Augustus frequently resided at Naples, 
and Virgil composed some of his most beautiful poetry here. The emperors 
Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Hadrian were among the chief bene- 
factors of the city, which continued to enjoy its municipal freedom and 
its Greek constitution. It suffered fearfully during the wars of the bar- 
barian immigration. In 536 it was taken by storm by Belisarius, and 
again in 543 by the Goths under Totilas. The city soon threw oh the 
Byzantine supremacy, and under its doge or 'duca' maintained its inde- 
pendence against the Lombard princes, until after a long siege in 1130 it 
at length succumbed to the Normans under Roger. Frederick II. founded 
the university (1224), but seldom made Naples his residence. It was con- 
stituted the capital of the kingdom by Charles I. of Anjou (1265-85) and 
was greatly extended by subsequent princes, especially by Ferdinand I. of 
Arragon (1458-94), the viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo (1532-53), and Charles III. 
of Bourbon (1748-59). — Since the annexation of Naples to the kingdom 
of Italy the population has remained almost stationary (1860: 517,000). 
The town itself, however, is constantly increasing, particularly along the 
slope of the Posilipo, where magnificent new streets have grown up (comp. 
p. 35). 

Naples, situated in 40° 51' N. latitude, lies on the N. side of 
the bay, which extends for about 35 M. from the Capo di Mi- 
seno, its N.W. boundary, to the Punta della Campanella, its S.E. 
limit, and is separated from the open sea by the islands of 
Procidn and Ischia towards the N., and Capri towards the S. The 
S.E. side of the bay is formed by the Monte Sant' Angelo, a spur of 
the Apennines , 5000 ft. in height , which is connected with the 
island of Capri by a submarine reef of rock. The other sides 
of the bay are bounded by the Campanian plain , the surface of 
which has undergone numerous changes in consequence of vol- 
canic agency. In the middle of the plain between the chain of 
Sant'Angelo and the hilly district N. of Naples rises Mount Ve- 
suvius, dividing it into two distinct districts, the southern of 
which is intersected by the river Sarno, and the northern by 
the Sebeto. The plain, as well as the slopes of Vesuvius itself, 
is luxuriantly fertile, and one of the most densely peopled districts 
in the world. At the S.E. base of Mt. Vesuvius are situated the 
Ruins of Pompeii, at its W. base, covered by several populous 
villages, Herculaneum. The N.W. side of the bay has for many 
ages been the scene of powerful volcanic agency. Naples, which 
stretches E. towards the plain, nearly to the Sebeto, is to a great 
extent situated on a slight volcanic eminence. This tract is iden- 
tical with the Campi Phlegraei, so frequently mentioned by the 
ancients, which extended from Naples to Cumin. They commence 
with the hills of the Mtttkmrm del Pinnto, ('<t)>r,dirkino, and 

Site. NAPLES. 3. Route. 33 

Miradois towards the E., and also embrace those of Capodimonte, 
Scudillo, and S. Eremo as far as Pizzofalcone and Castello dell' Ovo, 
and beyond these extend to the Vomero and the eminence of Posilipo. 
Tufa, mingled with fragments of lava, trachyte, pumice-stone, etc., 
is observed in all directions. Mineral springs and gaseous exhal- 
ations testify to the volcanic nature of the district. The chain of 
Posilipo, separating the bay from that of Pozzuoli, is united by a 
subaqueous ridge with the small island of Nisida, an extinct crater. 
Farther inland .are situated the craters of Lago d' Agnano, Astroni, 
and Solfatara. On a promontory lies the town of Pozzuoli ; farther 
along the coast is the volcanic Monte Nuovo, then the Lago 
Lucrino with the ruins of Baiae, behind which is the crater of 
Lago Averno and the site of ancient Cumae. Lastly, towards the 
S., are the Lago Fusaro and the hill of Misenum, with the Mare 
Morto and Porto Miseno. This range is connected with t.l 
pre-eminently volcanic islands of Procida, Vivara, and the m 
important Ischia with the extinct volcano Epomeo. 

The City lies at the base and on the slopes of several slight 
hills, rising from the sea in amphitheatre-like form. It is divided 
into two unequal parts by the heights of Capodimonte, S. Elmo, and 
Pizzofalcone , which terminate in the narrow ridge surmounted by 
the Castello dell' Ovo. To the S. E. of Capodimonte, and eastwards as 
far as the Sebeto, lies the greater and most ancient part of Naples, 
now the business quarter, intersected from N. to S. by the Toledo 
(now Via di Roma'), the main street, which is continued towards 
the N. by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte. The most important 
streets in this quarter are the three which intersect the Toledo — 
the Strada S. Trinita Maggiore with its prolongation S. Biagio de' 
Librai , the Via de' Tribunali , and the Strada Foria, the contin- 
uation of the Piazza Cavour ; then the new Strada del Duomo, to 
the E. of the Toledo and nearly parallel with it; and "astly sev- 
eral broad new streets recently constructed on the E. side of the 
town. The most important open spaces are the Piazza del Ple- 
biscite and the Piazza del Municipio, recently much enlarged, from 
which diverges the broad Strada Medina. A handsome quay, 
called the Strada del Piliero and the Via Nuova, Tuns eastwards 
along the harbour as far as the Castel del Carmine. Near the 
castle is the Piazza del Mercato. The population of the whole of 
this part of the town is densely crowded, and it is now the anxious 
endeavour of the authorities to remedy the consequent physical and 
social evils (to which the terrible cholera epidemic of 1884 again 
bore sad witness), by the construction of new streets ('sventra- 
mento', i.e. cutting up) and commodious dwellings. A hundred 
million francs is to be devoted to this purpose. — The western 
and- more modern quarter of the city is much smaller than the 
eastern , and is preferred by visitors owing to the superiority of 
its situation, air, and views. A broad quay, named the Via Ca- 

Bakdekeu. Halx III. Jttk Edition. 3 

34 Route 3. NAPLES. Site. 

racciolo, and the grounds of the Villi i. Nazionale extend along the 
coast , while the Riviera di Chiaja , connected by the Stiada di 
Chiaja with the Toledo, forms the lower boundary of the parts of 
the town stretching up the hills. Half-way up is the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, above which, on the Vomero, an entirely new quarter is 
springing up. From the W. end of the Chiaja the Mergellina ex- 
tends to Posilipo. 

The length of Naples from the Mergellina to the barracks at 
the mouth of the Sebeto is 3 M., the breadth from Capodimonte 
to the Castel dell' Ovo 2 M. The squares are still generally called 
Luryhi, though the more modern name 'Piazza? was introduced in 
1 SfSO ; the principal streets are called Strade, or now Vie ; the cross- 
streets Virhi ; the narrow lanes ascending the hills, and generally 
inaccessible to carriages, Calate or Salite, or when so precipitov.s as 
to require steps, Gradoni oxRampe. The streets are all well paved, 
except as regards accommodation for foot-passengers. In 1885 a 
large aqueduct, the Acqua di Serino, was opened, supplying the city 
with water from the neighbourhood of Avellino (see p. 44). 

The city itself can boast of almost no Graeco-Roman antiquities, 
but (besides the churches) it possesses five forts (Castello S. Elmo, 
dell' Ovo, Nuovo, del Carmine, Capuano) and four gates (Porta del 
Carmine, Alba, Nolana, and Capuana) of mediaeval construction. 
The town has on the whole a modern appearance. 

Our description of the sights is arranged in topographical 
order, and is divided as follows : ■ — 

1. The Side of the City next the Sea, from the Largo della Vit- 
toria (PL D, 6) eastwards, round the Pizzofalcone , by 
S. Lucia, the Piazza delPlebiscito, and the Piazza del Muni- 
cipio, and along the quay to the S. E. angle of the town. 

2. The Toledo, with its side-streets, and the Capodimonte. 

'd. The Old Town, to the E. of the Toledo, and between that 
street and the harbour. 

4. The Museum. 

"). The Modern Quarters (Chiaja, Villa, and Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele) and the Castel S. Elmo. 

0. The Posilipo, with Cumaldoli and other points in the im- 
mediate environs. 

The traveller may again be reminded here that, if his time is 
limited, he had better disregard most of the sights within the town. 

I. Side of the City next the Sea, to the E. of 


The Largo della Vittoria (PI. D, fi), an open space adorned 
with trees and a fountain, and recently enlarged on the side next 
the sea, in front of the Villa Nazionale, may be regarded as the 
central (.mint of the strangers' quarter. The Via Purtenope (PI, 

Cnstel dell' Ovo. NAPLES. 3. Route. 35 

D, E, 7), a handsome qnay constructed within the last ten years, 
and flanked by a number of new buildings, extends hence towards 
the E. along the coast. On our left rises the Pizzofalcone, a spur 
of the hill of S. Elmo, entirely covered with buildings and walls, 
around the base of which runs the Strada Chiatamone, a street pa- 
rallel with the quay and a little above it , with a number of hand- 
some hotels and other buildings. 

Dr. Johnston - Lams, Chiatamone 7 , possesses an admirable collection 
of the rocks and minerals of Mt. Vesuvius, which he obligingly shows to 
visitors interested in geology and mineralogy. 

From the S. end of the Pizzofalcone runs out an embankment 
and bridge, connecting it with a small rocky island, the Megaris 
of Pliny. On this island rises the Castello dell' Ovo , which in its 
present form dates from the time of the viceroy Don Pedro de To- 
ledo (1532-53). The name is due to its oval shape. 

William I. began to erect the fort in 1154, but the completion of his 
design fell to Frederick II., who used the edifice as a place of safety for 
his wives and treasures. Charles I. enlarged the castle and frequently re- 
sided there. Robert the Wise (1309) caused the chapel to be adorned with 
frescos by Giotto, and superintended the work in person, hut of these 
no trace is left. Here Charles III. of Durazzo (1381) kept Queen Johanna I. 
prisoner, and was himself besieged. In 1495 Charles VIII. of France cap- 
tured the castle, and under Ferdinand II. it was dismantled. It is now 
chiefly used as a prison. Visitors are usually admitted without challenge 
by the sentries, hut the interior is of little interest. 

Farther on we reach S. Lucia (PI. E, 7, 6), once a dirty street, 
but enlarged and converted into a broad and pleasant quay since 
1846. Scenes of Neapolitan life may be witnessed here in per- 
fection. The female members of the community are seen working 
in the open air, going through their toilette, and performing 
various unpleasing acts of attention to their children , regardless 
of the public gaze. In warm weather the children often run about 
quite naked. On the side next the sea the oyster-stalls are 
established, where sea-urchins, crabs, and other delicacies, so 
expressively called frutti di mare by the Neapolitans, are also sold 
(comp. Introd., p. xxvi). The focus of this animated scene, however, 
is on the Promontory below, which is reached by a flight of steps, 
and is adorned with a fountain with figures by Domenico d'Auria 
and Giovanni da Nola. On fine summer evenings, especially on 
Sundays, this spot is densely crowded, and presents a highly 
characteristic picture of Neapolitan life. There is also a favourite 
sulphureous spring here (p. 29). Adjoining the promontory is the 
small harbour whence the steamers for Capri start (p. 161). 

At the N. end of S. Lucia is a fountain, whence we ascend to 
the left by the Strada del Gigante , a street named after an 
ancient colossal statue of Jupiter once placed here. To the right, 
farther on, we look down on the stores of cannon and ammuni- 
tion in the courts of the arsenal (p. 39). In a straight direction 
we observe Fort S. Elmo, rising above the town, and we soon 
reach the finest square in Naples, the — 


36 Hmttt 3. NAPLES. ,<?. Francesco di Paola. 

Largo del Palazzo Reale , or the Piazza" del Plebiscite (PI. 
E, 6) as it has been called since I860, which assumed its present 
form in 1810, after the demolition of four monasteries. Since 
the opening of the new aqueduct this square has been embellished 
with a large fountain. On the right is the Royal Palace, opposite to 
us is the Foresteria, now the Prefettura di Napoli (PI. 17"), with 
shops in part of the ground-floor; on the W. side, which forms a 
semicircle, is the church of <S. Francesco with its dome and arcades; 
on the fourth side is the Commandant's Residence (PI. 77), for- 
merly the palace of the prince of Salerno, where travellers obtain 
a permesso to visit the Oastel S. Klmo on showing their passports 
or visiting-cards. (Ascend two flights of stairs on the left side of 
the court, and turn to the right at the top; best hours 10-11 or 
l'2-2.) In front of the church of S. Francesco are two Equestrian 
Statues of Neapolitan kings, both in Roman attire : on the right 
Charles III., on the left Ferdinand I. ofP>ourbon; the two horses 
and the statue of Charles are by Canova, that of Ferdinand, by CaR. 

S. Francesco di Paola (PI. 48; E. 6), an imitation of the Pan- 
theon at Rome, was constructed by Ferdinand I. from designs of 
P. Bianchi in 1817-31. The Ionic vestibule is supported by six 
columns and two buttresses. 

The Interior (open till about noon) contains thirty Corinthian columns 
of marble from Mondragone , which support the dome. The high -altar, 
transferred hither from the church of the Apostles, is entirely inlaid with 
jasper and lapis lazuli ; the two pillars at the sides are of rare Egyptian 
breccia from S. Severino. The tribune above is for the use of the royal family. 
The statues and pictures are by modern masters. To the left of the entrance : 
St. Athanasius by Anrjelo Balaro; Death of Joseph, Camilla Gnerra of Naples ; 
St. Augustin, a statue by Tommaso Arnaud of Naples; Madonna della Con- 
ce/.ione, Casparo Luiidi ; St. Mark, a statue by Fabris of Venice; St. Nicho- 
las, Nalale Carta of Sicily; St. John, a statue by Tenerani. In the choir: 
St. Francis di Vaola resuscitating a youth, Camnechri ; St. Matthew, a statue 
by Fint'lli; Last Communion of St. Francis of Castile, Ph:tro Benvenuti of 
Florence; St. Luke, a statue by Antonio Call of Sicily ; St. Ambrose, by Tito 
Atujeliiii of Naples; Death of St. Andrea da Avellino , Tommaso de i'it'u: 
St. Chrysoslom, a statue by Giauiaro Call. 

The Palazzo Reale (PI. 21; E, 6), or royal palace, designed 
by the Roman Domenico Fontana, was begun in 1600 under the 
viceroy Count de Lemos , burned down in 1837, and restored 
between that year and JiSil. The facade, 18:") yds. ft. in length, 
exhibits in its three stories the Doric and Ionic styles combined ; 
most of the arches of the basement, however, are built up for the 
sake of increasing the strength of the building. 

iXTKiuun. Visitors apply to the porter (5U c), who conducts them to 
the office of the Intendant in the palace (11-1). Here they receive (Sun. and 
Thurs. 12-4 ; gratis) a permesso for six persons, which is available also for 
the palaces of Capodimonte, Caserfa, and the garden of Astroni, and must 
be shown at each place to the porter. Attendant's fee 1 fr. 

Tlie visitor is first conducted to the "Garden Terrace, which affords 
a line view of the harbour and the arsenal immediately below. In the 
centre is a handsome marble table. — The magnificent '-Grand Xtatrcitsr, 
constructed entirely of while marble, and adorned with reliefs and sta- 
tues, dates from lli."il. -- (In the side towards the piazza are situated a 

Teatro San Carlo. NAPUES. :). Route. 37 

small Theatre and a superb Dining Room. — Beyond these is the "Throne 
Room, gorgeously furnished with crimson velvet embroidered with gold, 
the embroidery having been executed at the extensive poor-house in 1818. 
Above are gilded figures in relief, representing the different provinces of 
the kingdom. — The rooms also contain large porcelain vases from Sevres 
and Meissen (Dresden china), an antique bust of Bacchus, a small bust of 
Hercules, and a bust of Marcus Aurelius, all found at Herculaneum, 
tapestry, and lastly a number of pictures. Among the last are: "Titinn. 
Pier Luigi Farnese (151,7) ; Schidone, Carita; Lod. Garracci, John the Bap- 
tist; Guercino, St. Joseph; M. Garavaggio , Christ in the Temple, Be- 
trothal of St. Catharine, Orpheus ; L. Giordano, The archangel Gabriel. 
There are also leveral works by Netherlandish masters : Quintin Massys (?), 
Usurer; "Van Dyck, Portrait; Vervloet, Cathedral at Palermo, Market in 
Venice; two good portraits, by unknown masters, etc. The Adoration of 
the Magi, sometimes ascribed to Jan van Eyck and sometimes to Donzelli, 
a supposed pupil of Zingaro, was once considered a very important work, 
but has been treated slightingly by modern criticism. The pictures by 
modern Italian masters are of no great merit. 

On the N. side of the palace, which is connected here by a wing 
with the Theatre of S. Carlo, is a small garden enclosed by a 
railing, containing a Statue of Italia, erected in 1864 in comme- 
moration of the plebiscite of 21st Oct., 1860, which added the 
kingdom of Naples to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. 

The small piazza which adjoins the Piazza del Plebiscite here 
is named Largo S. Ferdinando after the opposite church. This is 
the starting-point of several of the chief tramway lines, and there is 
also a large cab-stand here. To the left diverge the Strada di Chi- 
aja and the Toledo, the principal street in Naples (comp. p. 41). 

We now turn to the right into the Strada S. Carlo, in which 
rises the principal facade of the Teatro San Carlo (PI. 26 ; E, 6), 
founded by Charles III. in 1737, and erected by the Neapolitan 
architect Anyelo Carasale from designs by the Sicilian Giovanni 
Medrano. The interior was destroyed by Are in 1816, but has 
been restored in harmony with the original plan. It is one of the 
largest opera-houses in Italy, and the choicest works of the best 
Italian composers are admirably performed here. Many of the cele- 
brated compositions of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Mercadante 
were performed in this theatre for the first time. The chief fa- 
cade , resting on an arcade , and surmounted by a series of co- 
lumns, and the side next the Largo S. Ferdinando are decorated 
with reliefs. The spaces under the arches are occupied by public 
writers, ready at a moment's notice to commit to paper the plead- 
ing of the lover or the expostulation of the creditor. 

Adjoining is the small garden belonging to the palace, and 
farther to the right are two Horse-tamers by Baron Clodt of St. 
Petersburg, presented by the Emp. Nicholas of Russia, and re- 
plicas of those in front of the palace at Berlin. 

We next reach the long Piazza del Municipio (PI. E, o), 
recently very considerably extended. On the S. side the new Ex- 
change is being erected. To the left is situated the handsome Muni- 
cipio (PI. 20), or town hall, the Palazzo de' Ministeri under the 

:>8 Route 3. NAPLES. Cartel Nuovo, 

Bourbons, erected in 181'J-2f> from designs by Luiyi and Stefuno 
(uisse. On the principal entrance are inscribed the names of the 
Neapolitans who were executed for sedition under the Bourbon 
re'gime. In the gateway are the statues of the kings Roger and Fre- 
derick II. — From this point a passage, occupied by stalls of var- 
ious wares, leads through, under the flight of steps, to the Toledo; 
within it, to the right, is the entrance to the present Exchange. 

In the N.W. corner of the piazza, immediately adjoining the 
Municipio, rises the church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli ( PI . 
52), erected in 1 o40 by Don Pedro de Toledo. 

Interior. We enter by a door adjacent to the gate of the Municipio 
and ascend the stairs. To the right of the entrance: "Andrea del Sarto, 
Holy Family. 3rd Chapel on the left: Gian Bernardo Lama , descent 
from the Cross; also pictures by Bernardino Siciliano , Marco da Siena, 
and others. At the back of the high -altar is the sumptuous Tomb of 
Don Pedro de Toledo (d. 1553), a work of little artistic merit by Giovanni 
da Nola, adorned with statues of the cardinal virtues, reliefs of the achieve- 
ments of the viceroy, and his statue in a kneeling posture, with that 
of his wife. Behind this tomb is the monument of Hans Walther von 
Hiernheim, counsellor and general of Charles V. and Philip II. (d. 1557), 
with an inscription in German and Latin. 

The E. side of the square is formed by the Castel Nuovo (PI. 
K, 5, 6} the outer walls and bastions of which have recently 
been removed. This castle was begun in 1283 by Charles 1. 
of Anjou from a design attributed to Giov. da Pisa, and executed 
in the French fortification style of that period. The kings of the 
houses of Anjou and Arragon, and the Spanish viceroys success- 
ively resided here. Alphonso I. (1442) added five round towers, 
and the castle was enlarged by Don Pedro de Toledo (1546) and Char- 
les III. (1735). 

The Entrance is in the Strada del Molo (see p. 39). Passing the sentry, 
we turn to the right , and then to the left. After a few hundred paces 
we reach the entrance to the fortifications strictly so called, which con- 
sists of a lofty *Triumphal Arch between two round towers (one of which 
partly fell in 1876), erected in 1470 to commemorate the entry of Alphonso 
of Arragon (2nd Juno, 1442), probably by Pietro di Martina, a Milanese 
architect, assisted, according to Vasari, by Giuliano da Maiano of Flo- 
rence. This is t ; ie finest monument at Naples. It consists of an arch- 
way with Corinthian columns on each side, now partly built into the 
wall, a frie/.e, and a cornice, above which is an attic with well-exe- 
cuted sculpture representing the entry of Alphonso, by Isaia da Pisa 
and Silvestro deW Aqnila. Above are statues of St. Michael, St. An- 
tonius Abbas, and St. Sebastian (half destroyed), below which are the 
four cardinal virtues in niches. The bronze doors are adorned with re- 
presentations of the victories of Ferdinand I. , by Guglielmo Monaco. A 
cannon-ball imbedded in the masonry of the left wing is a reminiscence 
of the wars of the time of Gonsalvo da Cordova. 

In the inner barrack-yard rises the church of S. Barbara, or S. Se- 
baxliano (custodian to the right, outside the triumphal arch, No. 223; 
','■_' fr.), with a Corinthian facade by Ginliano da Maiano, and a beautiful 
Madonna in relief above the door. The Adoration of the Magi formerly 
preserved here is now in the palace (p. 37). — A dark spiral staircase 
of 25 steps adjoining the sacristy ascends to a Loggia, where we enjoy 
an excellent survey of the government docks and the harbour. 

The wide Strada Medina runs northward from the N.E. angle of 

Harbours. NAPLES. 3. Route. 39 

the Piazza del Muuicipio. It contains the Incoronata church (see 
p. 46). 

The Strada del Molo (PL E, 5), recently much widened, 
forms a continuation of the Piazza del Municipio to the E., and 
leads past the Teatro del Fondo (Mercadante, PI. 29) to the har- 
bour. It is continued by the Molo, a pier 14 yds. in width, ori- 
ginally constructed by Charles of Anjou in 1302, adjoining which 
are the extensive Harbours (PL F, 6, 5), the Porto Militare being 
on the right and the Porto Mercantile on the left. On the right, 
at the beginning of the Molo, is the royal Arsenate di Marina, erect- 
ed in 1577 by the viceroy Mendoza, with a dockyard, arsenal, etc 
The neighbouring Porto Militare, or government harbour , shut 
off by a railing, was begun by Francis I. in 1826. On the S. side 
it is protected by a strong breakwater , which extends 429 yds. 
into the sea in a S.E. direction (now being lengthened) , and it is 
5 fathoms in depth. A number of men-of-war of the Italian navy 
are frequently stationed here. 

The mercantile harbour , the Porto Mercantile or Porto 
Grande, was constructed in 1302 by Charles II. of Anjou at the 
same time as the Molo, and enlarged by Charles III. in 1740. 
It presents an animated and busy scene, characteristic of a southern 
climate. An excursion on the bay, to which the boatmen invite 
foot-passengers, is very enjoyable in fine weather (bargaining 
necessary; comp. p. 25). 

At the angle formed by theMolo rises the Lighthouse [Lanterna; 
PL F, 5) , originally erected in the 15th cent. , but rebuilt in 
1843. The ascent is strongly recommended, as it enables the vis- 
itor to form an accurate idea of the topography of the town 
(fee 1 fr.). An easy marble staircase of 142 steps ascends to the 
gallery. — The magazines at the end of the Molo (PL F, 5) are 
used as bonded warehouses. 

The handsome quay, called the Strada del Piliero, which 
skirts the mercantile harbour, is at present being widened, in order 
to permit a line of rails from the station being laid. Adjoining the 
harbour, and connected with it by a channel under the street, is 
the Porto Piccolo , which is accessible to small boats only. This 
once formed part of the most ancient harbour of Neapolis. The 
Dogana Nuova is situated here. To the right, at the end of the 
Molo Piccolo is situated the Immacolatella with the offices of the 
custom-house and the Deputazione di Salute (PL 24). Adjoining 
the Immacolatella is the quay at which travellers arriving at Naples 
by sea disembark. This is also the starting-point of the Ischia 
steamers (see p. 110). 

The first side-street to the left leads straight to the church of S. 
Pietro Martire (PI. 70; F, 4), which contains a few monuments and pic- 
tures (Legend of St. Vincent, a good work in the Flemish-Neapolitan style). 

The last street hut one to the left before S. Pietro is reached leads 
into the Strada di Porto, a scene of the most motley hustle and confusion, 

!0 Route X. NAPLES. 8. Maria del Carmine. 

especially towards evening. Vendors of fish, meat, maccaroni , and re- 
freshments of all kinds cook their delicacies in the open street, and 
attract numerous customers. As this moreover is the dirtiest quarter of 
the town, the fumes which arise are intensely 'ancient and fishlike\ 

We continue to follow the broad quay of the Strada Nuova 
(PI. F, G, 4), which is embellished with flower-beds and is always 
full of life and bustle. At the end is the newly opened Villa del 
Popolo (PI. G, 4), a pretty public garden on the sea. Here in the 
afternoon after 4 p.m., public readers may often be seen, declaim- 
ing passages from Tasso, Ariosto, or other poets, to an audience of 
workmen, rag-pickers, and other humble folk, who each pay 2 c. 
for the privilege of listening. Similar scenes occur also outside 
the Porta Capuana. 

Opposite rises the Castel del Carmine (PI. G, 4), a vast struc- 
ture erected by Ferdinand I. in 1484. In 1647 during the rebellion 
of Masaniello (p. 175) it was occupied by the populace. It was after- 
wards fortified, and is now used as barracks and a military prison. 

The Porta del Carmine, on the W. side of the Caste], leads to a 
piazza, in which, on the right, is situated the church of *S. Maria 
del Carmine (PI. 59 ; G, 4) with its lofty tower. The edifice (open 
early in the morning, and after 4.30 p.m.), which is of early ori- 
gin, but was modernised in 1769, contains a celebrated miraculous 
picture of the Virgin ('La Bruna') , and the tomb of Conradin, 
the last of the Hohenstaufen. 

The tomb was originally behind the high-altar, to the right, where 
its position is now marked by the inscription R. C. C. (Regis Conradini 
corpus). In 1847 Maximilian II. of Bavaria, when Crown-prince, caused 
a "Statue , by Schopf of Munich , from a design by Thorvaldsen , to be 
erected in the nave of the church to the memory of Conradin (born in 
1252). The pedestal bears a German inscription to the effect that — 
'Maximilian, Crown-prince of Bavaria, erected this monument to a scion 
of his house , King Conradin , the last of the Hohenstaufen'. The two 
reliefs represent the parting of Conradin from his mother, the Princess 
Elizabeth , and his separation from Frederick of Baden at the place of 
execution. Beneath this monument now lie the remains of the unfor- 
tunate prince. The whole is well-executed, and, placed as it is, most 
impressive. — To the right of the entrance is a block of marble, beneath 
which the remains of Masaniello are said to repose; the monument which 
formerly marked the spot is now in the museum. 

We now turn to the left to the Piazza del Mercato (PI. G, 4), 
where the traffic is busiest on Mondays and Fridays. The fish- 
market is interesting. On the N. side of the piazza, which forms a 
semicircle, is the church of S. Croce id Mercato. On the S. side 
are two fountains. On 29th Oct. 1268, Conradin, the last scion 
of his princely house, then in his 17th year, and his relative Fre- 
derick of Baden, were executed here by order of Charles I. of An- 
jou. The sacristy of the church of S. Croce contains a column of 
porphyry which formerly marked the spot where the young prince 
was beheaded. This piazza was also one of the scenes of the in- 
surrection of Masaniello. 

The narrow lanes which lead hence into the heart of the town 
arc alive with most characteristic scenes of Neapolitan life , but 

Piazza de' Martin. NAPLES. : I. Route. 41 

though a visit to them with an experienced guide is interesting, 
the traveller is recommended not to attempt to penetrate farther 

Returning to the church del Carmine, and following the street 
to the left, we may reach the Porta Capuana (p. 53) in 8 min. ; or 
we may pass the church and proceed in a straight direction to the 
small Piazza Garibaldi, and turn to the left into the broad, new 
Corso Garibaldi, which begins near the coast, passes (5 min.) the 
Porta Nolana, the.railway-station, and (5 min.) the Porta Capuana, 
and terminates in the Strada Foria (see p. 43). 

II. The Toledo. Capodimonte. 

Starting from the Largo della Vittoria (p. 34; PI. D, 6), the 
broad Strada S. Caterina, with its handsome shops, leads us 
towards the N. to the triangular Piazza de' Martiri, where the 
Colonna de' Martiri (PI. D, 6), a lofty column of marble decorated 
with trophies, and crowned with a Victory in bronze, was erected 
in 1864 to the memory of the patriots who have perished during the 
different Neapolitan revolutions. The four lions at the base, in 
different postures, represent the four principal revolutions at Naples 
during the Bourbon dynasty (1799, 1820, 1848, 1860). The monu- 
ment was designed by Alvino, the Victory executed by Caggiani. 
— On the N.W. side of the Piazza is the Palazzo Partanna, on the 
S. the Palazzo Calabritto, and farther on, with a garden in front, the 
Palazzo Nunziante. 

To the left in the piazza is the Palazzo Miranda (PI. 19), 
erected in 1780 by Barba, now the property of the Princess of 
Ottajano, daughter of the Duchess of Miranda, containing pictures 
by Spagnoletto, Guido Reni, Rubens, and others. (Visitors ad- 
mitted daily, 12-2, on presenting their visiting-cards ; attendant 
1 fr., porter 50 c.) 

We next enter the busy Strada di Chiaja (PI. D, E, 6). 
Where this street begins to ascend , it is crossed by the Ponte 
di Chiaja, a viaduct built in 1634, by which the Strada Monte 
di Dio leads from the quarter of Pizzofalcone to the higher 
ground below S. Elmo. (The flight of steps on the right, between 
the buttresses of the bridge, ascends from the Strada di Chiaja to 
the Strada M. di Dio.) The Str. di Chiaja, which contains nothing 
noteworthy, leads into the Largo S. Ferdinando (p. 37), at the foot 
of the Toledo. 

The * Toledo , a street begun by the viceroy Don Pedro de 
Toledo in 1540, but since the autumn of 1870 officially known 
as the Via di Roma, gia Toledo, is the main artery of the traffic 
of Naples, and presents a busy scene at all hours. It intersects 
the city from S. to N. nearly in a straight line, ascending gradually 
from the sea. It extends from the Piazza del Plebiscito (p. 36) 

12 Route 3. NAPLES. Toledo. 

to the Museo Nazionale, beyond which its prolongation is formed 
by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte , and is nearly l 1 ^ M. in 
length, but contains no building worthy of note. On both sides 
extends a network of streets and lanes, many of which ascend to 
the left by means of steps to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the 
(Jastel S. Elmo, while those to the right extend to the railway- 
station and the harbour, forming the centres of mercantile traffic. 
— Betwixt noon on Maundy Thursday and noon on Good Friday no 
carnages are allowed in the Toledo. The street is then thronged 
with pedestrians, taking part in a sort of ceremonial promenade, 
known as 'lo struscio', from the rustling of the silk garments, which 
were formerly always black. 

Ascending the Toledo from the Largo S. Ferdinando, we come 
in about 10 min. to the small Largo della Carita (PI. E, 4, 5), 
where in 1877 was erected a Monument to Carlo Poerio (d. 1867), 
the dauntless Italian patriot whose unjust condemnation and im- 
prisonment in 1850 did so much to inflame the hate of the people 
for the Bourbon dynasty. To the right diverges a street to the 
Piaz/.a Montoliveto (p. 47; post-office, see p. 47). 

Farther on. to the right, at the corner of the Strada S. Trinith 
Maggiore (p. 48), the only important side-street by which the To- 
ledo is crossed, rises the Palazzo Maddaloni (PI. 18; entrance in 
the ,Str. Maddaloni), now let to the Bank of Naples , a massive 
structure with a gateway and staircase from designs by Fansaga. 
The interior contains a hall of fine proportions. Adjacent, separated 
by a cross-street, at the corner of the Toledo and the Strada S. Anna 
de' Lombardi, is the Palazzo d'Angri (PI. 12), erected about 1773 
by LuigiVanvitelli, and occupied by Garibaldi when dictator in 1860. 

In 10 min. more we reach the Piazza Dante (PI. E, 4), formerly 
the Largo del Mercatello, where a Monument of Dante in marble, 
by T. Angelini and Solari, was erected in 1872. The crescent- 
shaped edifice, beyond the statue, which was converted into a Liceo 
(Jinnasiale Vittorio Emanuele in 1861, surmounted by a balustrade 
with twenty-six statues, was erected by the city of Naples in honour 
of Charles III. in 1757, the statues being emblems of the virtues of 
that monarch. • — ■ Adjacent, to the left, is the Porta Alba, erected 
in 1032, embellished with a bronze statue of S. Gaetano, whence 
the Via de' Tribunali may be entered (see pp. 58-59). 

Leaving the Piazza Dante , and passing a row of houses re- 
cently erected, we ascend gradually in 5 min. by the Salita del 
Museo to the Museo Nazionale (PI. E, 3 ; p. 59), a large red build- 
ing, the entrance to which is in the broad side-street diverging on 
the right to the Piazza Cavour. 

Opposite the entrance of the Museum is the Galleria Principe 
di Napoli, a covered bazaar (PI. E, 3) designed by Alvino, resemb- 
ling the Oalleria Vittorio Emanuele at Milan in variety of wares, 
but on a smaller scale. 

Catacombs. NAPLE.S. :). Route. 43 

The long Piazza C'avour (PI. E, 3) , which extends on the E. 
side of the Museum, is embellished with gardens. To the N.E.the 
piazza contracts into the Strada Porta (PI. F, G, 3, 2). The first 
street diverging from it to the right is the Strada del Duomo, lead- 
ing to the cathedral (4 min. ; p. 55); the Strada Carbonara next di- 
verges on the same side to S. Giovamii a Carbonara (p. 54) and 
the Porta Capuana ; and the Corso Garibaldi farther on also leads 
to the right to the same gate (10 min. ; p. 53). 

On the left side of the Strada Foria we next reach the Botanic 
Garden, which was founded in 1809 and extended in 1818. It is 
open to the public daily, except from 12 to 2, and contains a fine 
collection of tropical plants. — Adjacent is the extensive poor- 
house, the Albergo de' Poveri, or Reclusorio (PI. F, G, 1, 2), begun 
by Charles III. in 1751 from a design by Fuga, and intended to 
contain four courts, still nearly half uncompleted. One side is ap- 
propriated to men, the other to women. In this establishment and 
its dependencies about 2000 persons are maintained. The city 
contains numerous other charitable institutions , about sixty in all, 
most of which are amply endowed. 

The continuation of the Toledo beyond the Museum is formed 
by the Stkada Nuoya di Capodimonte (PI. E, 3, 2, 1), which gra- 
dually ascends. From the beginning of this street , opposite the 
N. W. corner of the Museum , the Strada Salvator Rosa diverges 
to the left , ascending to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 89) 
and the hill of Posilipo (p. 92). We follow the Strada di Capo- 
dimonte , and in about 10 min. cross the Ponte delta Sanith, a 
viaduct constructed in 1809 across the quarter della Sanita which 
lies below. 

Descending to the left immediately beyond the bridge , and 
from the lower end of the street entering the winding Strada 
S. Gennaro de' Poveri to the right, we soon reach the large hospice 
or poor-house of that name, which contains several hundred in- 
mates. At the back of the building is the church of S. Gennaro 
(St. Januarius) , with the entrance to the extensive Catacombs 
(PI. 4 ; D, 2) of Naples, admission to which is obtained by apply- 
ing to the porter of the hospice (1 fr. for each person, and trilling 
fee to the attendant). 

The church of S. Gennaro dei Poveri, founded in the 8th cent, on the 
site of a chapel where St. Januarius was interred, is now completely 
modernised. The vestibule of the inner court is embellished with 
"Frescos from the history of the saint by Andrea da Salerno (?), unfor- 
tunately in bad preservation. The only entrance to the Catacombs is 
now at the back of this church. They consist of four main galleries, of 
which, however, two only are now connected by staircases and accessible 
to visitors, together with a long series of lateral passages and burial 
chambers (cubicula). Along the walls are excavated niches of three dif- 
ferent forms, ranged in rows one above another. A few of the chambers 
lie below the level of the galleries. The oldest part of the catacombs 
dates from the first century of our era. In point of architecture they far 

44 Route .'.'. NAPLES. Pal. di Capodimonte. 

surpass the Unman, though interior in every other respect. The two large 
ante-chambers were used for the religious services customary at an interment. 

Information as to the history and decorations of these early Christian 
burial-places will be found in the Handbook for Central Italy. The in- 
scriptions found here have been placed in the Museum. Among the 
paintings may be mentioned the pleasing decorations of the two ante- 
rooms, which recall the Pompeian style, a figure of the Oood Shepherd 
in the first gallery, the portraits on the tomb of Theotecnus (beginning 
of the 4th cent.) in the second gallery, and a figure of Christ of the 5th 
or Ctli cent, (but frequently retouched) in the so-called Basilica di 8. Gen- 
naro. The bones which Jill many of the chambers and corridors are 
generally those of victims of the plagues which ravaged Naples in the 
16th century. The Priapus column with the Hebrew inscription is a 
mediseval hoax. 

There is another (but unimportant) series of catacombs, of the 4th and 
5th cent., beneath the church of S. Maria della Sanita, below the bridge 
of that name. 

Beyond the Ponte della Sanita, the Strada di Capodimonte 
(passing Wital - Caflisch's brewery on the right ) leads in a few 
minutes to a circular space called the Tondo di Capodimonte 
(PI. E, 1; ordinary cab-fares thus far). The road now describes 
a long curve to the left and then divides, the N. branch leading 
to Secondigliano (p. 4:Y), and the S. branch to the entrance of the 
park of Capodimonte. Walkers ascend the steps, and at the top 
follow the road to the right. From the Tondo di Capodimonte to 
the palace is a walk of 7 minutes. — A short distance before the 
park-gates is the large main reservoir of the new waterworks (Acqua 
di Serino ; PI. E, 1 ; p. 34), with live basins hewn in the rock, and 
a capacity of 80,000 cubic meters. Permission to inspect the works 
is obtained at the office of the Naples "Waterworks Co., Str. Chia- 
tamone obis. 

The royal Palazzo di Capodimonte (PI. 14; permesso procured 
at the Pal.Reale; attendant 1 fr. ; porter '/ 2 fr. ), situated above 
the town to the N. on the eminence of that name, was begun 
in 1738 by Charles III., but not completed till 1834-39 in the 
reign of Ferdinand 11. The edifice was designed by Medrano, the 
architect of the Teatro S. Carlo. The *Gardens are partly laid out 
in the English style; the parts at the back of the palace are used 
as a pheasant-preserve, and are therefore closed during the breed- 
ing season in April and May. 

The palace contains the so-called royal Museo hi Capodimonte, a 
tolerably extensive, but not very valuable collection of pictures, chiefly 
by modern Neapolitan masters, and of modern sculptures, distributed 
throughout the different apartments. The names of the artists are attach- 
ed to the frames. The following arc worthy of mention: Backert, 
Wild- boar hunt in the Bosco di Persano ; Chase of wild fowl on the 
Lago Fusaro, by the same; Lemasle , Marriage of the Duchesse de 
lierry: Cnmuccini , Death of C;esar; Celenlano, Benvenuto Cellini at the 
Castel S. Angelo; Haye.z , Ulysses and Alcinous; a table with ancient 
mosaic from Pompeii; Marinelli, Cleopatra at her toilet ; Virginia Lebrun, 
Portraits of the Duchess of Parma and Maria Theresa: Angelica Kauf- 
mrinn, Ferdinand I. and his consort with their children; Podesta, Or- 
pheus; De Angelis, Death of Phaedra ; Querra, Ossian ; Postiglione, Andro- 
cles ; Berge, Kpaminondas at Mantinea; Carclli, Capture of the Porta Pia 
at Rome, Sept. 20, 1870; VanvUelli, View of l'iedigrotta. — The palace 

Observatory. NAPLES. .'J. Route 45 

also contains a collection of porcelain from the former manufactory of 
Capodimonte, including some exquisitely delicate and transparent spe- 
cimens of pdie tendre, coloured decorations in relief, and (later) imitations 
of the antique. The manufactory was founded in 1743 by Charles III., 
improved in 1771 by Ferdinand IV. , and suppressed by the French in 
1808. The valuable collection of armour (Armeria), formerly in the Pa- 
lazzo Reale, but now preserved here, contains the ancient accoutrements 
of kings Koger and Ferdinand I., of Alexander Farnese, and of Victor 
Amadeus of Savoy ; the sword presented by Ferdinand I. to the gallant 
Scanderbeg (d. 1467); also an ornamental cradle presented by the city of 
Naples to the present queen Margaret in 1869. 

Near Capodimonte are the villas *Meuricoffre (PL E, 1 ; generally 
open on presentation of the visitor's card), Ruffo, Avelli, and 
Forquet , commanding fine views in all directions. — To the W., 
opposite Capodimonte , stands the Villa Oallo (PL 1), 1), founded 
in 1809 by the Duca di Gallo. 

Following the Salita di Capodimonte , opposite the entrance to 
the park of Capodimonte , and after a few minutes turning to the 
left, we reach the Observatory (Osservatorio Reale, PL E, 1, 2), oc- 
cupying the summit of the hill. It is popularly called La Specola, 
or, after the villa of a Spanish marquis which once stood here, Mira- 
dois. The observatory was founded in 1812, and enlarged in 1820 
from plans by the celebrated Piazzi (d. 1826), under whom it attain- 
ed a European reputation. The present director, Comm. de Gasparis, 
has distinguished himself by the discovery of several planetoids. — 
On the . way to the observatory a path descends in steps past the 
church de' Miracoli to the Strada Foria (see p. 43). 

The visit to Capodimonte may be conveniently combined with 
either of the following walks or drives. On leaving the park we 
may turn to the left along the Strada de' Ponti Rossi (PL E, 1 ; the 
Ponti Rossi being the remains of an antique aqueduct), and return 
by Ottocalli (PI. G, 1) to the Tiro Provinciate (P. G, 1), where the 
tramway is reached. Or we may proceed still farther along the 
Strada di Secondigliano (PL E, 1), turn to the left skirting the 
Villa Gallo (see above), pass Lo Scudillo , outside the Muro Finan- 
ziere, where the reservoir for the higher parts of the town is situat- 
ed , to Li Cangiani (PL A, 2), and thence return through the 
Archetiello gate (PL B, 4) by Antignano (PL B, C, 4). This makes 
a drive of about 2 hrs. 

Farther off, at the base of Capodimonte, are visible the remains of 
the Aqua Julia., now called Ponti Rossi, the great aqueduct constructed 
by Augustus. One branch supplied the city of Naples, the other crossed 
the Vomero to the right, whence several ramifications diverged, some to 
the villas on the Posilipo, another by Monte Olibano'to Baise and Mise- 
num, where it terminated in the Piscina Mirabilis (p. 106). 

III. The Old Town. E. Quarters between the 
Toledo and the Harbour. 

Naples contains about three hundred Churches, most of which are 
devoid of interest. The older of them have been disligured by restora- 
tion in the degraded style of the 17th and 18th centuries, which appears 

46 Route 3. NAPLES. 8. Maria la Nuova. 

to have attained its height here. But, as they contain numerous mon- 
uments, important in the history of sculpture, and are rich in historical 
and political associations, some of them are well deserving of a visit. 
The most important are described in the following pages. They are gene- 
rally closed about noon, and not re-opened till evening. 

We begin our walk in the Strada Medina (PI. B, 5; p. 38), 
formerly adorned with the Fontana Medina, erected from the 
designs of Domenico d'Auria by the viceroy Duke of Medina Celi. 
This fountain , lately removed , has not yet been assigned another 
site. To the left, adjoining No. 49, is a railing enclosing a flight 
of steps which descend to the church of the — 

*Incoronata (PI. 56 ; open in the morning), erected in 1352 by 
Johanna I. to commemorate her coronation and marriage with her 
cousin Louis of Taranto, and made to include the old chapel of 
the Palais de Justice in which the marriage had been solemnised. 

This chapel contains admirable "Frescos, formerly attributed to Giotto, 
but probably by one of his pupils or imitators (much darkened and in- 
jured; best seen from a platform to the left near the entrance to the 
church; keys at the sacristy, 5-6 soldi). They represent the 'Seven Sacra- 
ments and the Church'. In the arch over the right window, on the right 
is the 'Triumph of the Church 1 , with portraits of King Robert and his 
son Charles, attired in purple, on the left the Extreme Unction. The next, 
arch to the right comprises; (1.) Baptism, (r.) Confirmation; then (1.) the 
Eucharist, and (r-) Confession; and on the other side, (1.) Ordination, (r.) 
Matrimony. The last refers to the marriage above mentioned, which did 
not take place till 1347, eleven years after Giotto's death. Two half- 
figures in 'Baptism', one of which is crowned with laurel, are said to re- 
present Petrarch and Laura, and in 'Matrimony' Dante's features are said to 
be recognisable. The Chapel of the Crucifix, at the end of the left aisle, 
also contains frescos in Giotto's style, ascribed to Gennaro di Cola, a 
pupil of Maestro Simone: to the left are represented the Coronation of 
Johanna I., her nuptials, and other events in her life; to the right St. 
Martin, St. George, battles, etc., all much damaged. 

The church contains numerous votive offerings for recovery from sick- 
ness and the perils of childbirth. 

Opposite the church is situated the Palazzo Fondi, designed 
by Luigi Vanvitelli, and containing a picture-gallery (shown by 
special permission of the prince only). Farther on in the Strada 
Medina is a statue of Fr. Sav. Mercaclante (d. 1870), the composer 
of several operas. 

At the end of the Strada Medina we enter the busy Strada 
S. Giuseppe to the left. After a few minutes' walk, a broad street 
to the right leads to the church of S. Maria la Nuova (PI. 61 ; 
I*'. 5), which is approached by a flight of steps. It was erected in 
1'2()8 by Giovanni da Pisa, and restored in 1599 by Agnolo Franco. 

Interior. The ceiling is adorned with frescos by Saniafede and 
Himone Papa the younger, and the dome with others by Corenzio fthe four 
Franciscan teachers S. Bonavcntura, Duns Scotus, Nicolaus de Lira, and 
Alexander ab Alexandro). 

In the 1st Chap, to the right, the 'Archangel Michael', formerly ascribed 
to Michael Angelo. 3rd Chap. : Crucifixion, Marco da Siena. In the Chap, 
del Crocelisso frescos by Corenzio. — The right transept contains the monu- 
ment of Galeazzo Sanseverino (d. 146TJ, with sculptures of the 15th 
century. In the opposite chapel is a beautiful crucifix in wood by Gio- 
vanni da Kola. — At the high-altar is a Madonna in wood by Tmnmaso 
de' Mefani. with saints by A. Borghetli. — The large Chapel to the left 

Monte Oliveto. NAPLES.. 3. Route. 47 

of the entrance to the church was erected in 1604 by Gonsalvo da Cor- 
dova, 'il gran capitano 1 , whose nephew Ferdinand placed on each side 
of the altar the monuments of his two most distinguished enemies : Pietro 
Navarro (who strangled himself when a prisoner in the Castello Nuovo) 
and Lautrec, a Frenchman , the general of Francis I. (who died of the 
plague in 1528, while besieging Naples). The monuments are attributed 
to Giov. da Nola or his pupils. The inscriptions, composed by Paolo Giovio, 
testify to the chivalrous sentiments of that period. 

The adjoining Monastery possesses two sets of Cloisters with tomb- 
stones, and is adorned with frescos by unknown masters. 

We now return and pursue our route along the Str. Giuseppe, 
of which the Strada Montoliveto forms the continuation. Where 
the latter expands into a square, on the right stands the PaUtzzo 
Gravina, now the General Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 23; E, 4), 
erected about 1500 by Ferdinando Orsini, Duca di Gravina, from 
designs by Gabriele d'Agnoto. This building, formerly a truly clas- 
sical edifice, has unfortunately been greatly disfigured by modern 
improvements , especially since its injury by Are during the revo- 
lution of 1848. 

Ascending from this point to the left , past a Fountain with 
a bronze statue of Charles II. (1663), we traverse the Piazza di 
Montoliveto to the church of Monte Oliveto (PI. 66 ; E, 4), erect- 
ed in 1414 by Guerello Origlia, the favourite of King Ladislaus, 
from designs by Andrea Ciccione. The church is a flat-roofed basi- 
lica without aisles, the favourite style of ecclesiastical architecture 
in the palmy days of Neapolitan art. It contains valuable sculp- 
tures ; the chapels are kept shut (sacristan tyg fr.). 

In the Vestibule, on the left, is the monument of General Giuseppe 
Trivulzio (d. 1757) ; on the right that of the celebrated architect Do- 
menico Fontana (d. 1607), who flourished in Rome under Sixtus V. — 
Cappella Piccolomini (1st on the left) : the 'Nativity, a relief by Donatella, 
or, according to others, by his pupil Antonio Rossellino. Above it, 'Danc- 
ing Angels by Rossellino. The 'Monument of Maria of Arragon (d. 1470), 
natural daughter of Ferdinand ,1. , wife of Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of 
Amain, by Rossellino, is a copy of the monument of the Cardinal of Por- 
tugal in S. Miniato's at Florence. Crucifixion, also by Rossellino. The 
Ascension, a picture by Silvestro de" 1 Buoni (ascribed by Sig. Frizzoni to 
the school of Pinturicchio). — Opposite the sacristy in the Coro dei 
Fhati, containing fine intarsia work by Giovanni da Verona (d. 1525), 
restored in 1840 by Minchiotti. — Cappella Mastrogiudici (1st on the 
right): Annunciation, a relief by Benedetto da Maiano. Several monuments, 
including that of 'Marinus Curialis Surrentinus Terrenova? comes', 1490, 
who founded this chapel. — 5th Chapel on the left: John the Baptist, by 
Giovanni da Nola. — The Chapel of the Madonna (adjoining the right 
transept) contains the tombs of Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, viceroy of 
Naples (d. 1532), and of Charles de Lannoy (d. 1527), general of Charles V. 
— The adjacent Chapel op the Holt Sepulchre contains a coarsely real- 
istic *Group in terracotta by Guido Mazzoni, surnamed Modanino (of Mn- 
dena; d. 1518), representing Christ in the Sepulchre, surrounded by six 
life-size figures in a kneeling posture , all portraits of contemporaries of 
the artist: Sannazaro as Joseph of Arimathsea, Pontanus as Nicodemus, 
Alphonso II. as John, beside him his son Ferdinand. — The Choir con- 
tains frescos by Simone Papa the Younger. The Sacristy , behind the 
choir, is adorned with frescos by Vasari. The monuments of Alphonso II. 
and Guerello Origlia are by Giovanni da Nola. 

The adjacent building, now occupied by public offices , was 

48 Route 3. NAPLES. Santa Chiara. 

formerly a Benedictine monastery, where the poet Tasso was 
kindly received when ill and in distress in 1588. The old chapter- 
house (shown to visitors by the sacristan) , in the early-Gothic 
style with disfigurements of later date , is remarkable for its fine 
effects of light and shade. The beautiful intarsia work on the 
choir-stalls is by Angelo da Verona. — The Via di Montoliveto 
Nuova leads hence to the Toledo (see p. 41). 

Returning to the point from which we started, we follow the 
Galata S. Trinita Maggiore to the Largo S. Trinita Maggiore 
(PI. K, 4), where a lofty Statue of the Madonna was erected in 1748 
in the tasteless style of the period. In this piazza is situated 
the church of Gesii Nuovo, or 8. Trinita, Maggiore (PL 50), 
in the form of a Greek cross, built in 1584, containing frescos 
by Snlimena (History of Heliodorus , over the portal), Stanzioni, 
Spagnoletto, and Corenzio, and overladen with marble and de- 
corations. A carpet-warehouse opposite the church, Largo S. Trinita 
Maggiore 12, contains the old refectory of the former monastery 
of S. Cliiara , where a fine , though damaged, *Fresco by Giotto 
and his pupils, representing the Miracle of the Loaves, is still pre- 
served (not very accessible, but admission readily granted, 1 / 2 fr.). 

Beyond the church of Gesii we reach the Strada S. Trinita 
Maggiore, one of the busiest streets crossing the Toledo (p. 
41), and turning immediately to the right we pass through a gate 
to *Santa Chiara (PL 42; E, 4), originally erected by Robert the 
Wise in 1310, but almost entirely rebuilt by Masuccio the Young - 
er{'!) in 1318, and richly but tastelessly decorated in 1752. At 
the same time Uiotto's frescos were whitewashed. The church 
contains handsome Gothic monuments of the Anjou dynasty, and 
other sculptures. 

The * Interior, 92 yds. long and 35 yds. wide, is lofty and handsome, 
resembling a magnificent hall. To the left of the principal entrance is 
the monument of Onofrio di Penna, secretary of King Ladislaus (d. 1322), 
with a relief of the Madonna and hermits by Baboccio , converted into an 
altar. Above are a Madonna enthroned and the Trinity, by Francesco, 
son of Maestro Simone (about 1300). — In front of the organ, above, arc 
tasteful reliefs from the life of St. Catharine, 14th cent., executed on a 
dark ground and resembling cameos. — Of the principal paintings on the 
ceiling, the first , the (;uecn of Slieba, and the second, David playing on 
the harp, are by Seb. Conca; the third, David sacrificing, by Bonilo; the 
fourth, S. Clara putting the Saracens to flight, by Francesco di Xura. 
The last-named master also painted the high -altar-piece (the Sacrament) 
and the picture over the principal entrance (King Robert inspecting the 
church when building). 

The second chapel on the left contains two sarcophagi: on the right 
is the tomb of Gabriel Adorno (d. 1572), an admiral under the Emperor 
Charles V.; on the left a tomb of the 14th eentury. — J'.y the 3rd pillar 
to the left is the altar of the Madonna delle Grazie, with a fresco almost 
concealed by frippery, attributed to Giotto. 

"Near the side-door which leads out of the church on the left side is 
the small but graceful monument, by Qiov. da Nola, of Antonia (Jaudino, 
who died in 15311 a I. the age of 14, on the day appointed for her marriage, 
with a beautiful epitaph by the poet Anton ins Epicurns (d. 1555). The next 
chapel contain* two tombstones of Ihe I 'Mb century. — The Cai-I'km.a 

S. Domenico. NAPLES, :t. Route. 49 

Sanfeuck, adjoining the pulpit, which is borne by lions, is adorned with 
reliefs of the 13th cent, and contains a Crucifixion by Lanfranco, and an 
ancient sarcophagus with figures of Protesilaus and Laodamia which forms 
the tomb of Cesare Sanfelice, Duca di Rodi (d. 1632). — The following 
Cappella Longobardi de la Cruz Ahedo contains on the left side a mon- 
ument of 1529, and on the right a similar one of 1853. 

At the back of the high-altar is the magnificent "Monument of Robert 
the Wise (d. 1343), 42 ft. in height, executed by Masuccio the Younger. The 
king is represented in a recumbent posture, in the garb of a Franciscan, 
on a sarcophagus embellished with reliefs and supported by saints. In 
a niche above he appears again, seated on his throne. At the top is the 
Madonna between 8S. Francis and Clara. The inscription, 'Cernite 
Robertum regem virtute refertum' is ascribed to Petrarch. — In the 
adjacent N. Transept is the monument of his second daughter Mary, 
sister of Johanna I. , empress of Constantinople and Duchess of Durazzo, 
attired in her imperial robes. By the wall to the left, the tomb of Agnese 
and Clementia, the two daughters of the empress, the former having also 
been the consort of a titular emperor of Constantinople , Giacomo del 
Balzo, Prince of Taranto. In the left lateral wall , the tomb of Mary, 
infant daughter of Charles the Illustrious, who died in 1344. Here also is 
the fine tomb of Paolina Ranieri, the faithful friend of Giacomo Leopardi, 
with a life-size figure of the deceased, by Car. Solari (1878). — In the S. 
Transept, adjoining the monument of Robert the Wise , is that of his 
eldest son Charles, Duke of Calabria, who died in 1328, before his father, 
also by Masuccio the Younger. Farther on, to the right, is the monument 
of Mary of Valois, his queen, erroneously said to be that of her daughter 
Johanna I. — The Chapel adjoining the S. transept on the right is the burial- 
chapel of the Bourhons, in which six children of Charles III are interred. 

The handsome Clock-Tower (il Campanile) of S. Chiara was 
formerly attributed to Masuccio the Younger or to his pupil Giacomo 
de Sanctis (14th cent.), and hence was long considered to prove 
that Naples was one of the heralds of the Renaissance. In reality 
it was not built till after 1600. 

Farther on in the Str. S. Trinita, Maggiore, we soon reach, on the 
left, the Largo S. Domenico (PI. E, F, 4), containing the palaces 
of (to the right) Casacalenda, Corigliano, and (to the left, beyond 
the square) S. Severo, and Caviati, and adorned with a tasteless 
Obelisk, surmounted by a bronze statue of the saint, executed by 
Vaccaro in 1737 from a design by Fansaga. The stairs to the left 
lead to a side-entrance of the church of S. Domenico, the principal 
entrance of which in the court of the Pretura, Vico S. Domenico, is 
generally closed. 

*S. Domenico Maggiore (PI. 45; open 7-11 a.m. only), erected 
by Charles II. in 1289 in the Gothic style from the design of Masuccio 
the Elder (?), is one of the finest churches in Naples, notwithstand- 
ing the subsequent alterations it has undergone (the last in 1850- 
53). The church is 83 yds. long, 36 yds. wide, and 84 ft. high. 
It contains twenty-seven chapels and twelve altars, and presents an 
imposing appearance with its handsome columns and rich gilding, 
but the flat ceiling of the 17th cent, does not harmonise well 
with the rest of the edifice. The most distinguished families of 
Naples have for centuries possessed chapels here, with numerous 
monuments , which are as important examples of early Renais- 
sance sculpture as those in S. Chiara are of Gothic art. 

Baedeker. Italy III. 9th Kditinn 4 

50 Route :i. NAPLES. S. Domenico. 

The 1st Chapel to the right (wall of the entrance), that of the Ba- 
lm to, formerly of the Carafa family, contains an altar-piece (Madonna 
with SS. Martin and Dominicus and several of the Carafas) hy Andrea 
da Salerno, freely repainted; also the rococo monument of General Filippo 
Saluzzo (d. 1852), and the chaste and simple monument of Galeotto Carafa 
(d. 1513) with medallion. — 2nd Chap. : altar-piece by Agnolo Franco ; 
monument of Bishop Bartolommeo Brancaccio (d. 1341). — 3rd Chap. : the 
badly preserved frescos of this chapel , which also belongs to the Bran- 
caccio family, represent the Crucifixion, Supper at Emmaus, Resurrection, 
Mary Magdalene, and John the Baptist, by Agnolo Franco. — 4th Chap., 
that of the Capece : Crucifixion by Girolamo Capece. 

The 'Cappella del Crocefisso (the 7th) contains handsome monu- 
ments of the 15th century. The altar is covered with Florentine mosaic 
designed by Cosimo Fansaga. On the lower part of the altar is a relief of the 
"Crucifix by Tommaso de^ Stefani, which according to tradition, thus addressed 
Thomas Aquinas : 'Bene scripsisti de me, Thoma : quam ergo mercedem 
reeipies? 1 To which the saint replied: 'Non aliam nisi te. 1 Pictures 
on each side of the altar : on the right Bearing the Cross , on the left 
Descent from the Cross by an imitator of the Flemish style. To the left of 
the altar the "'Monument of Francesco Carafa (d. 1470) by Agnello del Fiore ; 
on the opposite side another by the same master, completed by Giovanni 
da Sola. The small side-chapel contains the tomb of Ettore Carafa, 
Conte di Ruvo (d. 1511), with martial emblems and arabesques. The 
next chapel on the left contains the Madonna della Eosa, ascribed to 
Maestro Simone. On the opposite side is the beautiful 'Monument of 
Mariano d'Alagni, Count Bucchianico, and his wife Catarinella Ursino (d. 
1447), by Agnello del Fiore. Adjacent to it is the monument of Niccolo 
di Sangro, Principe di Fondi, by Domenico d'Auria. — At the entrance to 
the sacristy, monuments of members of the family of Thomas Aquinas. 

The "Sacristy has a ceiling-painting by Solimena, and at the altar 
an Annunciation , attributed to Andrea da Salerno. Around the walls, 
above, are forty-five large wooden sarcophagi with scarlet covers, ten of 
which contain the remains of princes of the house of Arragon. Among these 
are Ferdinand I. (d. 1494); Ferdinand II. (>1. 1496); his aunt, Queen 
Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand I. (d. 1518); Isabella (d. 1524), daughter 
of AlphonsoII. and wife of the Duke of Milan, etc. Also the coffin of Fernando 
Francesco d'Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, the hero of Ravenna and Pavia, 
who died of his wounds at Milan in 1525. The inscription is by Ariosto. 
Above the tomb are suspended his portrait, a banner, and a sword. His 
wife was the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, who after his death sang his 
praises in the island of Ischia (p. 112). 

In the 8. Transept the chapel of St. Hyacinth. Adjoining it is the 
'Monument of GaleazzoPandone (d. 1514) by Giovanni da Nola. — From the S. 
transept a door leads into a portion of the older church, which also con- 
tains some interesting monuments, particularly that of the Rota family, 
by Giovanni da Nola. Here also is the side-entrance mentioned at p. 49. 

The High Altar, adorned with Florentine mosaic, is by Fansaga, 1652. 

In the N. Transept, above the chapel of the Pignatelli, are the monu- 
ments of Giovanni di Durazzo (d. 1323) and Filippo di Taranto (d. 1335), 
sons of Charles II., with a long inscription in leonine verse. 

N. Aisle. The 8th Chapel (S. Maria della Neve) contains above 
the altar a beautiful "Haut-relief with a statue of the Virgin, attended by 
St. Matthew and St. John, the best work of Giovanni da Nola, executed in 
1536. Here is also the monument of the poet Giambattista Marini of Naples 
(d. 1625), well known for his bombastic style, with a bust by Bartolommeo 
Viscontini. — 7th Chapel, of the Ruffn Bagnara family: Martyrdom of 
St. Catherine, by Leonardo da Pisloja; tombs of Leonardo TomacelJi (d. 1529) 
and of Cardinal' Fabricio Ruft'o (d. 1829) who acted a prominent part in 
the events of 1799. — 6th Chapel: tombs of the Carafa. — 5th Chapel: of 
the Andrea. — 4th Chapel: tombs of the l!ota family, with a "Statue of 
John the Baptist by Giovanni da Nola, as a monument to the poet Bernar- 
dino Rota (d. 1575), with figures of the Arno and the Tiber by Domenico 
d'Auria 1.1000). — 3rd Chapel, to the left: Martyrdom of St. John by 

Cappella Sansevero. NAPLES. 3. Route. 51 

•Scipione Gaetano; tomb of Antonio Carafa, surnamed Malizia (d. 1438). — 
2nd Chapel, in the bad taste of the 17th cent. : the miracle-working Ma- 
donna di S. Andrea. — 1st Chapel, to the left, by the entrance (S. Stefano): 
Christ crowning Joseph, by Luca Giordano : on the lateral walls an Adora- 
tion of the Magi, by a Flemish master; Holy Family, ascribed to Andrea 
da Salerno. 

In the adjacent monastery the celebrated Thomas Aquinas lived in 1272 
as professor of philosophy at the university which was then founded, 
and his lectures were attended by men of the highest rank, and even the 
king himself. His cell , now a chapel , and his lecture-room still exist. 
The monastery is now occupied by various public offices. The Accademia 
Pontaniana, founded in 1471 by the learned Giovanni Pontano , also 
meets here. 

Ascending the Via Mezzocannona, which leads to the S. from 
S. Domenico, and then following the third cross-street to the right, 
we reach the Piazza di S. Giovanni Maggiore, in which rises the 
church of S. Giovanni Maggiore (PI. F, 4), adorned with sculptures 
of the 16th century. The adjacent chapel of S. Giovanni de 1 Pap- 
pacoda possesses a handsome Gothic portal dating from 1415. 

The Cappella Sansevero lies to the N.E. of S. Domenico. 
Ascending to the right past S. Domenico, and taking the first 
lane to the right, we reach the Calata di S. Severo, the first 
lane on the left, at the beginning of which, No. 15, is the small 
church of S. Maria delta Pietit de' Sangri, commonly called La 
Cappella Sansevero (PI. 74 ; E, 4 ; the keys at a shop opposite ; 
fee 1/2 fr-)> erected in 1590 by Francesco di Sangro to serve as a 
chapel for the adjacent Palazzo Sansevero, extended in 1613 by 
Alessandro di Sangro, Patriarch of Alexandria and Archbishop of 
Benevento, as a burial-place for the Sangro family, and in 1759 
lavishly decorated with gold and sculpture by Raimondo di Sangro, 
Principe di Sansevero. There is no building in Naples in which 
such bad taste is displayed as in this chapel with its exaggerated 
magnificence, and unnatural and laboured allegories. It does not 
fail, however, to attract gaping admirers, and is certainly remarkable 
for great skill of workmanship. 

The principal of these allegories, which was executed by Francesco 
Queirolo of Genoa, is the 'Man in the Net', from which with the 
aid of reason (a crowned genius) he disentangles himself, whence 
it is called il disinganno. It contains an allusion to Antonio di Sangro, 
who renounced the world and became a monk, after having lost his beloved 
wife Cecilia Gaetani. The latter is represented as Pudicitia, nude, but 
slightly veiled, the work of Antonio Conradini of Venice (d. 1752). — The 
altar-piece is a Descent from the Cross, by Francesco Celebrano of Naples. — 
As another instance of extraordinary perversion of taste may be mentioned 
the figure of Christ enveloped in a winding sheet by Giuseppe Sammartino 
(1753) , laid out in a chapel fitted up for the purpose. 

From this point (or by S. Domenico to the right) we may as- 
cend the side-street leading to the Via de' Tribunali (p. 55), where 
the cathedral and other important churches are situated. 

We now return to the Largo S. Domenico (p. 49), in order 
to pursue our route along the Str. S. Trinita Maggiore, which is 
continued by the Str. Nilo and by the Str. S. Biagio de' Librai 


52 Route 3. NAPLES. SS. Severino e *wo. 

(p. 53) farther on. Immediately to the right is S. Angelo a Nilo 
(PI. 33 ; F, 4), erected in 1385 ; to the right of the high-altar is the 
*Monument of the founder Cardinal Branoacci (d. 1428), by Dona- 
tello and Miehelozzo , who have here blended the Gothic mon- 
umental character with the new style of the Renaissance. 

The Strada Salvatore (the second street from the Largo 
S. Domenico to the right) descends hence to the right to the 
not far distant — 

University (PI. 32; F, 4 ; Regia Universita degli Studf), found- 
ed in 1224 by the Emp. Frederick II., reconstituted in 1780 and 
removed to the Jesuits' College. It is one of the most ancient 
in Europe , and possesses five faculties , about 100 professorial 
chairs , a library , and natural history collections of which the 
mineralogical is the most valuable. It is attended by between 3000 
and 4000 students. The library, on the upper floor, to the right, 
is open from 9 to 3 daily (librarian Comm. Minervini). The Court 
contains a few busts and the statues of Pietro della Vigna, chan- 
cellor of Frederick II., Thomas Aquinas, G. B. Vico, and Giordano 
Bruno, erected in 1863. 

Leaving the university and proceeding in a straight direction, 
we reach the richly decorated church of SS. Severinoe Sosio (PL 73 ; 
F, 4), in the Piazza S. Marcellino, built by Mormandi in 1490. 

The roof is adorned with frescos by Corenzio. who is interred here, 
by the entrance to the sacristy. The choir-stalls, dating from the end of 
the 15th cent., are beautifully carved. Adjoining the choir to the right is 
the chapel of the Sanseverini, containing three monuments of three bro- 
thers, who were poisoned by their uncle in 1516, works of Giovanni da 
Nola. In a chapel near the choir, to the right, is the tomb of the 
historian Carlo Troya (d. 1858). In the N. transept are the monuments of 
Admiral Vincenzo Carafa (d. 1611) and the Duca Francesco de Marmilis 
(d. 1649). The N. aisle contains an altar-piece by Andrea da Salerno, in 
six sections, representing the Madonna with St. Justina and John the 
Baptist. By the entrance to the sacristy, in the last chapel of the right 
transept, the !! Tomb of a child, Andrea Bonifacio, ascribed to Giov. da 
Xola ; opposite to it is that of Giambattista Cicara , by the same master, 
both with inscriptions by Sannazaro. 

The monastery connected with this church has since 1818 been 
the depository of the Archives of the kingdom, which are among 
the most valuable in the world. Frescos and paintings by Corenzio 
adorn the interior. The 40,000 parchment MSS. (the oldest of 
which are in Greek) date from 703 onwards , and include the 
Norman, Hohenstaufen , Anjou , Arragonian , and Spanish periods. 
The documents of the Anjou period, 380,000 in number, form no 
fewer than 378 volumes. (Permission to inspect them must be 
obtained from the director of the Archives, the historian Comm. 
Bart. Capasso.) — The entrance to the cloisters is by a gateway 
to the right in the street ascending to the left of the-church. We 
then traverse the arcades of the first two courts, and in the next 
we shall find the custodian between 10 and 3 o J clock P/ 2 -l fr.). 
The walls of the cloisters are adorned with nineteen * Frescos, 

Castel Capuano. NAPLES. 3. Route. 53 

unfortunately much damaged and of late badly restored, represent- 
ing scenes from the life of St. Benedict. They are generally ascribed 
to Zingaro and his two supposed pupils, Donzelli and Simone Papa, 
but Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign them to a painter of 
Umhro-Florentine origin. The best of the series is that in grisaille 
representing the youthful saint on his way to Rome with his father 
and nurse. The others were probably carried out by assistants. 
(Best light in the forenoon.) In the open space in the centre is a 
fine plane-tree which is said to have been planted by St. Benedict, 
and on which a fig-tree is grafted. 

Returning to the principal street (p. 51), the continuation 
of which is called the Strada !■>. Biagio de' Librai, we pass 
the Monte di Pieta , or public loan-establishment, on the right, 
and several churches and palaces of little importance. After a walk 
of 5 min. we observe the broad Strada del Duomo diverging to the 
left (see p. 57), and leading to the Via de' Tribunali, which leads 
straight to the Castel Capuano mentioned below. 

We continue to follow the Str. S. Biagio, which after 5 min. 
divides : to the right the Str. S. Egeziaca a Forcella leads to the Porta 
Nolana (p. 41); to the left is the Str. dell' Annunziata with the 
Church of the Annunziata (PI. 35), erected in 1757-82 by L. 
Vanvitelli (frescos by Corenzio; tomb of the notorious Queen 
Johanna II.). Adjoining is the large Casadei Trovatelli, or Found- 
lings' Home, shewn on application to the porter. It is the popular 
custom to visit this Home on April 24th and 25th. — The Str. 
dell' Annunziata is continued by the Str. Maddalena, which leads 
us to the piazza immediately within the Porta Capuana. On our 
right here is the gate (see below), opposite us is the church of S. 
Caterina a Formello, with a dome constructed in 1523, and on 
our left is the — 

Castel Capuano (PI. F, G, 3), founded by William I., and 
completed by Frederick II. in 1231 from a design by Fuccio, 
once the principal residence of the Hohenstaufen kings, and occa- 
sionally that of the Anjous. In 1540 Don Pedro de Toledo (p. 41) 
transferred the different courts of justice to this palace, where they 
remain to this day. The building is therefore commonly known 
as I Tribunali. A visit to some of these courts affords the tra- 
veller a good opportunity of becoming acquainted with the Nea- 
politan national character. The prison of La Vicaria, of evil re- 
pute, was formerly below the criminal court. The chief entrance 
is on the other side, opposite the Via de' Tribunali (p. 55). 

The *Porta Capuana, built by Ferdinand I. of Arragon about 
1484, was designed by the Florentine Oiuliano da Maiano, and is 
one of the finest Renaissance gateways in existence. On the entry 
of Charles V. in 1535 it was restored and decorated with sculptures 
on the outside by Giovanni da Nola. Like most of the other gate- 
ways at Naples, it is flanked by two handsome round towers. 

NAPLES. S. Giovanni a Carbonara. 

Past the outside of this gate runs the Corso Garibaldi, which 
extends from the sea to the Strada Foria (see p. 43). Near the 
gate is the station of the branch-line to Nola-Baiano (PL G, 3 ; 
P- 179). 

A little way beyond the Porta Capuana are situated the 
Cemeteries, the newest of which, the *Campo Santo Nuovo 
(PI. I, 1), l 1 / 2 M. from the gate, deserves a visit. (One-horse 
carr. thither, see p. 24, from the gate and back, 2 fr.) The lower 
entrance may be reached by the tramway (p. 24) to Poggio Reale; 
the main entrance is at the top of the hill. It was laid out by 
the French , and extended in 1837 at the time of the cholera. 
The situation is very beautiful, commanding delightful *Views of 
Naples, the sea, and the luxuriant district towards Mt. Vesuvius, 
on which the black lava stream which destroyed S. Sebastiano in 
J 872 is distinctly recognisable. The cemetery contains compara- 
tively few monuments of individuals, but a great many erected by 
guilds and societies, most of which are in the form of chapels with 
niches resembling the Roman columbaria for the reception of 
the dead. Some of them present an imposing appearance , but 
few display much taste. — The cemetery presents a most animated 
and interesting spectacle on All Souls' Day (2nd Nov.). 

The old cemetery [Campo Santo Vecchio ; PL H, 1) is now used 
for the interment of the poor only, for which two extensive courts 
with 366 vaults, one for every day in the year, are set apart. — 
Close by is the cypress-clad Cholera Cemetery, where in 1836-37 
about 18,000, and in 1884 7000 victims of this terrible epidemic 
were buried. 

The well-kept Protestant Cemetery [Cimitero Protestante ; 
PL G, 2) lies on the road to the Campo Santo Vecchio, about 
i l i M. from the Porta Capuana. (Visitors knock at the gate, 
Ya fr-) A very large proportion of the names observed here are 
English, German, and American. — In the neighbourhood, in the 
Strada Vecchia di Poggio Reale (PI. H, 2), is the small Jewish 

Starting from the piazza within the Porta Capuana , and 
passing in front of the dome-covered church of S. Caterina, we 
now follow the Strada Carbonara, which leads in 8 min. to 
the Strada Foria (p. 43). Above us, on the right, at the point 
where the street narrows, rises the church of — 

*S. Giovanni a Carbonara (PL 54; F, 3; side-entrance reached 
by ascending the stairs and turning to the right), erected in 1344 
from a design of Mnmecio the Younger ('?), and enlarged by King 

Tin' ' Mumimml of King Lndislmis (d. 1414), e.msi dered the master- 
piece nl' Andrea Cirrivui:, creek il liy Johanna II., I li< kind's sister-, stands at 

Cathedral. NAPLES* 3. Route. 55 

the back of the high-altar, and is of very imposing general effect, as well 
as carefully executed in the details. Above is the equestrian statue of 
Ladislaus ; in a recess below, a sarcophagus with the king in a recumbent 
posture, receiving the benediction of a bishop (in reference to the removal 
of the excommunication under which the king lay at his death); under- 
neath , Ladislaus and Johanna ; and the whole is supported by statues 
which represent the virtues of the deceased. The altar was restored in 1746. 

The Chapel del Sole, behind this monument, contains the "Tomb of 
the Grand Seneschal Sergianni Caracciolo , the favourite of Johanna II., 
murdered in 1432, also by Ciccione. It was erected by his son Trojano, 
and reveals traces of the dawn of the Renaissance. Inscription by Lorenzo 
Valla. The frescos', scenes from the life of Mary, are by Leonardo di 
Bisuccio of Milan (d. about 1450), one of the last pupils of Giotto. — The 
Chapel of the Cakaccioli Eossi, to the left of the high-altar, a circular 
temple erected and ornamented in 1516-57 from the designs of Oirolamo 
Santacroce, contains statues by Oiov. da Nola, Oirol. Santacroce , and 
Pietro delta Plata (altar-reliefs), and the monuments of Galeazzo to the left, 
and Colantonio Caracciolo opposite, by Scilla and Dom. d'Auria respectively. 
— The Sacristy contains fifteen scenes from the history of Christ by 
Vasari, 1546. — Adjoining the entrance to the sacristy from the church 
is a Madonna delle Grazie, a handsome statue executed in 1571. — On 
the same side, farther on, is a large altar in the form of a chapel, called 
the "Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, with good Renaissance sculptures 
of the 15th century, renewed in 1619 by Al. Mirabollo. — The above list- 
by no means exhausts the interesting monuments in the church. 

The Congregazione di S. Monica, with a separate entrance at the top 
of the flight of steps leading to the church, contains the monument of 
Prince Ferdinando di Sanseverino by Andreas de Florentia. 

Near S. Giovanni a Carbonara was once the arena for gladiator- 
combats, of which, in the time of Johanna I. and King Andreas, 
Petrarch was a horror-stricken spectator. 

We now return to the Castel Capuano (p. 53). 

From the Piazza de' Tribunali, opposite the principal entrance 
to the Castel Capuano, the busy ViA de' Tribunali (PL F, E, 
3, 4) leads in a nearly W. direction towards the Toledo. Follow- 
ing this street, we pass (on the left) the Gothic entrance of the 
Ospedale della Pace, and soon reach the small piazza of <S. Oennaro 
on the right, the column in which was erected after the appalling 
eruption of "Vesuvius in 1631 (p. 121) to commemorate the suc- 
cour rendered by St. Januarius. On the summit is the bronze 
figure of the saint by Finelli. 

We next ascend the flight of steps to the cathedral (principal 
entrance in the new Via del Duomo, see p. 57). 

The *Cathedral (PI. 46 ; F, 3), which is dedicated to St. Janua- 
rius (S. Gennaro), was begun in 1272 by Charles I. of Anjou on 
the site of a temple of Neptune, continued by Charles II. after 1294, 
and completed by Robert, grandson of the founder, in 1314. It is 
in the French-Gothic style, with lofty towers and pointed arches. 
The principal facade, the portal of which dates from 1407, is at 
present undergoing restoration, and is being provided with towers. 
In 1456 the church was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, but 
was afterwards rebuilt by Alphonso I. During the 17th and 18th 

56 Route .3. NAPLES. Cathedral. 

centuries it underwent frequent alterations and restorations, but it 
still retains many of its original characteristics. The edifice is a 
basilica, the aisles of which have a Gothic vaulting. 

The ceiling-paintings of the Nave are by Santafede (the square ones) and 
i'incenzo da Forli (oval); the frescos on the upper part of the lateral walls 
are by Luca Giordano and his pupils. .St. Cyril and St. Chrysostom are by 
Solimena. Over the principal entrance are the tombs of (1.) Charles I. of 
Anjou and (r.) Charles M artel, King of Hungary, eldest son of Charles II. 
and his wife dementia, a daughter of Rudolph of Hapshurg, erected by the 
viceroy Olivarez in 1599. Above the side-doors are paintings by Vautri. 
(11346), representing David playing the harp, and the patron-saints of 
Naples; the heads are portraits (if Pope Paul III. and other members of 
the Farnese family. 

In the S. Aisle is the Chapel of St. Januarius (the 3rd), commonly 
known as the Cajipella del Tesoro , adorned with a marble facade and 
magnificent large brazen doors. On the right and left are two lofty 
columns of greenish marble, and above is the inscription: 'Divo Janua- 
rio. e fame hello, peste, ac Vesuvi igne miri ope sanguinis erepta Nea- 
polis, civi patrono vindici.' The chapel was erected in consequence of a 
vow made during the plague in 1527. The work was begun in 1608 and com- 
pleted in 1637 at a cost of a million ducats (about 225,000 I.). The best 
time to see it is shortly before 12, the hour when the church closes. 

The interior of the chapel, which is in the form of a Greek cross, is 
richly decorated with gold and marble, and contains eight altars, forty-two 
columns of broccatello, magnificent doors, five oil-paintings on copper by 
Domcniciiino, and several frescos from the life of St. Januarius. The first 
four representations, however, alone (tomb of the saint ; his martyrdom ; re- 
suscitation of a youth ; sick persons healed by oil from a lamp which had 
hung before the tomb of the saint) are entirely by Domenichino, who along 
with Guido Rent and Lai/franco, intimidated by the threats of their jealous 
Neapolitan rivals, Spagnoletto and Corenzio , abandoned the task of paint- 
ing the dome. — The Sacristy of the Tesoro contains pictures by Sian- 
zioni and Luca Giordano; a costly collection of ecclesiastical vestments 
and sacred vessels ; the silver bust of St. Januarius, executed for Charles II. 
in 1306; forty-five other busts in silver of the patron saints of the city, 
and other valuable relics. — In the tabernacle of the high-altar, which is 
adorned with a carefully covered relief in silver representing the arrival 
of the saint's remains, are preserved two vessels containing the Blood 
of St. Januarius, Bishop of Benevento , who suffered martyrdom under 
Diocletian in 305 (comp. p. 102). The liquefaction of the blood, which 
according to the legend took place for the first time when the body was 
brought to Naples by Bishop St. Severus in the time of Constantine , is 
the occasion of the greatest festival of Naples and takes place three times 
annually during several successive days (1st Saturday in May, in the 
evening, 19th Sept., and 16th Dec, between 9 and 10 a. m.). According 
as the liquefaction is rapid or slow it is considered a good or evil omen 
for the ensuing year. Travellers by applying to the Sagrestano may often 
secure a good place near the altar during the solemnity. 

In the S. aisle, farther on, is the Cappella Beancia (the 5th), which 
contains the handsome tomb of Cardinal Carbone (d. 1405) by Ant. Ba- 
hama. — In the S. Transept is the chapel of the Caraccinli, with the 
monument of Cardinal Bernardino Caraccioli (d. 1268). 

At the back of the transept, to the right, is the entrance to the 
Cappella Minutoli (open 6-8 a. m. only), in the Gothic style, constructed 
by Mamtrrio the Eldertl), the upper part adorned with paintings by Tom- 
ntaso degli Stefani in the 13th cent, (frequently retouched), the lower part 
by an unknown master ; monument of Card. Arrigo Minutoli (d. 1301), and 
oilier tombs of the 14th and 15th cent.; triptych of the Trinity on the 
altar, a good early Sienese work. — The adjoining Cappella Tocca con- 
tains the tomb of St. Asprcnas, one of the first bishops of Naples. 

I'.eneatli the high-altar (staircase to the right, with brazen doors) is 
the richly decorated (JoN'fkssio, or Shrine of St. .lanuai-ius, with ancient 

Sta. Restituta. NAPLES, 3. Route. 57 

columns and beautiful marble covering, containing the tomb of the saint. 
The tasteful ornamentation, by Tomaso Malvito of Como (1504), should be 
remarked. Facing the shrine , to the left, is the kneeling figure of Car- 
dinal Oliviero Carafa , who erected the chapel in 1492-1506, probably also 
by Malvito. — Fresco on the ceiling of the choir by Domenichino, the 
Adoration of the Angels. 

The Gothic chapel of the Capece Galeota, to the left of the high-altar, 
contains a painting of Christ between St. Januarius and St. Athanasius, 
15th century. 

In the N. Transept, by the door of the sacristy, are the tombs 
of (r.) : Innocent IV. (d. 1254 at Naples) , erected by the Archbishop 
Umberto di Montorio in 1318, restored in the 16th cent.; Andreas, 
King of Hungary, who was murdered by his queen Johanna I. at Aversa, 
as the inscription records : 'Andrese Caroli Uberti Pannonise regis f. 
Neapolitanorum regi Joannes uxoris dolo laqueo necato Ursi Minutili pietate 
hie recondite' ; (1.): Pope Innocent XII. (Pignatelli of Naples; d. 1696). 

In the N. Aisle, near the transept, is the Cappella de' Seripandi, 
adorned with an "Assumption of the Virgin, by Pietro Perugino (1460). — 
We next reach the entrance to Santa Restituta (see below). — In the 
2nd chapel: Entombment, a relief by Giovanni da Sola; above it 
St. Thomas , by Marco da Siena. — In the vicinity (in the nave) is the 
Font, an ancient basin of green basalt, with Bacchanalian thyrsi and masks. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the left, and entered from it by a door 
in the left aisle (when closed, fee >/« f'Oi is the church of 'Santa Resti- 
tuta (PI. 71 ; F, 3), a basilica with pointed arches, occupying the site of a 
temple of Apollo, to which it is probably indebted for the ancient 
Corinthian columns in the nave. This was the cathedral of Naples prim- 
to the erection of the larger church. 

The foundation, erroneously attributed to Constantine the Great, dates 
from the 7th century. When the cathedral was built this church was 
shortened, and in the 17th cent, it was restored. In the Chapel S. Maria 
del Principio, at the farther extremity, to the left, is an ancient "Mosaic 
of the Virgin with St. Januarius and Sta. Restituta, restored in 1322, 
and considered the earliest in Naples; whence the name 'del Principio'. 
On the lateral walls two remarkable bas-reliefs from an altar-screen, sup- 
posed to date from the 8th cent., each in fifteen compartments ; to the left the 
history of Joseph ; to the right above, St. Januarius, then Samson ; beneath, 
St. George. — At the back of the high-altar the Virgin with St. Michael 
and Sta. Restituta , by Silvestro Buono (?), a good work of a mixed Um- 
brian and Neapolitan style (forged inscription; painted after 1500). — 
The small dome of the chapel S. Giovanni in Fonle (closed) to the right, 
said to have been erected by Constantine in 333, formerly the baptistery 
of the church , is adorned with old, but frequently restored mosaics of 
Christ, the Virgin, etc. — The altar-piece , the Baptism of Christ, by Sil- 
vestro Buono (?). — On the ceiling of the nave a fresco by Luca Giordano: 
the body of Sta. Restituta being conveyed by angels in a boat to Ischia. 

The principal facade of the cathedral (portal, see p. 55), which 
is approached by a flight of steps, looks towards the new and broad 
Straua del Duomo (PI. F, 3), a street diverging from the Strada 
Foria (p. 43) and running nearly parallel with the Toledo. Many 
of the densely packed houses of the old town were demolished to 
make way for this street, and it is to be extended down to the sea. 
Adjoining the cathedral , on the right as we leave the church , is 
the extensive Archiepiscopal Palace (PL 13 ; F, 3), erected in the 
13th cent., and entirely restored by Cardinal Filomarino in 1647. 
The principal facade looks to the Piazza Donna Regina. 

In the Str. Anticaglia (PI. F, 3) are the remains of an ancient 
Theatre, in which the emperor Nero appeared as an actor, once 
apparently of considerable extent, of which two arches still exist. 

58 Route :i. NAPLES. .<?. Lorenzo. 

On the right in the Via del Duomo is the Palazzo Cuomo (PL 
F, 4), rehuilt by Prince Satriano, and opened in 1887 as the 
'Museo Civico Gaetano Filangieri , Principe di Satriano', with a 
collection of ■weapons, majolica, and other objects of industrial art. 

We now return to the Strada de'Tribunali. After a few paces, 
we observe the small Laryn Gerob mini on the right, with the church 
of S. Filippo Neri (PI. 47; F, 3), or de' Gerolomini, erected in 
1:>9'2-1619, and overladen with ornament. 

Over the principal entrance: Christ and the money-changers, a large 
fresco by Lnca Giordano; high-altar-piece by Giovanni Bernardino Siciliano; 
lateral paintings by Corenzio. The sumptuous chapel of S. Filippo Neri, 
to the left of the high-altar, contains a ceiling-fresco by Holimena; and that 
of St. Francis of Assisi (ith chap, to the left) a painting by Guido Jleni. 
Near the latter, at the base of a pillar in the nave, is the tombstone of 
the learned Giambattista Vico, b. at Naples 1670, d^ 1744. The sacristy 
(entrance to the left) contains paintings by Andrea da Salerno, Corrado, 
Uomenichino, Salimbeni, Guido Ueni, and others. 

To the right, farther on, is situated S. Faolo Maggiore (PL 07 ; 
F, 3), approached by a lofty flight of steps, and built in 1590 by 
the Theatine Orimaldi on the site of an ancient temple of Castor 
and Pollux. The beautiful portico of the temple remained in situ 
till it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1688, and two Corinthian 
columns with part of the architrave are still to be seen. The 
church contains numerous decorations in marble, and paintings by 
Corenzio, Stanzioni, Marco da Siena, and Solimena. 

In the 2nd chapel on the left is the monument of the minister Donato 
Tommasi (d. 1831). In the 4th chapel to the left is the monument of 
Cardinal Zurlo (d. 1801), with a statue. The 5th chapel contains cabinets 
in which fifty-two relics of saints are preserved in velvet and gold cases. 
— In the passage to the sacristy (S. transept) is an old copy of Ra- 
phael's Madonna del Pesce. — The Cloisters are borne by twenty-four 
ancient granite columns. During the Roman period this was the central 
point of the city. 

In the small piazza in front of S. Paolo, on the other side 
of the Via de' Tribunali, to the left, stands the church of *S. Lorenzo 
(PL 57; F, 3), begun in the Gothic style by Charles I. of Anjou in 
1266, to commemorate his victory over King Manfred at P>enevento 
(p. 201), and completed by Robert I. in 1324. The site is that of 
the ancient Basilica Augustalis. The plan of the church, according 
to Vasari, was designed by Maylione, a pupil of Niccolo Pisano, 
but was altered by Masuccio the Younger in his peculiar style. The 
portal and the choir only are of the Gothic period, the nave having 
been almost entirely rebuilt in the 16th century. 

Interior. The large picture over the chief entrance, Jesus and St. 
Francis, is by Vincenzo Corso. — The Coronation of King Robert by St. 
Louis of Toulouse, with a predella (signed), in the 7th chapel to (he right 
is by Si/none di Martino of Siena. The same chapel contains the relics 
of some frescos in the Sienese style. -- St. Anthony of Padua, in the 
chapel of that saint in the N. transept, on a gold ground, and St. Francis 
as the founder of his Order, in the chapel of St.. Francis in the S. tran- 
sept, both show traces of Flemish inlluence. The three statues of St. 
Francis St. Lawrence and St. .\ntony. and the Keliefs on the high altar 

Museum. NAPLES. . 3. Route. 59 

are by Giovanni da Nola (1478). — In the retro-choir behind the high- 
altar, entering to the right, are the monuments of: (1) Catherine of 
Austria, first wife of Charles, Duke of Calabria (d. 1323), with a pyra- 
midal canopy and adorned with mosaics, by Masuccio the Younger (1); (2) 
Johanna di Durazzo , daughter of Charles of Durazzo , and her husband 
Robert of Artois, both of whom died of poison on the same day, 20th July, 
1387; below are three Virtues, above them two angels drawing aside the 
curtain. Then, in a closed space : (3) Mary, the young daughter of Charles 
of Durazzo, killed at Aversa in 1347. The two last monuments are also by 
Masuccio the Younger (1). By the entrance of the church, on the right, is the 
tombstone of the naturalist Giambattista della Porta (1550-1616). 

The monastery connected with the church, now used as barracks, 
was once the seat of the municipal authorities, a fact recalled by the 
coloured arms of the different Sedili T or quarters of the town, which are 
still above the entrance from the street. The Cloisters, which we reach 
by entering a gate to the right of the church and then turning to the left 
in the entrance passage, contain the tomb of Ludovico Aldemoresco, by 
Baboccio (1414). The Chapter-House, which opens off the cloisters, is 
adorned with frescos representing all the saints of the Franciscan order. 
In 1343 Petrarch resided in this monastery; and Boccaccio, when in the 
church of S. Lorenzo, beheld the beautiful princess whom he praises under 
the name of Fiammetta. 

In the direction of the Toledo, to the left, is situated S. Fietro 
a Maiella (PI. 69 ; E, 4), in the Gothic style, erected by Giovanni 
Pipino di Barletta, the favourite of Charles II. (d. 1316; his tomb 
is in the left transept), but afterwards altered. In the adjacent 
monastery is established the Conservatory of Music (B. Collegio 
di Musica; PI. 6), founded in 1537, which has sent forth a 
number of celebrated composers (e. g. Bellini) , and was long 
presided over by Mercadante. A number of valuable MSS. of 
Paesiello, Jomelli, PeTgolese, and other eminent masters are pre- 
served here. The adjoining Piazza di S. Maria di Costantinopoli 
is embellished with a Statue of Bellini (PI. E, 4). — Through the 
Porta Alba we reach the Piazza Dante onthe Toledo (see p. 42). 

IV. The Museum. 

In the upper part of the town , in the prolongation of the 
Toledo , at the point where the street takes the name of Strada 
di Capodimonte, and where a street leading to the Piazza Cavour 
diverges to the right (comp. p. 42 ; l 1 ^ M. from the Piazza del Ple- 
biscite ; omnibus to the Largo S. Ferdinando and Capodimonte, 
seep. 24), rises the **Museo Nazionale (PI. 9; E, 3), formerly 
called Museo Reale Borbonico, or gli Studj. It was erected in 1586 
by the viceroy Duke of Ossuna as a cavalry-barrack, and in 1615 
ceded by Count Lemos to the university, which was established 
there until 1780, when it was transferred to the Gesu Vecchio. 
Since 1790 it has been fitted up for the reception of the royal 
collection of antiquities and pictures, to which in 1816 Fer- 
dinand I. gave the name of Museo Reale Borbonico. The history 
of the edifice is recorded on twelve marble slabs recently built 
into the wall of the vestibule. 

Here are united the older and more recent collections belonging 

60 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

to the crown, the Farnese collection from Rome and Parma, those 
of the palaces of Portici and Capodimonte, and the excavated treas- 
ures of Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabiae, and Cumse. These united 
collections now form one of the finest in the world; the Pompeian 
antiquities and objects of art in particular, as well as the bronzes 
from Herculaneum, are unrivalled, -j- 

The Museum is open daily, except on national holidays (see 
p. xxi), May to Oct. 9-3, Nov. to April 10-4 o'clock ; on Sundays 
(10-1) gratis, on other days admission 1 fr. ; gratuities forbidden. 

The present director is Giulio de Petra, to whose predecessor 
Giuseppe Fiorelli (now in Rome) is due the general arrangement of 
the museum as it now stands. Unimportant alterations are, however, 
still occasionally made, so that it is impossible to give here an ab- 
solutely accurate enumeration of the contents. No Catalogue has 
yet been published except for the coins, the weapons, and the in- 
scriptions; but we may mention the 'Guide General du Musee 
National' which has been published by Dom. Monaco, the con- 
servator of the museum, and which will be found useful in several 
respects ( sold at the book-shops, price 5 fr. ). 

The Entrance is in the street leading from the Toledo to the 
Piazza Cavour, opposite the Galleria Principe di Napoli (p. 42). 
Sticks and umbrellas must be given up at the Garderobe, to the 
left in the gateway. Tickets are obtained on the right. The 
officials, most of whom speak French, readily give information 
when applied to. 

Permission to copy or study, which is always accorded to artists and 
scientific men, is obtained by strangers on showing their passports at the 
Segreteria Centered by the second door, on the second floor; public 
entrance to the library on the first floor, p. 78), where a similar per- 
mission may be procured for Pompeii and Piestum. Free tickets for 
Pompeii (p. 126) are also to be bad here. 

The following is a sketch of the general arrangements: — 

A. (tEound Flook (comp. Plan, p. 74). 
Right Side: Ancient Frescos (p. 61); beyond them, Inscriptions and several 
large sculptures (p. 64); then Egyptian Antiquities (p. 65). 
Left Side : Ancient Marble Statues (p. 65): bevond them, the Larrte Bronzes 
(P- 71). 

B. Entresol. 
Right Side: Ancient Frescos (p. 73); Renaissance Objects (p. 73); Ancient 

Crystal (p. 74); Ancient Terracottas (p. 74). 
Left. Side: Cnmaean Antiquities (p. 74). 

C. Upper Floor (comp. Plan, p. 75). 
Right Side: Copies of Pompeian Pictures (p. 75), Articles of Food from 

Pompeii (p. 75) ; Papyri (p. 75) ; Pictures (p. 75 ; 1st section) ; 

Engravings (p. 77). 
Immediately opposite : Library (p. 7S). 

I The following letters indicate the origin of the different objects; 
h. Borgia collection, C. C:ipua, C. A. Amphitheatre of Capua, Cu. Curafe, 
F. Farnese collection, //. f lerculaneuin, L. I.iieera, M. Minturna'. A'. "Naples, 
/'. 1'oinpeii, /'- I'ny/uoli, »S\ Stabiy. 

Museum. NAPLES. ;i. Route. 61 

Left Side: Coins (p. 78); Picture! (p. 79; Neapolitan and foreign); Museum 
Santangelo (p. 80) and Vases (p. 81); Small Bronzei (p. 82); 
Gold and Silver Ornaments and Gems (p. 83). 
The following description begins with the right or E. side of each floor. 

A. Ground Floor. 

Leaving the entrance-gateway, we pass through a glass-door, 
where tickets are given up, into a large "Vestibule with sev- 
eral ancient statues from the Farnese collection. At the end of 
the vestibule are the stairs ascending to the upper floors. • — The 
following are the most interesting statues in the vestibule : On the 
right, by the entrance, Alexander Severus ; left, a Melpomene from 
the theatre of Pompey at Rome, erroneously restored as Urania. By 
the staircase, right, Flora; left, Genius of the city of Rome. At 
each of the two doors leading to the court are two figures with the 
toga; by the staircase two river-gods. In the staircase above, two 
Venuses from the theatre at Herculaneum. 

The ** Collection of Ancient Frescos (Affreschi Pompeiani) 
from Herculaneum , Pompeii, Stabise, etc., which we first visit, 
occupies the right half of the groundfloor. These paintings oc- 
cupy seven rooms and a corridor , being grouped in accordance 
with their subjects, and each group is furnished with a Roman 
numeral. These works are, with the exception of painted vases 
and mosaics, almost the only specimens of ancient painting which 
have come down to us, and are therefore of extreme value. They 
are our sole informants with regard to the ancient style , colouring, 
and treatment of light and shade. Many of them are beautifully 
conceived, and executed with an easy, masterly touch, and they 
include landscapes , historical and mythological subjects , genre- 
paintings, architectural drawings, and animal and fruit-pieces. 
Although mere decorative paintings of a small provincial Roman 
town, they suffice to show how thoroughly the profession was im- 
bued with artistic principles. Some of the' representations may be 
copies from celebrated or favourite pictures, but the style is such as 
entirely to preclude the idea that they were mechanically copied 
or stencilled. The rapid, easy execution and absence of minute 
detail prove that they were intended for effect, and not for close 
inspection. Their state of preservation of course varies greatly 
(comp. Introd., pp. xl-xliii). 

I. Room (immediately to the right of the place where tickets are 
given up ; 1st door), a long corridor : Architectural mural decorations. 
Those on the left side , the farther end, and the farther part of 
the wall on the right are nearly all from the Temple of Isis at 

II. Room : Animals, fruit, still-life, attributes of gods, etc. — 
The gallery of inscriptions (p. 64) has an entrance here. We now 
return through the 1st Room to the principal collection. — The fol- 
lowing rooms contain the mythological and genre representations. 

<>2 Eouteii. NAPLES. Museum. 

Their enumeration is in the order (denoted by the Roman numerals 
above on the walls. 

III. Room : xv. *Girl gathering flowers. Two heads of Medusa, 
xvi-xviii. Sea-gods. In the corner a *Nereid on a sea-panther. On 
the window-wall Phryxus and Helle. Two glazed tables exhibit a 
well-arranged collection of colours found at Pompeii, xx. Sacrifice 
to the Lares. — xxi , xxii. Sacrifice to Isis and scenes in the 
Egyptian style, from Herculaneum. — In the passage to the follow- 
ing room : xxiv. Ulysses carrying off the Palladium from Troy ; 
under it, Scipio and the dying Sophonisbe. — In the second pas- 
sage: xxvi. *.Medea brooding over the murder of her children; 
above, Medea with a sword. Opposite : xxvii. Meleager and Atalante. 

IV. Room: (1.) xxviii Hercules supported by Priapus and 
Omphale. xxviii, xxix. Perseus releasing Andromeda, xxx. (be- 
low) Hercules, Dejanira, and the Centaur Nessus. xxxi. *Finding 
of the young Telephus suckled by the hind (from Herculaneum). 
AV'ounded ^Eneas. — In the passage to the room of the mosaics : 
xxxii. The infant Hercules strangling the snakes sent by Juno, 
xxxiii. *Four important scenes from Herculaneum: Triumphant 
actor, with his mask exhibited as a votive offering ; Achilles and 
Antilochus (or Patroclus) ; Concert; Attiring of a bride. Also genre- 
scenes from Pompeii (paintress, etc.). — xxxiv. Admetus and Al- 
cestis receiving the answer of the oracle. — In the passage : xxxv. 
Comedy scenes, xxxvi. Chastisement of Dirce by Amphion and 
Zethus (same subject as the Farnese Bull, p, 64). Phaedra and Hip- 
polytus. Cimon nourished from the breast of his daughter Pero (a 
favourite subject with modern artists, known as 'CaritasRomana').— 
xxxvii. Theseus after the slaughter of the Minotaur, xxxviii. Scenes 
from the forum of Pompeii : in the centre, a school (chastisement 
of a pupil), baker's .shop ; small caricature of .(Eneas, Anchises, 
and Ascanius, represented with dogs' heads; pensive maiden, with 
pencil. Several admirable busts of youthful subjects, two of which 
(to the left) have been restored as a Pompeian baker and his wife, 
xxxix. *Abduction of Briseis from the tent of Achilles. *Achilles 
being taught the lyre by Chiron. Ulysses unrecognised by Penelope. 
Achilles recognised at Scyros. — xl. Sacrifice of Iphigenia (from the 
'House of the Tragic Poet' ). *Orestes and Pylades in presence of 
Iphigenia at Tauris. — Adjacent to this room is the — 

V. Room. *Mosaicx. In the centre, on the floor : Fettered lion 
amid Cupids and Bacchanalian figures , from the House of the 
Centaur at Pompeii (p. 143). To the left, three recent discoveries 
from Pompeii : Doves, Lion, and Tiger. — On the entrance-wall, 
by the pillar : Theseus killing the Minotaur, three copies. Farther 
on, towards the window: in the centre, actor trained by a poet; 
above, skull, and other symbols, found on a table in a triclinium 
at I'ompeii ; on the left and right comedy scenes (by Dioscurides of 
Sanies, according to the inscription); partridges; two cocks after 

Museum. NAPLES: ■!. Route. 63 

the flglit. — Under the window : Animals of Egypt. — Farther on : 
*Acratus (companion of Bacchus) riding on a lion ; below, a *Gar- 
land with masks ; on the left, parrots ; on the right, a wild cat witli 
a partridge, and fish, all excellent mosaics from the house of the 
Faun (p. 144). — Farther on, a chained dog with the warning 'Cave 
Canem' (from the threshold of the 'House of the Tragic Poet', p. 138). 
— Right wall : a large niche , probably intended for a fountain ; 
above it, Phryxus and Helle ; on the left, the three Graces, the 
marriage of Neptune and Amphi trite; on the right, quarrel of Achilles 
and Agamemnon. — We now retrace our steps, and follow the ar- 
rangement of the pictures which is continued through the passages 
from the 3rd Room to the 6th, which adjoins it on the other side. 

VI. Room : In the two passages, beginning next the window : 
xli-xliv. Rope-dancing Satyrs, *Hovering Centaurs, *Dancing Sa- 
tyrs and Bacchantes, etc. — Farther on : xlv. *Representations of 
Cupid ('Cupids for sale !'). xlvi. Marriage of Zephyrus and Chloris 
(Lat. Flora), xlvii. The three Graces, xlviii. Diana and Endymion 
(repeated several times) ; *Diana with a bow, in a pensive attitude 
(pendant to the 'Girl gathering flowers' in Room III). — By the 
window to the left : xlix. Venus and Mars, several representations. 
Venus and Cupids, lii. Triumphal procession of Bacchus. Bacchus 
and Ariadne. — *liii. Dancers. 

VII. Room : lviii-lix. More ancient paintings from the tombs of 
Ruvo, Gnatia, Psestum, Capua : lviii. Mercury as conductor of the 
dead. Funeral dance, lix. Samnite warriors in full armour, from 
Psestum. Gorgon head with Messapian inscription. — lx. Narcissus 
in different attitudes, lxi-lxiii and lxv-lxvii. Landscapes from 
Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae. lxviii. * Vulcan showing 
Thetis the arms of Achilles (twice), lxx. Jupiter crowned by 
Victoria, lxxi. Io's arrival in Egypt. * Jupiter and Juno on Mount 
Ida. Io watched by Argus. Mercury giving the Syrinx to Argus. 
lxxii. Five * Drawings on Marble (monochromic)from Herculaneum : 
Achilles (?) in a quadriga; ffidipus with Antigone and Ismene('?); 
Latona with Niobe and other women of Cadmus playing at dice 
(purporting to be by Alexandres of Athens); Scene from a tragedy. 
Theseus rescuing the bride of Pirithous from a Centaur (?). Similar 
drawing from Pompeii : Fragment of a representation of the fate of 
Niobe and her children. 

To the above collection belongs a corridor (entered from the 
vestibule of the Galleria Lapidaria, or by the 3rd door in the great 
vestibule) containing * Ornamental Paintings (Affreschi Orna- 
mentali) from Pompeii and Herculaneum, being mural decorations, 
some of them with raised stucco designs and reliefs. They are 
executed with taste and precision and deserve careful inspection. 

In the semicircular space, lxxxi. Valuable collection of deco- 
rative masks, lxxxii. Pillar with paintings from the 'Fullonica' 
at Pompeii (p. 144) , showing the different processes of the handi- 

0-1 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

craft. The owl is the symbol of Minerva, the tutelary goddess of 
fullers, lxxxiv. 'Fragments of a wall from Herculaneum. 

The two large central glass-doors of the vestibule on the right 
and left lead into Courts, filled with reliefs, statues, and architec- 
tural fragments , many of which deserve the notice of connoisseurs. 

The wing connecting the W. part of the Museum with the 
K. (right) half contains the * Gallery of Inscriptions (Galleria 
Lapidaria, or Sala del Toro) , which has other entrances both 
from the collection of the ornamental paintings and from the sec- 
ond room of the ancient pictures (p. 61). 

The collection comprises upwards of 2000 Latin inscriptions, 
others in Oscan, and engraved (graffiti) and painted (dipinti) mural 
inscriptions from Pompeii. The collection, which is arranged in 
accordance with the geographical situation of the different localities 
of discovery, consists chiefly of epitaphs, but also includes lauda- 
tory and other inscriptions. Among the bronze tables are the cele- 
brated Tables of Heraclea (p. 218 ; No. 2480), bearing on one side 
regulations as to temple lands in the ancient Greek language, and 
on the other (inscribed at a later date) the Italian municipal laws 
promulgated by Caesar in B.C. 46. Immediately to the right of the 
entrance are inscriptions in Oscan and other Italian dialects, among 
which No. 113,398 is that mentioned at p. 134 as found in the 
temple of Apollo at Pompeii. A cabinet contains leaden pipes with 
inscriptions from aqueducts, etc. 

The following large sculptures are also placed here : to the left 
at the entrance a statue of Tiberius, to the right Atreus with the 
son of Thyestes ('.'), sometimes taken for Hector with the body of 
Troilus (comp. Introd., p. xxxv). 

In the Principal Room, on the left, is the celebrated group of 
the **Farnese Bull, a work of the Rhodian sculptors Apollonius and 
Tauriscus, once in possession of Asinius Pollio, and found in 1546 
in the Thermae of Caracalla at Rome in a sadly mutilated condition. 
The restoration of the group was superintended by Michael Angelo. 
The two sons of Antiope, Amphion and Zethus, avenge the wrongs 
of their mother by binding Dirce, who had treated her with the 
greatest cruelty for many years, to the horns of a wild bull. An- 
tiope in the background exhorts them to forgiveness. The boldness 
and life of the group , originally hewn out of a single block of 
marble, is unrivalled in any other work of the same character 
(comp. Introd., pp. xxxiii-xxxv). The now parts are the head of 
the bull, the Antiope, with the exception of the feet, the upper 
parts of Dirce and considerable portions of Amphion and Zethus. 

Opposite, on the right side of the room, stands the so-called 
**Fnrnese Hercules, also from the Thermae of Caracalla, where it 
was found in 1540. The legs were at first wanting, but were re- 
stored by Delia Porta ; twenty years later the genuine missing por- 
tions were discovered, and having been presented by Prince Borghese 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 65 

to the King of Naples, were restored to the statue. The end of the 
nose, the left hand, and part of the left arm are new. 

The hero holds in his right hand the golden apples of the Hesperides, 
the sign of his successful accomplishment of the eleventh of the labours 
imposed on him by King Eurystheus, and leans, faint and weary, on his 
club. The conception differs wholly from the triumphant victor of the 
early legend, and would alone stamp the work as one of a comparatively 
recent period. This conclusion is strengthened by the mannerism appa- 
rent in the over-strained effort to express great muscular strength. Ac- 
cording to the inscription , it is the work of the Athenian Glycon, and 
was probably executed under the early emperors, possibly on the model 
of a statue by Lysippus. 

Descending a staircase at the end of the front corridor of the 
Galleria Lapidaria, and passing through rooms with plaster-casts 
of Egyptian antiquities and one containing Christian Inscriptions 
from the catacombs of Rome and Naples built into the walls, we 
reach the Egyptian Antiquities, a considerable number of which 
were purchased from Cardinal Borgia's collection at Velletri. 

1st Boom. In the centre , Serapis , found in the vestibule of the 
Serapeum at Pozzuoli. Isis, a marble statuette from the temple of Isis 
at Pompeii, holding a sistrum and key of the Nile, with interesting traces 
of gilding and painting. Two coffin-lids. On the short wall, Horus with a 
dog's head. The cabinets contain a valuable collection of small statuettes. 

2nd Room. In the centre: by the window, a granite tombstone with twenty- 
two figures in relief and hieroglyphics. Egyptian priest, a so-called 'Pasto- 
phorus'', in black basalt. By the walls six glass cabinets with various kinds 
of trinkets, etc. To the right of the entrance, the second immured tablet is the 
so-called 'Table of Isi8', from the temple of Isis at Pompeii. By the window- 
wall a papyrus with Greek writing , dating from the 2nd or 3rd cent. , which 
with forty others was found at Memphis in a chest of sycamore wood, 
and contains names of the canal labourers on the Nile. Opposite the 
entrance a number of mummies of men, women, and children , sonie of 
them divested of their cerements and admirably preserved (the skull of 
a female mummy still retains the hair). Also the mummy of a crocodile. 
Marble bust of Ptolemy V. 

The keeper also opens a lower room beside the stair-case, containing 
a cork-model of the temples, at Paestum, and^the model of a Pompeian 

The left (W.) half of the ground-floor contains the valuable col- 
lection of marble sculptures and the bronzes. 

The ** Collection of Marble Sculptures occupies the great 
corridor with three branches, and the rooms situated beyond the 
second branch. The new arrangement in accordance with the local 
and historical position of the works is practically complete. It is 
best to begin with the N. corridor (third door on the left from the 
vestibule), the — 

Corridor of the Masterpieces (Portico de 1 Capolavori), which 
contains the finest works in the collection , affording a review of 
the development of the ancient plastic art from the 5th cent. B.C. 
down to the reign of Hadrian and his successors. This part of 
the collection in particular supplies the visitor with an admirable 
illustration of the history of ancient art, and includes moreover 
several works of the highest merit. 

On the right: — *Orestes and Elertra, a group which has given 

lVxuiJEKF.ii. Italy ITT. 9Hi Edition f, 

66 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

rise to much discussion, probably belonging to the revived archaic 
style introduced by Pasiteles towards the end of the republic (In- 
trod., p. xxxv). — Pallas, archaic style, from Herculaneum. ■ — 
Artemis, an archaic statuette found at Pompeii, with numerous traces 
of painting (gold on the rosettes of the head-dress, red on the edges 
of the robe, the quiver-band, and the sandals). — * Venus of Capua, 
found at Capua in the middle of the 18th century. 

It is uncertain how this statue, which greatly resembles the Venus 
(if Jlilo in the Louvre, ought to lie restored. The arms, the nose, and 
part of the mantle are modern. On Corinthian coins Venus, the tutelary 
goddess of the city, is represented in a similar attitude, in the act. of 
using a shield as a mirror, but it is possible that the Capuari statue had 
a figure of Mars standing beside her, from whom she was taking his sword. 
It was at one time imagined that a figure of Cupid at the feet of his mother 
formed part of the original group, but this idea has been given up. The 
statue is held to be a work of the Roman period (as the representation of 
Hie pupil of the eye indicates), but was probably a copy of a Greek original. 

Adonis, freely restored. — Athlete, from the palaestra of Pompeii, 
the left hand missing, as in other examples of the same statue ; it 
is supposed to be a replica of the Doryphorus of Polycletus ; comp. 
Introd., p. xxxi. 

*Homer, a beautiful bust, the finest of all the ideal repre- 
sentations of the great poet. 

'I must own that nothing has ever given me a higher idea of Grecian 
sculpture, than the fact that it has been able to conceive and represent these 
features. A blind poet and minstrel — nothing more — was given. And 
starting with this simple theme the artist has made the aged brow and 
cheek instinct with supernatural mental effort and prophetic inspiration, 
combined with that perfect serenity which ever characterises the blind. Each 
stroke of the chisel is full of genius and marvellous vitality'. — Burck/iardt. 

In the middle: — *Harmodius and Aristogeitcn (head of Aristo- 
geiton ancient, but originally belonging to some other statue). 

After the expulsion of Hippias in 510 B. C. the Athenians erected in 
the Agora statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the slayers of the tyrant 
Ilipparchus. This group, the work of Anterior, was carried away by 
Xerxes in 480 and replaced in 478 by another executed by Criiias and 
jVesiotes. The original statues were afterwards restored to Athens by 
Alexander the Great or one of his successors, and the two groups stood 
side by side in the market-place, where they were seen by Pausanias the 
historian (2nd cent, of our era). The statues in the museum are a copy 
of one or other of these groups, both of which were in bronze and pro- 
bably alike in all essential details. — Comp. Introd., p. xxxii. 

hying Amazon, Dead Persian, Dead Giant (or Gaul?), and 
Wounded Gaul, of the Pergamenian school. 

King Attalus I. of Pergamus, having in 239 B. C. gained a decisive 
victory over the Gauls who had invaded Jlysia, erected on the Acropolis 
at Athens four groups of marble statues as a votive offering for his deliver- 
ance. These represented the triumph of civilisation and culture over brute 
force, as typified in the contests of the Gods and the Giants, the Athenians, 
and the Amazons, the Athenians and Persians at Marathon, and lastly of 
Attalus himself and the Celts. They have been described by Pausanias 
(see above). The statues in this museum are undoubtedly parts of the 
original monument, and there are other figures from it. at Rome and Venice. 
The time when they were brought to Italy is unknown, but cannot have 
been sooner than the capture of Athens by the Crusaders in 1205. (The 
exquisite reliefs recently discovered at Pergamus and now at Berlin were 
erected by Attains in his own capital in commemoration of the same victory. ) 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 67 

* Venus Callipygus , so called from that part of her body towards 
■which she is looking, found in the imperial palaces at Rome ; the 
head, breast, right leg, right hand, and left arm are modern. — 
Satyr, carrying the child Bacchus on his shoulder. 

On the left, four busts : *Hera (Farnese Juno), a head in the 
early style , austere in expression and the clearest representation 
extant of the ideal of Polycletus (Introd., p. xxxi) ; it is a replica 
of a bronze original, in which the eyes were of some other material, 
and was intended to be joined to a statue. — Antoninus Pius, 
Faustina, Caracalla. 

The adjacent room to the right contains at the entrance , to 
the right, Brutus and Pompey, two busts found in a house in Pom- 
peii in 1869; a large basin in porphyry, torsi, dogs, leopards, boar 
sacrifices, and fragment of a gigantic figure resembling the Per- 
gamenian sculptures at Berlin. 

Farther on to the right in the principal room: Head of a Woman. 
— *Aeschines , the Athenian orator (389-314 B. C.) and champion 
of Philip of Macedon against Demosthenes, a statue found in 
the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. 

Though the drapery is inferior to that of the admirable statue of 
Sophocles in the Lateran Collection at Borne, there is little doubt that 
this is a copy of an old Greek original. It was once erroneously called 
Aristides, but its resemblance to the herma of Aeschines with his name 
attached at the Vatican proves its identity. 

Pallas, archaic, from Velletri. — Juno. — * Torso of Bacchus, 
a genuine Greek work. — * Psyche of Capua, sadly mutilated ; she 
was probably represented with her hands bound behind her, being 
tortured by Cupid, but the state in which the figure now is makes 
certainty on this point impossible. — * Torso of Venus, another 
genuine Greek work , probably not much more recent than the 
Venus of Cnidus by Praxiteles (4th cent. B.C.). 

In the middle : — Nereid, on a sea-monster. — *Agrippina the 
Younger, mother of Nero, a sitting portrait-statue, made at an ad- 
vanced age. 

The artist has almost entirely suppressed the individuality of the 
notorious wife of Claudius , and has created a figure of great nobility. 
The face expresses mournful reflection and resignation. The attitude and 
mien, like those of the well-known statue of the elder Agrippina in the 
Roman Capitol, are an admirable example of the way in which noble 
Roman matrons liked to be represented. The hands are modern. 

Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian. 

The Corridor of Portrait Statues and Busts, which we 
next enter , is sometimes called the Portico dei Balbi, from the 
statues of the noble family of that name, the most distinguished at 

In the middle of the corridor: 6211, 6104. Equestrian Statues 
of M. Nonius Balbus and his Son (of the same name) 'praetor and 
proconsul', found in the Basilica of Herculaneum. At the N. end, 
to the right, 'several Pacians from the forum of Trajan at Rome; 


()S Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

to the right and left: Genre figures of children ; Sacrificing swine. — 
Farther on , to the left, Portrait statues from llerculaneum and 
Pompeii: 6234, 6231. Two orators from Pompeii; 6232 (fourth 
statue), Statue of the Priestess Eumachia of Pompeii, erected in her 
honour by the fullers. In the second division: * 6167. M. Nonius 
Balbus, the father; *6168. Yiciria Archais, the wife of Balbus, a 
stately matron. Farther on, a son and four daughters, on the same 
pedestal (a fifth daughter of the group is in the Dresden Museum). 
All of these are honorary statues which the municipal council of 
Herculaneum erected to the family in the theatre. — Opposite, 
Roman Portrait busts, in two rows. In the lower row: 6185-87. 
Three examples of a so-called Seneca (perhaps Callimachus?) ; 
liegulus ; Brutus the younger; Brutus the elder; Cicero. Then 
Greek Busts, also in two rows. In the first row : 6149. Alexander the 
Great; 6157. Themistocles; 6158. Ptolemy Soter; 6160, 6161. Euri- 
pides; 6166. Demosthenes; in the second row: 6127. Aratus, the 
astronomer; 6128. Zeno; 6129. Socrates; 6130. Lysias ; 6131. 
Carneades ; 6133. Sophocles ; 6135. Euripides; 6139. Periander ; 
6142. Poseidon; 6143. Solon; 6146. Herodotus; 6164. Agatho- 
cles. (Many of the busts, both Greek and Roman, are either un- 
known or erroneously named.) — In the centre, 6236. Double 
herma of an unknown Greek and Roman, and 6239. Double hernia 
of Herodotus and Thucydides. Between these, two sitting sta- 
tuettes, one of them representing the poet Moschion. — The room 
containing the Battle of Alexander here opens to the right (see p. 
69), in front of the entrance to which: Two barbarians as support- 
ers, in pavonazzetto, the heads and hands in basalt ; in the entrance, 
to the left: 6414. Euripides, and 6415. Socrates, a herma with a 
Greek inscription ; to the right, 6412. Head of an athlete (Dory- 
phoros), and 6413. Homer. At the S. end, in the middle, a hunter; 
several portrait statues : 6233. Statue of Marcus Holconius Eufus, 
a Roman military tribune, and five times mayor of Pompeii. 

We now pass by the statue of the younger Balbus into the — 
Corridor of the Roman Emperors (Portico deyli Imperatori), 
the arrangement of which begins at the farther end, by the en- 
trance from the passage. It contains statues and busts in chrono- 
logical order, of a more or less ideal character. Most of the heads 
are modern plaster casts, attached to the ancient torsos in a very 
hap-hazard manner, so that the names affixed have little authority. 
6039. Caesar. 6040. Augustus, 6056. Claudius, 6072. Trajan. 
No. 6038, a colosssal *Bust of Caesar, is genuine, but there is no 
authentic Augustus. 6041. Linia (a misnomer), and 6044. Drusus, 
son of Tiberius, both from the Macellum at Pompeii. 6058. Nero, 
wrongly so called. 6060. Claudius, not Galba. 

Tin/ Seven Rooms beyond the Portico dei l'albi also have 
their contents arranged according to subjects. Among much that 
is mediocre there ;ire a lew works of "rent excellence. The ar- 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 69 

rangement begins with the gods, in the room opposite the en- 
trance to the collection of bronzes (p. 71). 

I. Room : Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Ceres. In the centre, 
6*281. Apollo, in a sitting posture, in porphyry, the head and hands 
in marble; a work of the decline of art during the imperial period, 
when a taste prevailed for rare kinds of stone which were difficult 
to work. Right: 6278. Diana of Ephesus, in yellow alabaster, the 
head, hands, and feet in bronze ; her symbols indicate the fecundity 
of the goddess of nature. Left: 6262. Apollo, in basalt. Posterior 
wall : *6266. Jupiter, a bust from the temple of Pompeii (p. 136) ; 
6267. Jupiter, colossal half-statue fromCumse; 6268. Juno ; on the 
right, 6274. Herma of the ram-horned Jupiter Ammon. 

II. Room : Venus, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Bacchus. Among 
the numerous Statues of Venus (eight of them from Pompeii, in- 
cluding 109608, a statuette found in 1873, interesting from its 
being painted, and 6294, a statue from the Temple of Apollo men- 
tioned at p. 134) are several with portrait-heads. In the centre, 
6323. Mars, sitting. 6302. Mercury. 

III. Room: Satyrs, Ganymede, Cupid, Cybele, etc. — Left: 
Satyr with a bunch of grapes; *6329. Pan teaching Daphnisthe flute; 
6351,6355. Oanymede with the eagle; 6352. Hermaphrodite, from 
Pompeii ; *6353. Winged Cupid, supposed to be a replica of an 
original by Praxiteles. In the centre : 6375. Cupid encircled by a 
dolphin, fountain-figure ; 6374. Atlas, bearing the globe ; 6358. 
Paris ; *6360. JEsculapius, from Rome. On the short wall: Masks 
of river-gods, once used as water-spouts. 6365. Nymph before the 
bath. Three Priestesses of Isis. 6369. Cybele, the mother of the 
gods; 6371. Cybele enthroned. 

IV. Room : Statues of Muses from Herculaneum and Rome ; 
several figures of Hercules. By the window, 6390. Head of Ajax. 
In the centre, 6405. Amazon, falling from her horse; 6407. Eques- 
trian Figure, the opponent of the last ; *6406. Hercules and Omphale, 
a group in the genre style. 

V. Hall of the Flora. By the principal wall : *6409. The 
Farnese Flora, found in the Baths of Caracalla at Rome, at the 
same time as the Hercules and the Bull (p. 64). It is probably a 
work of the early Roman empire, when the dubious taste for repro- 
ducing smaller Greek originals on a colossal scale had already 
manifested itself. The figure, however, is charming in spite of its 
huge proportions. As the head, arms, and feet were missing when 
the statue was found, and were restored by Giacomo della Porta, 
and afterwards by Albaccini and Taglioni, it is not improbable that 
the figure once represented a Venus instead of a Flora. It has also 
been suggested that it may be a 'Hora', a 'Dancing Muse', or a 
'Hebe'. — In front of it is the **Mosaic of the Battle of Alexander, 
found in 1831 in the house of the Faun at Pompeii. This work, 
which is almost the only ancient historical composition in existence, 

70 Routed. NAPLES. Museum. 

represents the battle at the moment when Alexander, whose helmet 
has fallen from his head , charges Darius with his cavalry, and 
transfixes the general of the Persians who has fallen from his 
wounded horse. The chariot of the Persian monarch is prepared 
for retreat, whilst in the foreground a Persian of rank, in order to 
ensure the more speedy escape of the king, who is absorbed in 
thought at the sight of his expiring general, offers him his horse 
(Introd. p. xliii). • — Also four statues of gladiators. 

VI. Room : Reliefs. In the centre, *6673. a beautiful Marble 
Vase with a relief : Mercury, followed by dancing Bacchanalian 
figures, gives the young Bacchus to a nymph to be brought up. 
According to the inscription it is the work of a certain Salpion of 
Athens ; it was found at Formia , and was long used as a font in 
the cathedral of Gaeta (cornp. Introd., p. xxxv). The traditions 
of a more archaic style have been applied here with great adroit- 
ness. — To the left of the entrance, also on a pedestal, 6670. a 
fountain enclosure with seven gods : Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, jEscu- 
lapius, Bacchus, Hercules, and Mercury. There are also three other 
fountain enclosures in the centre. — By the wall, to the left of the 
entrance, 6556. an early Attic Cippus, of the middle of the 5th 
century. Then 6672, a beautiful Trapezophorus (pedestal of a 
table), with Centaur and Scylla ; also Sarcophagi, Fountain Masks, 
and numerous Oscilla, or reversible marble discs and masks, which 
used to be hung up by way of ornament between the columns of 
peristyles. The glass-case to the right contains Fountain Figures, 
Hernial Heads, and other small figures. 

VII. Room: Reliefs. Left: *6682. Aphrodite, seconded by Peitho 
(persuasion), endeavouring to induce Helen to follow Paris (Alexan- 
dras), who with Cupid stands before her, a Greek work ; 6684. 
Bacchanal ; *6688. Youth with three maidens, usually termed Apollo 
with the Graces (or Alcibiades with three hetserae) ; 6693. Sarcopha- 
gus : Bacchanalian procession. — On the pillar between the win- 
dows : 6704. Gladiator contests from the monument of Scaurus at 
Pompeii (p. 141); 6705. Sarcophagus with Prometheus and man as 
yet uninspired with life, surrounded by beneficent gods. — Third 
wall: 6715. Foot of a table (?), framed with Caryatides; to the 
right, fragment of an Old Woman in a crouching attitude. Above : 
6713. Banchetto d'Icario, or Bacchus feasting with the Attic prince 
Icarius , the legendary founder of the Satyric drama ('Drama Sa- 
tyrikon') ; the train of the god includes the muse Melpomene, 
Silenus, and several Satyrs. Above: Cupids in the circus. — 6724. 
Nymph defending herself against a satyr. 6725. The Graces, 
Kuphrosyne, Aglaia , and Thalia, and four other figures, named 
Ismene, Cycais, Eranno, and Telonnesus. Below : *6726. a Bac- 
chanalian procession. *6727. Orpheus and Eurydice, with Hermes, 
in the infernal regions (see Introd., p. xxxii). — Fourth wall : 
Sarcophagi. 6753, 6757, 6763. Three representations of Asiatic 

Museum. NAPLES. 3. Route. 71 

provinces. — In the centre : 6780. Honorary Pedestal from Poz- 
zuoli , with figures representing fourteen towns of Asia Minor 
which the Emp. Tiberius rebuilt after an earthquake, each figure 
being furnished with its name. In the middle, two large Cande- 
labra, with herons, and two Bacchic * Vases. 

In the adjoining Passage are handsome ornamental works in 
marble : Tables with basins for fountains ; candelabra , among 
which is a *Stooping Sphinx from Pompeii ; feet of tables ; tables. — 
From this passage we again enter the Portico dei Balbi (see p. 67). 

At the S. end of the Portico dei Balbi is the entrance to the 
**Collection of Bronzes, most of which are from Herculaneum, and 
a few only from Pompeii. Their respective origins are distinguished 
by their different colours. The bronzes of Herculaneum are of a 
dark, black-green hue, while those of Pompeii, which were much 
more exposed to moisture, are oxydised, and of a light, bluish green 
colour. This collection is unrivalled, and deserves careful and re- 
peated inspection. The number and magnitude of the works, the 
delicate treatment adapted to the material, and the skilful mastery 
of every kind of difficulty in casting and chiselling afford an ex- 
cellent insight into the high development of this branch of art 
in ancient times. 

I. Room: Animals. *4887. Colossal Horse's Head, found at 
Naples, formerly in the Palazzo S. Angelo, and long supposed 
to be the cognisance of the city. It belonged to a horse which 
is said to have stood in the vestibule of the temple of Neptune 
(S. Gennaro), and to have been destroyed by the clergy on account 
of the veneration with which it was regarded. *4904. Horse from 
Herculaneum , belonging to a quadriga , and reconstructed from 
minute fragments. 4886, 4888. Two Deer. 4899-4901. Boar, 
attacked by two dogs. Several animals once used as fountain- 
figures. — In the corners' of the room : by the entrance, to the left, 
and by the opposite exit, two Oreek Hermae, perhaps intended for 
a palaestra, the projecting props being for the support of wreaths. 
The first bears the name of the sculptor, Apollonius, son of Archias 
of Athens. At the entrance, on the right, 4896. So-called Sappho ,■ 
opposite, *4895. Diana Shooting, a half-figure from the Temple of 
Apollo at Pompeii; opposite the entrance, 4892. Mercury, in a 
sitting posture. 

II. Room: Statuettes. In the centre : 4995. Bacchus with a Satyr 
(eyes inserted). Two equestrian statuettes : 4999. Amazon ; 4996. 
Alexander the Great. *4998. Venus arranging her hair, originally 
with a mirror in her left hand. 4997. Flying Victory, on a globe. 
4994. Angling Fisherman, a fountain-figure. 5000. Boy with goose; 
4993. Boy with a lamp. Behind the last: 111701. Boy with a 
dolphin. — In front: **5003. So-called Narcissus, perhaps a Pan 
listening to Echo, one of the most charming antique statues extant, 
both in conception and execution, found in an unpretending private 

7'2 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

house at Pompeii in 1862. *1 11495. Satyr with a wine-skin, a 
fountain-figure found at Pompeii in 1879. *5002. Dancing Faun, 
marking the time by snapping his fingers, found at Pompeii (p. 144). 
*5001 . SUenus, used as the bearer of a vase (with handle very unsuit- 
ably made in imitation of the body of a serpent), found at Pompeii 
in 1864; the air of exertion is admirably lifelike. — To the right of 
the right entrance to the following room : 110663. Hernia of L. 
Caecilius Jucundus, a Pompeian banker (see p. 146), erected by his 
freedman Felix. — The window-cabinet contains a number of Boys 
with pipes or masks, once used as fountain-figures. SUenus with a 
panther and wine-skin. Youthful Bacchus. In the middle, bust of 
Oalba, in silver. — In the cabinet to the right beyond the window 
are all kinds of Fancy Figures, chiefly gladiators. Small Busts : 
Demosthenes, Epicurus, Zeno, Augustus. Hands with quaint em- 
blems, used as amulets to avert the danger of the 'evil eye'. 
Above these, Lares (household gods), youths adorned with wreaths 
and bearing drinking-horns and vases. — Opposite the window : 
Statuettes of Oods : Hercules, Victoria, Fortuna, Bacchus, Mercury, 
Minerva, Jupiter, etc. — Wall of the entrance : Etruscan Mirrors, 
the backs adorned with engraved scenes. 

III. Principal Room. In the centre : *5628. Drunken Faun. 
On each side (Nos. 5627, 5626) copies of two statues of Runners, 
or, more probably , two Wrestlers about to engage. To the right 
beyond these : *5630. Apollo playing the lyre, from Pompeii, a work 
of the archaistic school of Pasiteles, about the beginning of the Em- 
pire (p. xxxv). To the left beyond it, 5629. Apollo Shooting, from 
the Temple of Apollo at Pompeii (a companion-piece to No. 4895, 
p. 71). On the right before the last, **5625. Mercury Reposing, 
a beautiful picture of elastic youth at a moment of relaxation ; 
the wings attached to the feet and the remains of the caduceus in 
the hand identify the messenger of the gods. To the left before 
the last : *5624. Sleeping Satyr. — Along the walls is a series of 
fine Greek portrait-heads (the enumeration begins at the door on the 
left and proceeds towards the left) : 5588. Unknown. The follow- 
ing heads, as far as the opposite door, are believed to be portraits 
of the Ptolemies : 5590. Ptolemy Lagi ; *5592. So-called Berenice, 
admirably modelled (eyes and lips lined with silver when dis- 
covered) ; *5598. Female Head with hair restored (erroneously 
called Ptolemy Apion) ; 5600 (by the door), Ptolemy Soter. The 
intervening statues are of little merit: 5593. Claudius; 5595. Au- 
gustus; the others have not been identified. — Farther on, by the 
wall facing the entrance, to the right of the door: 5602. Hera- 
clitus^i), the philosopher ; above, 5601. Portrait of a Roman. *5603- 
5605. Three Dancing Women, from Herculaneum; 5607. So-called 
Archytas of Tarentum, with a fillet round his head ; *5608. Archaic 
Head of Apollo; 5609. Livia ; 5610. Head of a Greek Athlete; 
*f)611. Sacrificing Boy (camillus); 5612. Female Portrait Statue; 

Museum. NAPLES. :). Route. 73 

5613. Statuette of Apollo; 5614. Head of a Greek Athlete. — 
Entrance Wall : 5615. Statue of Nero Drusus, sacrificing; *561'6. 
So-called Head of Seneca (perhaps Callimachus). *5618. Head of 
Dionysus , probably the finest embodiment of the ideal of the 
older, bearded, or Indian Bacchus (comp. the relief, 'Banchetto 
d'Icario', p. 70), as already accepted in the 6th cent. B.C. ; this 
head was formerly called Plato, from its resemblance to the genuine 
busts of that philosopher. Above it: *5617. Young Tiberius. 5619- 
21. Three Dancfng Women from Herculaneum (see p. 72). *5623. 
Demoreitus (?). Above, 5622. Lepidus. 

IV. Room: "Weapons. In the centre, *5635. Equestrian Statue 
of Caligula, found at Pompeii (p. 138). Adjoining the door on the 
left: 5631. Roman Portrait Head ; opposite, 5632. Bust of C.Caesar. 

— By the door on the right : 5634. Bust of Seipio Africanus ; op- 
posite , 5633. Idealistic Greek Head. — The cabinets contain a 
choice Collection of Weapons (detailed descriptions hung up at the 
entrance). — E. "Wall : Greek armour, helmets, and weapons, found 
at Paestum, Ruvo, and Canosa. — N. Wall : Helmets of gladiators 
and richly decorated armour from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Above 
these, 5673. Helmet with the Taking of Troy ; 5669. Shield with 
head of the Medusa. — W. "Wall : Italian weapons ; among them a 
cook, a Samnite boundary figure from Pietrabbondante(Bovianum.) 

— S. "Wall : Leaden projectiles for slings, etc. 

B. Entresol. 

The Entresol (Ital. Mezzanino) contains on the right a room 
with the latest frescos from Pompeii, farther on the Renaissance 
objects, and beyond them the ancient crystals and terracottas ; on 
the left are the Cumaean collection and the 'Controlleria', or in- 
spector's office. (This pari; of the museum is to be re-arranged.) 

The most interesting of the Fompeian Frescos are the follow- 
ing : on the entrance-wall, to the left, Europa and the bull ; Lao- 
coon ; Tavern scene with inscriptions ; a curious caricature of an 
incident resembling the Judgment of Solomon. — Left Wall : 
Pyramus and Thisbe ; Iphigenia and Orestes in Tauris ; Jason 
before Pelias ; Ulysses escaping from Polyphemus ; above, Paris 
and Helen; Phaedra; Medea. — WindowWall: Destruction of Niobe 
and her children. — Right "Wall : Conflict between the Pompeians 
and Nucerines in the amphitheatre of Pompeii (see p. 127); Mars 
and Venus ; Pygmies fighting with crocodiles and a hippopotamus ; 
exhausted Bacchante. — Entrance-wall, to the right: Hercules 
and Nessus; Pan and nymphs playing upon musical instruments. 
Above, Theseus abandoning Ariadne ; Cimon and Pero; Hercules 
and Auge. 

The Collection of Renaissance Works (Raccolta degli Oggetti 
del Cinquecento) is arranged in the next room. Bust in bronze of 
Ferdinand of Arragon. Medusa after Canova. An altar with reliefs 

74 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

in marble of the German school, representing the Passion in seven 
sections. Indian and Chinese paintings , and other Asiatic curio- 

The third room contains the Collection of Ancient Crystal 
( Vetri), the most extensive of the kind in existence , showing the 
numerous ways in which it was used by the ancients. Several panes 
of glass from the villa of Diomedes should be inspected ; also a 
beautifully cut-glass *Vase with white Cupids and foliage on a 
blue ground, discovered in 1837 in a tomb in the Street of the 
Tombs at Pompeii, when it was filled with ashes. [The removal 
of this collection to the upper floor, in order to make more room for 
the terracottas, has been contemplated for years.] 

Adjacent is the Collection of Ancient Terracottas. — I. Room : 
Common earthenware articles for household use, from Pompeii. 
In the middle, *Statuette in a sitting posture of a bearded man 
with a tragic aspect, from Pompeii. In the passage to the second 
room, on the left Artemis, right Medusa. — II. Room. Several 
Etruscan sarcophagi with recumbent figures on the lids. Numerous 
lamps. In the cabinets figures of small animals: horses, pigs, 
birds, also hands and other votive-offerings , such as are still to 
be seen in Roman Catholic churches: infant in swaddling-clothes, 
legs, right half of a human figure. Opposite the window, to the 
right, a colossal Juno; left, Jupiter from the small temple of 
vEsculapius at Pompeii (p. 151). Opposite the door of egress, to 
the right , the fragments of the celebrated Volscian relief from 
Velletri , in the ancient Italian style, with traces of colouring : 
warriors on horseback and in chariots. — III. Room, on the en- 
trance-wall, to the right: Antefixse and gargoyles; to the left, 
reliefs. On the window wall, to the left, drinking- vessels ; below, 
two archaic antefixae ; to the right, below, Etruscan cists ; above, 
heads with figures iipon them. Opposite the entrance: small sta- 
tuettes and busts, many of great excellence. Opposite the window, 
to the left, glazed clay vessels, lamps, and candelabra; to the right, 
vessels ornamented in relief, heads and figures. Above the cases, 
vessels embellished with figures. 

The central story contains , on the left , the Cumsean Col- 
lection, which was purchased by the Prince of Carignano from 
the heirs of the Count of Syracuse and presented to the Museum. 
It consists chiefly of vases, terracottas, and bronzes found at Cumae 
(see p. 108). By the window of the First Room an elegant jewel- 
casket in wood, with several gold ornaments. In the Second Room 
tables with small objects in bronze, gold, and crystal ; an interest- 
ing head in wax from a Roman tomb. Among the vases at the 
window is a fine specimen of the later Attic style, under glass, 
representing a battle between Amazons and Greeks. 



Museum. NAPLES.. 3. Route. 75 

C. Tipper Floor. 

From the top of the stairs we first turn to the left to the E. 
wing. On opposite sides of the passage which we enter are two 
rooms containing Copies of Pompeian Pictures, Remains of Food, 
and other ohjects from Pompeii. 

The copies of Pompeian pictures merit careful inspection , as they 
serve to convey an idea of the brilliant colouring of these ancient walls 
when they were first discovered. The Room on the Left is adorned with 
copies of the mural paintings in the amphitheatre of Pompeii , the ori- 
ginals of which are flo longer extant. It also contains several glass cabinets 
with "Articles of Food and Objects in Common Use at Pompeii. In the 
centre a handsome bottle with oil. In the round glass cabinet by the 
window : below, a double pan with meat ; in the centre a glass vessel 
with barley; above, glass tubes with olives. — In the glass-cases to the 
right, beyond the window: net-work and netting-needles, straw sandals, 
purse containing three coins (found in the Villa of Diomedes), shells, etc. 
By the entrance-wall are several round loaves , one of which bears the 
baker's name , Celer, slave of Q. Granius Verus , stamped upon it. In 
the glass-cases by the left wall: grain, nuts, figs, pears, honey -comb, 
onions, etc. 

Next, on the right, is the Library of the Papyri. 

This collection was discovered in a villa near Herculaneum in 1752. 
The rolls were completely encrusted with carbonaceous matter, and it 
was only by slow degrees that the real value of the discovery was 
appreciated. About 3000 were discovered, of which 1800 only have been 
preserved. The thin layers of the bark (libri) of the papyrus plant, each 
of the breadth of one column of writing , are pasted together and rolled 
on rods, and the difficulties encountered in disengaging them may be 
imagined. The task was long attempted in vain , until the Padre Piaggi 
invented an ingenious machine by which the difficulty was removed. 
Several of these may be seen at work in the second room. About six 
hundred of these libri have been by degrees unrolled, and whatever of 
their, contents has escaped obliteration has been published in the Volumina 
Heracleensia. The library belonged to a follower of the Epicurean school, 
and the MSS. consist chiefly of treatises in Greek by the Epicurean Philo- 
demus, a contemporary of Cicero, on nature, music, rhetoric, etc. There 
are also, however, considerable fragments of Epicurus himself, including 
a letter to a little girl , restored by Prof. Gomperz of Vienna, which is 
unique in its way. — Here , in a separate room , are also preserved the 
triptychs (about 300) found in a carbonised box at Pompeii in June, 1875, 
containing receipts for money advanced by L. Csecilius Jucundus, a Pom- 
peian banker. 

In the room opposite copies of paintings are kept for sale. 

Following the passage in a straight direction, we next enter 
the *First Section of the Picture Gallery, containing paintings 
of the Italian schools (the Neapolitan excepted), and including 
several of the finest works in the collection. Catalogues at the en- 
trance of each room. 

I. Room (Roman School). *5. Claude, Quay at sunset; 12. 
School of Raphael (?), Female Portrait ; 27. Sassoferrato, Adoration 
of the Shepherds ; 28. School of Raphael , Madonna delle Grazie ; 
47. Pannini, Charles III. entering St. Peter's at Rome; 51. R. 
Mengs, Ferdinand IV. at the age of twelve; 53. Pannini, Charles III. 
visiting Benedict XIV. 

II. Room (Schools of Parma and Genoa). 2. Bernardo Strozzi, 

7(5 Route :). NAPLES. Museum. 

Portrait of a Capuchin; 10. Parmiyianino , Holy Family; 11. 
School of Correggio (?), Study of a head ; 1'2. Parrnigianino, Ma- 
donna and Child; 15, 20, 35, 37. Other examples of Parrnigianino. 

III. Room (Schools of Lombardy and Parma). School of Leo- 
nardo, 11. John the Baptist, 15. Madonna with two donors of the 
picture ; 16. Parrnigianino, S. Clara; 17. Cesare, da Sesto, Adoration 
of the Magi, one of the master's chief works (from Messina); *18. 
Leonardo's School (not Boltraffio). The young Christ and John kiss- 
ing each other; 19. Same School, Madonna (perhaps an early copy 
of the Madonna delle Roccie ascribed to Leonardo). 

IV. Room (Venetian School). 1. Alwise Vivarini , Madonna 
with two saints (1485) ; *5. Bartol. Vivarini, Madonna enthroned 
with saints (1465); 7. Ascribed to Giorgione (erroneously, accord- 
ing to Mr. Crowe), Portrait of a Prince Antonello of Salerno (?); 10, 
13, 17, 25. Bern. Belotto, Architectural pieces ; 11. Jac. Bassano, 
Venetian lady; *15. Sebastian del Piombo , Pope Clement VII., 
sketch on slate ; 19. After Titian, Pope Paul III. (Farnese), possibly 
an original, but much damaged; *20. Titian, Pope Paul III. with 
Cardinal Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese, full of life, although 
somewhat sketchily handled ; 23. Titian, Portrait of Alessandro 
Farnese, damaged ; 24. In the style of Titian, Charles V. ; *32. 
Moretto, Christ scourged, a fine and carefully modelled little 
picture; 40. School of Mantegna, Suffering of Christ; *46. Man- 
tegna, St. Euphemia; 56. Lor. Lotto, Madonna with St. Peter 
Martyr. — Proceeding hence in a straight direction we reach the 
7th and 8th, and, turning to the right, the 5th and 6th rooms. 

V. Room. 1. Salvator Rosa, Christ and the Doctors in the 
Temple; 2. Seb. del Piombo, Holy Family, executed under the in- 
fluence of Michael Angelo and Raphael (unfinished); *3. Correggio, 
Madonna, named la Zingarella (gipsy, from the head-gear) or del 
Coniglio (rabbit), a charming idyllic composition, painted about 
1520 (much darkened) ; 4. Ant. van Dyck, Portrait; *5. Titian, 
Danae, painted at Rome in 1545, a voluptuous work, showing the 
master — at sixty-eight — still triumphing over every difficulty of 
art and possessed of all his youthful vigour; 6. Correggio(T), The 
( 'liild Christ asleep. 

*7. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine with the Infant Christ. 

This work, painted in 1517-18, is known as 'II piccolo Sposali'/.io' in 
contra-distinction to the picture at the Louvre. 'The religious meaning 
of the legend has sunk entirely into the background; the idea of the 
ecstatic vision of the Virgin saint, in which the betrothal symbolises the 
renunciation of the present and consecration for eternity, is lost in a 
cheerful scene of natural life* 1 . — ' Covreggio\ by Dr. Julius Meyer. 

*8. Titian, Pope Paul III., painted in 1543, and in excellent 

'The pontiff's likeness is that of a strong man , gaunt and dry from 
age .... A forehead high and endless, a nose both long and slender, 
expanding to a flat drooping bulb with llabliy nostrils overhanging the 
mouth, an eye peculiarly small and bleary, a large and thin-lipped 
mouth, display the character of Paul Farnese as that of a fox whose 

Museum. NAPLES. • 3. Route. 77 

wariness could seldom be at fault. The height of his frame, its size 
and sinew, still give him an imposing air, to which Titian has added 
by drapery admirable in its account of the under forms, splendid in 
the contrasts of its reds in velvet chair and silken stole and rochet, 
and subtle in the delicacy of its lawn whites .... The quality of life 
and pulsation so often conveyed in Titian's pictures is here in its highest 
development .... Both face and hands are models of execution, models 
of balance of light and shade and harmonious broken tones'. — 'Titian', 
by Crowe <t Cavalcaselle. 

Ascribed to Correggio (erroneously), 9. Sketch of a Descent 
from the Cross ; 10. Madonna and Child. 

*11. Titian, Philip II., probably painted in 1552-3 from a 
sketch made at Augsburg in 1550 by order of Charles V. 

The first painting from this sketch was sent to England to assist 
Philip in his suit for the hand of Mary Tudor, and is now at Madrid ; the 
Naples picture is the second version, and is hardly inferior to the first. 

Ribera, 12. St. Sehastian, 13. St. Jerome listening to the 
trumpet of judgment, 14. St. Jerome; 15. Ouercino, Magdalene; 
16. Rubens, Monk. 

VI. Room is devoted to the Collection op Engravings 
(formed of the Firmian collection), consisting of 19,300 examples 
in 227 portfolios, which are exhibited by the custodian on appli- 
cation. This room also contains an admirable *Bust of Dante in 
bronze, said to have been modelled from a cast taken from the 
poet's features after death, and three busts of Pope Paul IV. (Ca- 
rafa) by Oiuliano delta Porta. On the walls are hung several 
*Drawings and sketches by great masters, among which may be 
mentioned: Michael Angelo, Group from the frescos in the Cappella 
Paolina at Rome ; Raphael, Madonna col divino amore (see below); 
Michael Angelo, Venus and. Cupid ; Raphael, Moses at the burning 

VII. Room. 1. Ann. Carracci, Pieta (copy) ; 2. Schidone, St. 
Sebastian ; 3. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus ; *5. Oiulio Ro- 
mano, Holy Family, called Madonna del Gatto ; 6. Parmigianino, 
Madonna ('a tempera'); *7. Oiov. Bellini, Transfiguration, with 
beautiful landscape ; 10. Marcello Venusti, Copy of Michael An- 
gelo's Last Judgment, before its disfigurement; *11. Perugino, 
Madonna; 12. Andrea del Sarto (?), Pope Clement VII.; 15. Luini, 
Madonna; *16. Oiov. Bellini, Portrait; *17. Raphael(f), Portrait 
of the Cavaliere Tibaldeo. 

*19. Andrea del Sarto, Copy of Raphael's portrait of Leo X., 
with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Rossi (1524). 

This admirable copy was sent by Clement VII. to the Marchese 
Federigo Gonzaga of Mantua instead of the original he had promised (now 
in the Pitti at Florence), and afterwards came to Naples. Even Giulio 
Romano was deceived, till his attention was directed to a sign made on 
the copy by Andrea del Sarto to distinguish the two works. Messrs. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle miss in this work 'the perfect keeping, ease, 
grandeur, modelling, and relief of form', which characterise the original. 

*21. Raphael (?), Portrait of Cardinal Passerini; *22.. Raphael, 
Holy Family (Madonna col divino amore), of the master's Roman 
period; 24. Pietro Novelli, surnamed Mnnrealese , Trinity; 26. 

78 Iinute 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

Garofalo, Descent from the Cross; *28. Palma Yrcchio, Madonna 
with St. Jerome, John the Baptist, and donors, the most successful 
of the master's 'holy conversations', a noble composition sparkling 
with light in the dresses and landscape (C. & C); 30. Domeni- 
chino, Guardian angel ; 31. Bronzino, Holy Family ; *32. Claude, 
Landscape, with accessories by Lauri; 34. Pinturicchio , As- 
sumption; 36. Titian, Repentant Magdalene ; 40. Leandro Bassano, 
Portrait of a Farnese ; 41. Parmigianino, Portrait; 43. Guercino, 
St. Francis of Assisi ; 44. Andrea da Salerno, St. Benedict enthroned 
between SS. Placidus and Maurus, below the four great Church 
Fathers ; 47. Guido Reni, Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes ; 
49. Bourguignon, Battle; 51. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus; 
52. Mignard, Portrait of a prelate; 53. School of Andrea del Sarto, 
Architect (Bramante?) showing a design to a nobleman; 55. Salr. 
Rosa, Battle ; 57. Seb. del Piombo, Portrait of Pope Hadrian VI. of 
Utrecht (1522-23) ; 58. Tintoretto, Don John of Austria; 59. Ribera, 
Silenus and satyrs; 61. Fra Bartolommeo, Assumption (1516). 

VIII. Room. 4. Crayon copy of Velazquez s 'Drinkers', at Ma- 
drid; 11. Guido Reni, The Seasons; 24. Bronzino, Cupid and 

Returning to the exit, we may obtain, to the left, in passing, 
a glimpse through the central staircase at the principal hall of the 

The collection embraces aljout 200,000 printed volumes and 4000 MSS. 
Catalogues for the use of visitors, by Cirillo and Jannelli. Besides numerous 
ancient Italian works there are several valuable Greek and Latin MSS. 
(Greek, Lycophron's Alexandra, Quintus Smyrnseus, date 1311, etc.; Latin, 
Charisius, Ars grammatica , the half burned JIS. of Festus, a mass-book 
with beautiful miniatures of fruit and flowers , called la Flora, etc.). In 
the principal hall the custodian awakens a remarkably fine echo. Books 
are not lent out, but within the library three may be used at a time 
(9-3 o'clock). Headers enter from the street (not through the museum) by 
the last door in the building, and ascend by the staircase to the right. 

The W. half of the Upper Floor, reached from the Grand Stair- 
case by ascending to the right, contains the coins, half of the pic- 
tures, vases, small bronzes, and precious relies. 

Immediately on the right of the corridor, which we now enter, 
is a room (closed at present), which is destined for the reception of 
the collection of Ancient Crystal (comp. p. 74). 

The next door to the right leads to the Reserved Cabinet (Rac- 
colta Pomografica), to which men only are admitted ; it contains 
mural and other paintings not adapted for public exhibition, and 
numerous bronzes, some of them of considerable artistic merit. 

Opposite this collection, on the left side of the passage, is 
the Collection of Coins (Medagliere), which is of almost unrivalled 
value and extent. 

The First Koom contains the Greek, the Second and Third the l*o- 
man , the Fuubth the niediteval coins, and the Fifth the dies of the 
Xr;tpolitan mint, l.o^rlher with a numisinalic library. t'atalogues are 
plarrd ovnr tin' I'lass-rnses for the use of visitors. In the corners: 

Museum. NAPLES." 3. Route: 79 

Busts of distinguished numismatists. — The Museo Santangelo (p. 80) 
adjoins the 5th room, hut is not accessible thence. 

We next proceed in a straight direction from the above-named 
passage to the comparatively uninteresting Second Section of the 
Picture Gallery, containing works of the Neapolitan, later Italiai!. 
and foreign schools. 

Room I. (Bolognese School). 1. Lavinia Fontana, Christ and 
the Samaritan woman ; 3. Ann. Carracci, Madonna and Child with 
St. Francis, painted on Oriental agate ; 9. Ouido Rent, Ulysses 
and Nausicaa; 15. Lionello Spada, Cain and Abel; 38. Francesco 
Romanelli, Sibyl; 43. Ann. Carracci, Caricature of Caravaggio as 
a savage with a parrot and a dwarf, in the corner Carracci himself ; 
47. Quercino, Peter weeping ; 55. Ann. Carracci, Einaldo and Ar- 
mida; 69. M. Caravaggio, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Ann. Car- 
racci, Landscape with St. Eustachius. 

Room II. (Tuscan School). 2. Jac. Pontormo, Copy of a Ma- 
donna by Andrea del Sarto; 5. Sodoma, Resurrection of Christ ; 
23. Filippo Mazzuola (of Parma), Pieta, and saints ; 27. Lor. di 
Credi, Nativity; 31. Matteo da Siena, Massacre of the Innocents 
(dated. 1482); 32. Florentine School, Madonna enthroned ; 34. Flo- 
rentine School, Pope Liberius founding S. Maria Maggiore (ad 
nives) at Rome ; Ang. Bronzino, 42. Young nobleman, 55. Female 
portrait. In the centre of the room is a large bronze tabernacle 
with the story of the Passion, executed by Jacopo Siciliano from 
a design said to have been made by Michael Angelo. 

Room III. (Neapolitan School of the 14th, 15th, and 16th cent- 
uries). Pietro delDonzello, 1. Christ crucified between the two male- 
factors, 3. St. Martin ; 7. Antonio Solario, surnamed Lo Zingaro, 
Madonna and Child under a canopy, surrounded by eight saints ; 
21, 25, 32. Simone Papa, Crucifixion and Saints; 24. Andrea 
(Sabbatini) da Salerno, Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari, sadly da- 
maged ; *34. Andrea da Salerno, Adoration of the Magi, marked by 
all the freshness and grace of the S. Italian school, but also by the 
characteristically slight attention paid by it to correct handling. — 
Adjoining the third room are two rooms containing Byzantine and 
early Tuscan works, most of them badly preserved and freely 
restored, and Neapolitan paintings of the 13th and 14th centuries. 

Room IV. (Neapolitan School of the 16-18th centuries). 1. Do- 
menico Qargiulo, surnamed Micco Spadaro, Revolt of Masaniello 
in the Piazza del Mercato at Naples in 1647; 5. Oian Filippo 
Criscuolo, Adoration of the Magi ; 22, 27, 28, 30. Works by Luca 
Giordano ; 37. Massimo Stanzioni, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
54. L. Giordano, St. Francis Xavier baptizing the Indians (painted 
in three days); 56. Traversa, Girl with doves; 63. Pacecco di 
Rosa, Madonna delle Grazie ; 64. Jose Ribera, surnamed Spayno- 
letto, St. Bruno adoring the Holy Child, on copper; 66. Pietro 
Novell!, surnamed Monrealese, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Luca 

80 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

Giordano, Madonna del Eosario, and saints ; 72. Bom. Gargiulo, 
The smoker; 75. Giordano, Pope Alexander II. consecrating the 
church of Monte Casino; 76. Giordano, Christ shown to the people 
(after Diirer). — The large walnut cabinet in the centre of the 
room, adorned with carved reliefs from the life of St. Augustine, 
dates from the 16th cent, and was formerly in the sacristy of the 
monastery of S. Agostino degli Scalzi. It contains mediaeval and 
Renaissance ivory carvings, engraved rock-crystals, miniatures, 
and the like, most of which were once in possession of the Farnese 
family. A cabinet by the wall of the exit, from the same church, 
contains majolicas from Urbino and elsewhere. By the window : 
the *Cassetta Farnese in gilded silver, executed by Giovanni de' 
Bernardi da Castelbolognese , a goldsmith of Bologna (d. 1555), 
with six large and beautifully cut stones representing Meleager and 
Atalanta, Procession of the Indian Bacchus, Circus games, Battle 
of Amazons , Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae , Battle of 
Salamis. — By the other window: Small Diana on the stag, in 
gilded silver, with clock-work, probably the toy of some juvenile 

Room V. (German and Flemish Schools). *3. Low German 
Master (catalogued as Lucas van Leyden), Adoration of the Magi ; 
31. Alb. -Durer ('?), Nativity; 40. Lucas Cranach, Christ and the 
adulteress ; 42. Amberger ('?), Portrait ; *44. Hubert van Eyck (?), 
St. Jerome extracting a thorn from the paw of a lion, one of the 
finest early Flemish paintings in Italy , but not to be ascribed to 
Hubert with absolute certainty ; 51. Ascribed to Holbein, A cardi- 
nal ; *53. Low German Master, Crucifixion ; 54. Pieter Brueghel the 
Elder, Parable of the seven blind men. 

Room VI. (Netherlands Schools): *1. Style of Rembrandt, Por- 
trait; 12. Ascribed to Van Dyck, Portrait of a nobleman ; 17. Rem- 
brandt^), Portrait of himself; 19. Frans Snyders, Hunting scene ; 
36. School of Van Dyck, Crucifix; 61. Collection of miniatures of 
the House of Farnese; *73. Mich. Mierevelt, Portrait; 78. Ferd. 
Bol, Portrait ; 83. Ascribed to Van Dyck , Portrait of a Princess 
Egmont; 89. Villa Medici at Rome in 1615. — Entrance hence 
into the collection of bronzes, see p. 82. 

From the 5th Room of the paintings we enter a circular room, 
the first of the collection of vases (see p. 81), and pass thence 
to the left into the Museo Santangelo, which occupies three 
rooms. This museum was formerly in the Pal. Santangelo, but 
was purchased by the city of Naples in 1865 and placed under the 
care of the Museo Nazionale. 

1st Ifoosi : Vases. In the cabinet in the centre, a vase with Baccha- 
nalian scene. In the middle of the cabinet on the left, Bacchanaiian feast 
with an armed dancing-woman. To the right by the window a ''Cabinet 
with drinking-horns (rhyta). 

'hn\ iioo.M : Vullt'clion of Teyriu-i'iUis <nul Entail Bronzes. On the 
left, in the corner, a vase from Nola , with the return of Hephiesfus to 


Museum. NAPLES.- 3. Route. 81 

3rd Room : Collection of Coins. On the second table in the middle of 
the room an interesting selection of 'aes grave'' and other Italian coins. 
Also several large vases t to the left of the entrance a vase with Pelops and 
(Enomaus. In the centre a vase with Orpheus in the infernal regions. 
Opposite the entrance, to the right, 'Mercury and Spes, relief -mosaics 
from Metapontum, unique of their kind. Cock-light. 

We now return to the ** Collection of Vases, which begins 
with the circular room mentioned at p. 80, and occupies seven 
rooms. It is very extensive and valuable , and is particularly 
rich in specimens of the handsome vases of Lower Italy. 
The finest specimens are placed by themselves on short columns. 
The collection is arranged in chronological order after the second 
room, in which from the left of the entrance to the middle of the 
right wall are arranged the vases with black figures; then follow 
Greek vases with red figures, succeeded by vases of Italian origin. 
— As Greek vase-painting was adopted by the Etruscans and modified 
according to the national taste, so this branch of art was strongly influ- 
enced in Lower Italy, and especially in Apulia , by the peculiar 
character of its inhabitants. The vases here are of large and imposing 
dimensions, and the artists, not satisfied with the decoration of paint- 
ing alone, have frequently superadded reliefs to adorn the necks 
and handles. Their aim appears to have been to cover, if pos- 
sible, the entire surface of the vase with the colours. The 
different series of representations, one above another, which they 
bear, are often without connection ; or the centre is occupied by 
an architectural design and surrounded irregularly with groups. 
The figures are generally of a somewhat effeminate mould, and 
great care appears to have been bestowed on the delineation of 
rich but scantily folded garments. The representations are for 
the most part borrowed from the ancient Greek tragedy, but in 
some cases scenes of a more Italian character are observed. The 
period of their manufacture is believed to have been shortly after 
the reign of Alexander the Great. 

The floors of the rooms are paved with ancient, but freely 
restored Mosaics. 

1st Room. The vases in the 2nd and 3rd cabinets (to the left, 
counting from the entrance from the picture-gallery), and the 
three placed on columns in front of them are specimens of the 
earliest stage of this art. They are of a yellowish colour, orna- 
mented with two rows of plants or animals of brownish or black 
colour, and are round or oval in form. The 3rd and 4th cabinets 
contain Etruscan, the others Greek vases, some of them beautifully 
shaped, but nearly all black and unpainted. 

2nd Room. Pavement from the house of Diomedes at Pompeii. 
Opposite the entrance : Condemnation of Marsyag. By the window: 
Two large vases, one from Ruvo, the largest vase yet discovered, 
with a battle of Amazons , the other with Orpheus in the infernal 
regions. Between these, under a glass shade, Lerythu* (vase for 

Bakdekkr. Italy III. 9th Edition. 

82 Route 3. NAPLES. Museum. 

ointment) with reliefs of Marsyas and Apollo. Tn a cabinet opposite 
the window, Lecythi, remarkable for the painting on white ground; 
and prize vases of the Panathenean festivals. 

3rd Room. Opposite the entrance : *Vase with lid, Bacchanalian 
sacrifice. Farther on, in the centre, actors with masks; *Battle of 
Amazons; *Destruction of Troy. To the left, two large vases; Death 
of Arehemorus ; Funeral sacrifice of Patroclus. 

4th Room. In the centre, Medea fleeing after the murder of her 
children. Lycurgus, blinded by Bacchus, slaying his wife. By the 
window, the celebrated large vase of Darius from Canosa : Darius 
planning the conquest of Greece; above is Hellas, at whose side 
Athene and Zeus are standing ; beneath are the Persian provinces 
on which subsidies are levied for the war, with accompanying names. 
Opposite the window, below to the right, Hercules carrying off the 
tripod, pursued by Apollo. 

5th Room. In the centre, Orestes seeking refuge from the Furies 
at the statue of Artemis; Perseus releasing Andromeda; Tereus on 
horseback pursuing Procne and Philomela. Opposite the window, 
to the left, Hercules carrying off the tripod. Farther on, to the right, 
Lycurgus killing his son; Rape of the golden fleece ; Orestes and 
Electra mourning at the grave of Agamemnon. 

6th Room. By the window two models of tombs, which illustrate 
the manner in which the vases were discovered. As the ornaments, 
weapons, etc., of the deceased were deposited with his remains in 
the tomb, so also were these vases which had adorned his home; in 
some cases, however, the nature of the subjects leads to the conclu- 
sion that they were manufactured for this express purpose. In the 
centre, drinking horns and Lecythi. — The rest of the vases here 
and in the 7th Room are unimportant. — The entrance hence to the 
small bronzes is closed. We therefore proceed to the principal 
entrance in the 6th room of the picture-gallery (p. 80). 

The collection of the ** Small Bronzes, the finest of its kind 
in existence , has recently been arranged in a masterly fashion. It 
consists chiefly of household utensils , lamps, candelabra, tools of 
all kinds, musical and surgical instruments, weapons, etc., most of 
them found at Pompeii, and is admirably adapted to convey an idea 
of the life and habits of the ancient Italians. The use of most of 
the objects is too obvious to require explanation. 

1st Room : The most valuable objects are in the centre, grouped 
around three large Money-Chests, such as usually stood in the 
Atria of Pompeian houses. To the left of the corner: Dish-warmer, 
in the form of a fortress. Farther to the right: large Divan or 
chair. Cooking Stone. Table-support, with Victoria bearing a tro- 
phy. Farther on, parallel with the window-wall and by the 
windows : Bisellia (seats of honour) decorated with heads of horses 
and swans, and a large shallow Dish with inlaid silver ornaments. 
At the third corner of the central group, a *Tripod for sacrifices. 

Museum.. NAPLES.- 3. Route. 83 

richly decorated, from the temple of Isis at Pompeii. Then iron 
Stocks from the gladiators' barracks at Pompeii, near which three 
skeletons were found. At the next corner, on a marble table: 
* Candelabrum from the villa of Diomedes , consisting of a small 
Bacchus riding on a panther and a pilaster adorned with a mask 
and bucranium (skull of an ox) on a square pedestal ; the lamps 
hang from four branches ; those at present placed there are not the 
original. Adjacent is a small Altar. Then, Baths. Large Brazier 
from the Tepidarium of the Stabian Thermse at Pompeii (p. 148), 
ornamented with a cow's head, the armorial bearings of the founder 
M. Nigidius Vaccula. — The Cabinets along the wall are numbered 
from right to left, beginning at the left entrance, i-xiv. Bronze 
Vessels, xv, xvi. Water-taps and Gargoyles, xvn. Implements of 
the Pal&stra , including numerous Scrapers for removing the oil 
and dust from the body after gymnastic exercise; garniture of a 
ring, xvin-xx. Door-plates, Locks, and Keys, with fine inlaid 
work, xxi-xxiii. Iron Vessels, xxiv-xxvn. Lamps, xxviii-xxx. 
Mountings, Handles, Table Supports , etc. — Among the cabinets 
stand several Candelabra. By the doors hang ancient disk-shaped 
Bells or Oongs. 

2nd Room : A *Model of Pompeii, faithfully representing the 
ruins, on a scale of 1 : 100, but still unfinished. — Along the 
walls numerous bronze vessels and candelabra. Cabinets xxxii- 
xliii, 1-lv, lviii-lx. contain Utensils of various kinds and shapes, 
xliv, xlv. Ladles and Funnels ; elaborate Cooking Apparatus, xlvi. 
Tripods ; small Braziers, xlvii-li. Scales and Weights, lvi. Mirrors 
and Ink-holders ; below, objects in Bone and Ivory, lvii. Bells, 
Harness, Ornaments, Buckles (fibulae). — In the glass-cases : lxi. 
Compasses , Angling Hooks , Anchors , Steering Apparatus, lxii. 
Musical Instruments, including the 'sistrum' used in the worship 
of Isis. lxiii. Astragali, Dice, Tesserae (tickets of bone, ivory, etc., 
including some theatre-tickets), lxiii, b. Trinkets and Toilette 
Articles in bronze and ivory, lxiv. Sieve, lxv, lxvi. Surgical In- 
struments, lxvii. Ivory Carvings. — To the left, near the model of 
Pompeii : Leaden Vessels of cylindrical form. — At the back is a 
Triclinium, or three dining-sofas, each for three persons (the table 
was placed in the middle). By the window, under a glass shade, 
the impression in hardened ashes of the breast of a girl and her 
skull, from the villa of Diomedes at Pompeii. 

The last room contains the excellently re-arranged Collection 
of Precious Belies, antique cut gems, and gold and silver objects. 

By thb Window, the celebrated *Tazza Farnese, a vessel of 
onyx with beautiful reliefs, the largest of its kind. On the out- 
side a large Medusa's head in relief; in the inside a group of seven 
persons, referred by some to the occasion of an inundation of the 
Nile, by others to a festival in spring, instituted by Alexander at 
the foundation of Alexandria. 


84 Route ;i. NAPLES. Museum. 

Tables in the Centre. The first near the window contains 
the Cameos, or stones cut in relief, many of which are very inter- 
esting: *16. Zeus in conflict with the Titans, by Anthemion; 32. 
Head of Medusa; 44. A fine head of Augustus ; 65. Part of the 
group of the Farnese hull, said to have been used as a model at its 
restoration; below it, iSfi7. Head of a Vestal. — Adjacent are the 
Intagli, or stones on which the designs recede (so placed that the de- 
signs are seen through the stone) : 209. Ajax and Cassandra ; 213. 
Apollo and Marsyas ; *392. Bacchante. — There is also an inter- 
esting table containing ancient Rings, including a gold ring with a 
portrait, possibly of Brutus, with the artist's name Anaxilas. 

The Cabinets by the entrance wall and the window-wall and 
at the front part of the left wall contain well-executed Objects in 
Silver: Vases, goblets, tablets, spoons, buckles; also objects in 
ivory, medallion reliefs, etc. The most noteworthy objects are the 
following : Six fine large vases ; Six goblets with foliage ; Small 
sun-dial; Vase in the shape of a mortar, with the apotheosis 
of Homer; Three handsome tripods ; Kings from Greek tombs at 
Armento in the Basilicata ; Silver Plate from the house of Me- 
leager at Pompeii, including two handsome goblets with centaurs. 

The Objects in Gold begin at the hinder part of the left wall, 
with the Greek ornaments, which include a Diadem from Venosa, 
and * Ornaments found in a tomb at Taranto. Then, opposite the 
entrance, ornaments from Herculaneum and Pompeii, some set with 
pearls and precious stones ; Nos. 1-4. Chain, bracelet, and a pair of 
earrings which were found with a female skeleton in the house of 
Diomedes at Pompeii; then, 186, 187. Two cloak-clasps; two mas- 
sive buckles in the form of serpents; handsome necklaces, etc. 
Adjacent, on a column, under glass: large gold lamp from Pompeii, 
admirably executed and well preserved. 

V. Modern Quarters : Chiaja, Villa Nazionale, 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele. — Castel S. Elmo. 

The modern quarters of Naples, which form the chief resort 
of foreign visitors , extend to the W. of the heights of Pizzo- 
falcone and S. Elmo, along the base and on the slope of the 
Posilipo (p. 92), and are bounded on the S. by the sea. Nearest 
the coast are the gardens of the Villa Nazionale, bounded on the 
seaward and landward side respectively by the Via Caracciolo and 
the Riviera di Chiaja. On the hill are the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, 
and the 7iew Via Tasso. 

The Via Cakacciolo (PI. C, I), 6, 7), a broad quay, stretches 
westwards along the coast, from the Largo della Vittoria (PI. 1), 6; 
p. 3i), commanding beautiful views of the sea and of the hill of 
I'o.silipo. It is generally quiet and deserted during the greater part 
ol' the day, but in the afternoon and particularly on Sunday and 

Villa Misionale. NAPLES. • :i. Route. 85 

holiday evenings in fine weather, it is thronged with carriages, while 
the neighbouring grounds of the Villa are crowded with foot-passen- 
gers. — The Riviera di Chiaja (PI. D, B, 6), generally known 
simply as La Chiaja [i. e. 'plaga' ; so too in Sicily 'chiazza' for 
'piazza') , also begins at the Largo della Vittoria at the point 
where the piazza is entered by the Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 
coming from the Toledo (p. 42). From this point it extends 
westwards along the coast for upwards of 1 M., being flanked on 
one side by hancbome hotels and other buildings, and on the 
other by the pleasure-grounds of the Villa Nazionale. The Chiaja 
is one of the busiest streets in the city, with the continual passing 
and repassing of tramway-cars, omnibuses, and business-vehicles. 

The * Villa Nazionale, formerly Villa Reale, generally called 
La Villa , is a beautiful pleasure-ground , affording the principal 
promenade at Naples. It was laid out in 1780, extended in 1807 
and 1834 , and again considerably enlarged since 1875. The 
grounds are arranged chiefly in the Italian style, and are em- 
bellished with trees of the most various descriptions, among 
which a few handsome palms are particularly noticeable. The 
sculptures intended for the decoration of the grounds, being in- 
different imitations of ancient and modern works , do not deserve 
inspection. The Villa is comparatively deserted during the day, 
but presents a busy and gay scene at hours when the daily con- 
certs (gratis) take place: viz., in the colder season 2-4, in summer 
9-11 p.m. In the evening, when lighted with gas, enlivened by 
the music, and fanned by the cool sea-breeze, these grounds afford 
a good idea of the charms of an Italian summer night (chairs 10 c. ; 
cafes, see p. 23). 

Entering the grounds by the principal approach in the Largo 
della Vittoria, and walking up the broad central path between two 
rows of palm-trees, we first come to a large Antique Granite Basin 
from Pa;stum, brought from Salerno, and deposited here in 1825 to 
replace the celebrated group of the Farnese Bull, which was then 
removed from this spot to the Museum (p. 64). To the right, 
farther on, is the former Pompeiorama, now a depot for the sale of 
photographs and objects of art. We next pass the Aquarium on the 
left (see p. 86). In the centre of the promenade, the most frequent- 
ed spot, where the band plays, are several cafe's. Here also rises a 
statue of the historian Giambattista Vico (d. 1744), recently erected. 
We next observe a mediocre statue of P. Colletta, the liberal-minded 
Neapolitan general , minister-of-war , and historian (1775-1831), 
erected in 1866. 

Farther on, to the right, is a small temple in honour of Virgil 
(p. 88), one of the loveliest points in the Villa, especially by moon- 
light. Anothertemple, to the left, is dedicated to the memory of Tasso. 
At the end of the gardens is a statue of Thalberg, the pianist, who 
died at Naples in 1871 . Adjacent are two handsome new fountains. 

86 Route 3. NAPLES. Aquarium. 

The white building in the middle of the Villa contains a large 
**Aquarium, opened in 1874. and belonging to the 'Zoological Sta- 
tion 1 . The aquarium is on the ground-floor of the building, and is 
entered from the side next to the Castel dell' Ovo (admission, see 
p. 30; catalogue, 50 c, illustrated, 1 fr.J. 

The Neapolitan Aquarium contains such an abundant stock of curious 
marine animals of every description that it is perhaps the most inter- 
esting establishment of the kind in the world ; and the wonderful variety 
of animate existence in the Mediterranean gives it a great advantage over 
aquaria drawing their main supplies from more northern waters. Among 
the contents are 6-8 varieties of cuttle-fish (the feeding of the large Oc- 
topus is interesting) , a number of electric rays (which visitors are per- 
mitted to touch so as to experience the shock from which the fish derives 
its name), numerous beautifully coloured fish of the Mediterranean, a 
great many different kinds of living coral, beautiful medusae and crested 
blubbers, many extraordinary -looking crabs and crayfish, pipe-fish, etc. 

The Zoological Station was established by the German naturalist 
Dr. Dohrn in 1872-74 for the purpose of facilitating a thorough scientific 
investigation of the animal and vegetable world of the Mediterranean Sea. 
The greater part of the expense was borne by Dr. Dohrn himself, but the 
German government has repeatedly contributed large subsidies, and the 
naturalists of Great Britain presented the institution with a sum of 1000 1. 
A yearly income of about 2500;. is now derived from the stipends paid by 
most of the European governments, Cambridge University, etc., for the privi- 
lege of sending naturalists to make use of the advantages of the institution. 
The new buildings which are at present being erected, with assistance from 
the Italian government, will permit of an extension of the activity of the 

The resident staff of the establishment consists of Dr. Dohrn himself, 
seven permanent naturalists, and upwards of twenty assistants of various 
kinds. A small steam-yacht, a steam-launch, and a flotilla of sailing and row- 
ing-boats are maintained for dredging, and the other equipments are also on 
a scale of great completeness. About 400 foreign naturalists have already 
prosecuted their investigations here. The institution publishes extensive 
periodical proceedings, sends microscopic and other preparations to all the 
leading museums and laboratories in Europe, and in various ways has 
fairly asserted itself as the central point for the study of marine biology. 
Similar stations have been founded in all parts of the world, but none can 
compare in size or importance with the original institution at Naples. 
There are now zoological stations at Plymouth, Edinburgh, Sebastopol, 
Trieste, Villafranca, Cette, Marseilles, Banyuls, Arcachon, Koscoff, Ostend, 
on the Dutch coast, in Sweden, Sidney, two in North America, and one 
in Japan. 

At the point where the Villa ends is the Piazza Vmberto (PI. 
B, 6, 7), where the new quarter of the Mergellina begins. In the 
Piazza Umberto the handsome Omnd Hotel (PI. s; B, 7) is conspic- 
uous. A few hundred paces farther on is the Stradu di Piedigrotta 
(p. 87) , leading in a straight direction, while to the left diverges 
the Strada di Mergellina, consisting of a long row of houses and 
villas on the foot of the Posilipo and on the coast. This forms 
the beginning of the Stradu Nuova di Posilipo (p. 92), which com- 
mands a succession of delightful views. 

Nearly '/ 4 M. from the above-mentioned bifurcation of 
the streets, the Corso Vittorio Kmanuele diverges to the right 
(p. H9 ; ordinary cab-fares thus far). About 1 / 4 M. farther, on the 
right, before the street turns a corner, we observe above us the 
small Chiesa del Sannazaro, or <S. Maria del Partu. (We ascend 

Strada di Piediyrotta. NAPLES. • !). Route. 87 

the approach to the church and mount the steps to the left, which 
lead in three flights to the terrace above the houses Nos. 10-17.) 
The church stands on the site of a small estate which King Fre- 
derick II. of Arragon presented in 1496 to the poet Jacopo Sanna- 
zaro (b. at Naples, 1458), for whom he entertained the highest re- 
gard. After his villa had been destroyed by the French, the aged 
poet caused the church to be erected by monks of the Servite order 
in 1529. It derives its name from his Latin poem, 'De partu Vir- 
ginis' (Naples, 1536). 

The church contains a high-altar and six chapels. In the 1st chapel 
to the right, St. Michael overcoming Satan, by Leonardo da Pistoja. The 
devil is represented with the features of a woman of whom Diomedes 
Carafa, Bishop of Ariano, was once passionately enamoured, and is popularly 
known as 41 diavolo di Mergellina'. Behind the high-altar is the monu- 
ment of the poet (d. 1530), executed by Fra Giovanni da Monlorsoli from 
a design by Girolamo Santacroce. At the sides Apollo and Minerva, pop- 
ularly believed to be David and Judith ; on a bas-relief between them 
Neptune and Pan, with fauns, satyrs, and nymphs singing and playing, an 
allusion to Sannazaro's poem 'Arcadia' ; above is the richly decorated sarco- 
phagus with the bust of the poet, which bears his academic name : Actius 
Sincerus. The inscription at the base of the monument by Bembo 'Maroni 
. . . Musa proximus ut tumulo' alludes to the poet's having imitated 
Virgil. His principal works are idyls, elegies, and epigrams in Latin. 

To the right, farther on, rises the Villa Angri. On the left 
C/2 M. from the Chiesa del Sannazaro), we next observe near 
the sea the picturesque ruins of the Palazzo di Donri Anna (erro- 
neously called that of the Regina Giovanna), begun in the 17th 
cent, by Fansaga for Donna Anna Carafa, wife of the viceroy Duke 
of "Medina, on the site of a former palace of the princes of 
Stigliano, but never completed. To the left, on the coast, just be- 
fore reaching the Palazzo di Donn' Anna , we pass the Trattoria 
dellaSirena, mentioned at p. 22 ; in the Palazzo itself are two other 
trattorie, and just beyond it the Trattoria dello Scoglio di Frisio, 
the best known of all. Tn front of 1he adjacent Marine Hospital, a 
curious group of statuary (St. Francis, Dante, Columbus, and Giotto) 
was erected in 1883. 

Boats for returning are generally to be found below the restaurants : 
to the Villa I'/a, to the town 2-3 fr. ; Cab from the Piazza del Plebiscito 
to the Frisio 1 fr. (bargain necessary). The tramway-cars also pass the 
Villa on their way to the Villa Canonica. 

For the continuation of this street, see pp. 92, 93. 

The Strada di Pibdigrotta (PI. B, A, 7), which forms the 
prolongation of the Chiaja in a straight direction, gradually ascends 
from the bifurcation mentioned at p. 86, past the tramway station 
of La Torretta, to the hill of Posilipo. In 5min. we reach the small 
piazza where the Corso Vittorio Emanuele diverges (p. 89). At 
this point rises the church of S. Maria di Piedigrotta, a building of 
the 13th cent. , but much altered, and finally restored in 1850 after 
the return of Pius IX. from Gaeta. It contains a very old picture 
of the Madonna, and an interesting Pieta in the Flemish-Neapo- 
litan style, the wings evidently executed under Sienese influence 
(2nd chapel to the right). — The festival (mentioned at p. 29) ce- 

SS Route :t. NAPLES. Tomh of Viryil. 

lcbrated here and in the Grotta di Pozzuoli, on 7th-8th Sept., is 
now merely a Bacchanalian orgy of the lower classes. 

A little farther on the road turns to the left, straight on being 
the Grotta Nnova di Pozzuoli (PI. A, 7), a tunnel bored in 1882- 
85 through the hill of Posilipo, and giving passage to the steam- 
tramway to Pozzuoli (p. 24). It is shorter, lower, and less pictur- 
esque than the old Grotta (seebelow), through which the rest of the 
wheeled traffic to Pozzuoli passes. Both grottoes are open to foot- 
passengers. A lift ('ascensore') is about to be erected to convey 
passengers to the top of the hill of Vomero (p. 94). 

About 3 min. farther, beyond the point where the road turns 
to the left, we observe on the left, between the smiths' forges, 
below No. 9, the entrance to the so-called Tomb of Viegil, a 
Roman columbarium situated on the hill, the genuineness of 
which, however, as the great poet's last resting-place is extremely 
questionable. The custodian is generally on the spot (adm. 1 fr. ; 
gratuity 6-8 soldi). The tomb-chamber, to which a long flight of 
steps ascends, contains nothing worth seeing, but the hill commands 
a beautiful view of the bay. The visit occupies 25-30 minutes. 

The tomb contains a chamber about 16 ft. square, with three win- 
dows and vaulted ceiling. In the walls are ten recesses for cinerary 
urns, and in the principal wall, which has been destroyed, there appears to 
have been one of greater size. The name of the monument is without 
satisfactory historical foundation, but probability and local tradition favour 
the assumption that this was Virgil's last resting-place. The poet, as he 
himself informs us, here composed his immortal works, the Georgics and 
the jEneid, and he unquestionably possessed a villa on the Posilipo, and 
by his express wish was interred here after his death at Brundisium, II. C. 
19, on his return from Greece. Petrarch is said to have visited this spot 
accompanied by King Robert, and to have planted a laurel, which at the 
beginning of the present century fell a prey to the knives of relic-hunters, 
and has since been replaced. It is on record that in 1326 the tomb was 
in a good state of preservation, and contained a marble urn with nine small 
pillars, the frieze of which bore the well-known inscription: — 
Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 
Parthenope : cecini pascua, rura, duces. 
Of all this no trace now remains. The following inscription was placed 
here in 1554 : — 

Qui cineres? tumuli hrec vestigia: conditur olim 
Ille hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 

The road now ascends in a curve and reaches the Grotta 
Vechia di Pozzuoli (PI. A, 7), a tunnel probably constructed in 
the reign of Augustus. It is mentioned by Seneca and Petronius, 
under Nero, as a narrow and gloomy pass. It is a masterpiece of 
ancient engineering; as indicated by the two air-shafts, the con- 
struction was begun from above at two points equi-distant from the 
ends as well as at each end , a method universally adopted by the 
ancients in boring tunnels. Mediaeval superstition attributed it to 
magic arts practised by Virgil. King Alphonso I. (about 1442) 
enlarged the opening by lowering the level of the road, and caused 
it to be ventilated; a century later Don Pedro de Toledo caused 
the road to be paved ; and it was again paved and improved by 

Corso Vittorio Emanuele. NAPLES! .'i. Route. 89 

Charles III. (1754). The length of the passage , which is always 
lighted with gas, is 757 yds. ; height at the E. entrance about 87 ft., 
varying in the interior from 20 to 50 ft. ; breadth 21-32 ft. Small 
chapels are situated at the entrance and in the middle. On a few 
days in March and October the sun shines directly through the 
grotto, producing a magic illumination. 

At the egress of the two tunnels is situated the village of 
Fuorigrotta , with numerous osterie , where several roads diverge. 
A new road to the right leads to Capodimonte (p. 44). The sec- 
ond leads to the village of Pianura (p. 96) ; a third road leads to 
theLago d'Agnano, and that in a straight direction to Bagnoli(jp. 99). 
At the W. end of Fuorigrotta is the small church of S. Vitale, 
containing a simple monument to the distinguished poet Count 
Giacomo Leopardi , who died at Naples in 1837. — Comp. the 
Map, p. 98. 

Opposite the N.W. corner of the Museum, as mentioned at 
p. 43, the Strada Salvator Rosa (Pl.D, E, 3) ascends the heights 
of S. Elmo and the Posilipo. Donkeys may be hired at the foot 
of the hill, and also farther up: to S. Martino I-IV2 fr- (as 
quick as a carriage, or quicker). The tramway (No. 5, p. 24) as- 
cends at this point by the rack-and-pinion system. In 10 minutes 
walk from the Museum we reach the small Piazza Salvator Rosa, 
where the Str. Salvator Rosa turns to the right (see p. 94). 

In a straight direction begins here the * Corso Vittorio Eman- 
uele (PI. D, 4, 5 ; C, 5, 6 ; B, A, 6), which is carried by means 
of windings and several viaducts round the hills of S. Elmo and 
the Posilipo. It then skirts the slopes for some distance, and at 
length gradually descends to the Piazza di Piedigrotta (p. 87) 
and the Mergellina (p. 86), commanding admirable views of the 
town, the bay, and Mt. Vesuvius. The road was begun by the 
Bourbons for military purposes (to afford a protected communi- 
cation between the Castel S. Elmo and the city), but was not com- 
pleted till 1875. Owing to the openness and healthiness of the 
situation, houses are rapidly springing up along this road. The 
distance from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to S. Maria di Piedigrotta 
is upwards of 272 M. (pleasanter for a drive than a walk). From 
the Corso a number of lanes descend, some of them by means of 
steps, to the lower part of the city. Those diverging from the 
first third of the road lead to the Toledo , those from the last third 
descend to the Chiaja. 

About 72 M. from the Piazza Salvator Rosa, beyond the 
viaduct and a bend in the Corso . a road diverging to the right 
beyond a red house (Salita or Pedimentina di 8. Martino ; PI. D, 
4, 5) ascends to the Castel S. Elmo and S. Martino. It soon narrows 
to a path ascending by means of steps, and towards the end by zig- 
zags, and leads to the entrance of the fort in !/4 hr. About Y2 M. 

W) Route ;i. NAPLES. S. Martino. 

farther the Salita or (imdoni del Petraio, another lane with steps, 
also ascends to the right from the Corso Vitt. Emanuele to S. Mar- 
tino and S. Elmo. At the top we turn to the right and soon reach 
the entrance to S. Elmo. This is the shortest route to the castle 
from the Chiaja (donkeys for hire at the foot of the Salita). — A 
much easier, but longer route is by the carriage-road, following 
the Str. Salvator Rosa to the small chapel of S. Maria Costantino- 
politana (PI. C, 4; p. 94), diverging there to the left, turning to 
the left again, and then to the right. Carriage to S. Martino, with 
one horse l 1 /^ with two horses 2 i / i fr., see p. 24. — A wire-rope 
tramway from the Corso to St. Elmo, where a new suburb is spring- 
ing up, is contemplated. 

On entering the precincts of the fortifications, we first pro- 
ceed to the suppressed Carthusian monastery of — 

*S. Martino (PI. D, 5), which is not less remarkable for the 
beauty of its situation and its views , than for the great value 
(if its contents. It was begun in 1325 by Duke Charles of Calabria, 
but was entirely rebuilt in the 17th cent. Since its dissolution, 
the monastery has been placed under the management of the 
Museo Nazionale, and is shown daily, 10-4 o'clock (adm. 1 fr. ; 
Sun. free). 

The ticket- office lies on the left in a passage with a turn-stile, be- 
yond the court, in which is situated the main entrance (always closed) of 
the church. Opposite the ticket-office is the 'garderobe 1 . 

We cross the Monastery Court, where sarcophagi, inscriptions, marble 
coats of arms, etc., are exhibited, and enter a wide archway, immediately 
to the right in which is the former laboratory of the convent, a large and 
lofty vaulted apartment. — The Hall to the left of this contains the pictures, 
tor which there was no room in the Museo Nazionale. The title and ar- 
tist's name is attached to each frame. Some of the pictures are good 
examples of Neapolitan masters of the 16th and 17th cent. In the centre 
of the apartment is the gorgeous Barge, used on the lake by Charles III. 
The adjoining Room contains battle-pictures, explained by the attendant. 
The State-coach in the centre used to appear in municipal festivals at Nap- 
les, and was used by Victor Emanuel on his entry of the city in 1860. 
A third, small Room contains ancient Views of Naples, and an interesting 
representation of a royal visit to the festival of Piedigrotta. 

We now return through the laboratory to the monastery court, and 
enter a long, narrow Corridor by the open door in the middle of the wall. 
Here on each side is an open door. — That to the left admits to a room 
containing i\fo>/<:ls of Italian Fortresses. — The door to the right leads 
through a passage to a tasteful 'Representation of the Infant Christ in 
the manner ( - il presepio 1 ), with the three Magi, and scenes of Neapolitan 
life, in a mountainous landscape. This representation, the delight of all 
Neapolitans, young and old, is worth seeing on account of the costumes. 

The narrow corridor leads to the "Cloisters, with 60 columns of white 
marble; immediately to our left as we enter, we see the inscription 'Chiesa 1 . 
— AV'e then traverse the Audience Room and the Chapter-house, the roof of 
which is painted by Corenzio (to the right, the L Coro dei Laici Conversi'). 
to the church, the choir of which we first enter. 

The CnuncH, which consists of a nave with three chapels on each 
side, is richly embellished with marble. On the ceiling is an Ascension, 
and between the windows the Twelve Apostles, by Lanfranco. Over the 
principal entrance a Descent from the Cross by Slanzioni. (damaged), and 
next to it Closes and Tilias by Spaimoletto. The Twelve Apostles above the 
arches of the chapels , by the same artist. Frescos of the choir by the 

Caatel Sunt' Elmo. NAPLES.' 3. Route. 91 

Cavaliere d^Arpino. The Crucifixion by Lanfranco. Nativity, unfinished, 
by Guido Rent (who died during the progress of the work). On the sides ; 
to the left , Communion of the Apostles, by Spagnoletlo (in the style 
of Paolo Veronese), and Christ washing the disciples' feet, by Caracciolo ; 
to the right, the same subject by Stanzioni, and Institution of the 
Eucharist, by the pupils of P. Veronese. The marble decorations of 
the church, twelve different roses of Egyptian granite, after Cosimo 
Fansaga of Carrara, the beautiful mosaic marble pavement by Presti, 
and the high-altar by Solimena also merit inspection. — The Sackisty, 
entered to the left from the choir, is adorned with intarsias by Bonaventvra 
Presto, and paintings by the Cavaliere d'Arpino, Stanzioni, and Caravaggio. — 
Beyond it is the Tesoro, containing as an altar-piece a ^Descent from the 
Cross, the masterpiece of Spagnoletto , fine in colouring and admirable 
for its delineation of pain ; on the ceiling Judith, by Luca Giordano, said 
to have been painted in 48 hours, when the artist was in his 72nd year. 

We return through the chapter-house to] the cloisters; to the right is 
the entrance to the — 

Museum (obliging custodians). Room I. Silver vessels; objects in 
marble; reliquary. — Room II. Majolicas from Castelli in the Abruzzi 
(Collection Songhi), interesting as specimens of a local industry, but other- 
wise unimportant; most of the pieces, both in this and the other rooms, 
date from the 17th cent, or later. — Room III. Modern glass, porcelain, 
and ivory carvings ; old pieces of music with miniatures ; priest's robe. 
— Room IV. Mirrors with chased figures. — Room V. Relics of the Italian 
statesman Carlo Poerio (b. at Naples in 1803, d. at Florence in 1867; 
comp. p. 42) and of his brother Alessandro , the patriotic poet (b. 1802), 
who died in 1848 from wounds received at the defence of Venice ; the hat 
of Cardinal Buffo; and uniforms of the old Consiglieri Municipals — 
From R. II. we turn to the right into Room VI. Figures in biscuit china 
from the manufactory of Capodimonte. To the right, in a niche, is the 
wax figure of Padre Rocco, a Neapolitan street-preacher and philanthropist 
who died at the beginning of this century. On the floor of this and the 
following room, mosaics of the signs of the Zodiac. — Room VII. The remain- 
der of the collection of majolicas. The best pieces are (beginning to the right): 
I-Ieliodorus ; Israelites crossing the Red Sea; Toilette of Venus; Diana 
asleep; Judgment of Paris, a curious rendering by Ant. Lolli; Apollo and 
the Python ; Boar-hunt ; Battle of Alexander ; Bacchic procession ; Gala- 
tea ; Jupiter and Juno (groups from the frescos by the Cavracci in the 
Pal. Farnese in Rome); David and Goliath; Bacchus and Ariadne; Finding 
of Moses. — Room VIII. (to the left of R. I.). Uniform of the Bourbon 
period. — Rooms IX. and X. Modern pictures. Embroidery in silk (Ju- 
dith, Esther, Flight into Egypt, etc.). 

At the end of the right wing of the cloisters is a door leading to the 
right through a corridor to the "Belvedere, a hexagonal room with two 
balconies commanding exquisite views of the city, the bay, Mt. Ve- 
suvius, and the fertile country as far as Nola and the Apennines. It 
is less extensive than that from the summit of the fort, but more 

Visitors are not admitted to the castle without a permesso from 
the commandant at Naples (p. 36 J. 

The Castel Sant' Elmo (876 ft.), or Sunt' Ermo, formerly Sunt' 
Era$mo, was erected by Qiacomo de Sanctis under Robert the Wise 
(1343). -Under Ferdinand I. (1458) it was called the Castello di S. 
Martino, after the neighbouring monastery, and considerably ex- 
tended. In the 16th cent, it was altered to its present form by 
Don Pedro de Toledo, and in 1641 some additions were made by 
the Duke of Medina. The vast walls , the fosses hewn in the 
solid tuffstone rock, its subterranean passages, and ample cistern 
formerly obtained for it the reputation of impregnability. The fort 

92 Route:). NAPLES. Strada Nuova di Posilipo. 

has boon dismantled under the new regime , and is now used as 
a military prison. A walk on the ramparts affords a splendid 
*Panorama of the town and bay , and particularly of the district 
towards Oamaldoli, Misenum, and Ischia. 

Farther on in the Oorso Vittorio Emanuele lie the hotels 
mentioned at p. 20. Beyond the Pension Britannique , to the 
right, diverges the new Via Tasso (PL B, A, 6), which in point 
of fine views surpasses even the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. On both 
sides this street is bordered with new buildings, which continue 
to the top of the Vomero (PI. B, 5). At S. Stefano (PI. A, 6), the 
Via Tasso joins the street on the Posilipo (see p. 94). 

VI. Hill of Posilipo. 

The walks described below may either be taken as a continuation of 
the traveller's visit to the modern quarters of the city, or they may be 
combined with the excursions mentioned in Route 4. If time is limited, 
a visit to the Strada Nuova di Posilipo may be combined with the ex- 
cursion to Pozzuoli, the best plan being to go through the Grotta di Posi- 
lipo , and to return l>y the new road. A visit to Camaldoli may also be 
combined with that of S. Martino (2 hrs. more), but a whole afternoon 
should if possible be devoted to the former. 

The hill which bounds Naples on the W., with its villages and 
numerous charming villas, derives its name of Posilipo, or Posil- 
lipo, from Pausilypon ('sans-souci'), the villa of the notorious 
epicure Vedius Pollio, afterwards the property of Augustus, which 
was gradually extended to the whole hill. The Posilipo is most 
conveniently visited either from the Chiaja or from the Museum. 
Our starting-point is the Chiaja. 

The **Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which at first skirts the coast, 
and then gradually ascends round the S. slope of the hill, was be- 
gun in 1812 during the reign of Murat, and in 1823 completed 
as far as Bagnoli. It leads between many beautifully situated 
villages, commanding exquisite views, and should on no account 
be omitted from the traveller's programme. Oomp. Map, p. 98. 

The beginning of the Strada, as far as the Frisio, l 1 /^ M. from 
the end of the Villa Nazionale , has been described at p. 86. The 
road leaves the sea and ascends in windings round the spur of the 
hill. To the left are the villas Rocca Romana, Rocca Matilda, 
and Minutoli. About II/4 M. from the Frisio, beyond a church on 
the right with a relief of the Madonna over its portal, a road diver- 
ges to the left, descending past the Villa de Melis, or delle Can- 
nonate, so called from its having been bombarded by the* French, 
where Philip Hackert , the court - painter whose life and style 
of art have been described by Goethe, resided in 1786. The road 
then descends past the Villa Oerace to the Capo di Posilipo. The 
small church of S. Maria del Faro, in the vicinity , occupies the 
site of an old lighthouse. Beautiful view towards Naples. Boats for 
returning to the town may be hired here. 

Nisida. NAPLES.* 3. Rente. 93 

The main road ascends for J/ 2 M. more. At the top of the hill 
it is joined by the road described at p. 94. It then passes 
through a deep cutting to a (J/4 M. ) projecting round platform 
which commands a magnificent *View towards Bagnoli, Camaldoli, 
Pozzuoli, Baja, and Ischia. The road now descends on the W. 
side of the Posilipo, commanding a fine view the whole way. 

On the left, ] / 4 M. below the round platform, is the entrance 
to the so-called Grotto of Sejanus, a passage hewn through the 
rock of the Posilipn, about 990 yds. in length, being 233 yds. longer 
than the Grotta di Posilipo, and originally surpassing it in height 
and width. In the S.W. side are several openings for ventilation 
which afford;", pretty glimpses of the sea (fee 1 fr. ; the inspection 
occupies about 1/2 hr.). 

This is the tunnel whose construction is ascribed by Strabo to 
M. Cocceius Jferva (B. C. 37), almost simultaneously with that of the 
Julian harbour on the Lucrine lake by M. Agrippa. It is therefore a 
mistake to associate it with the name of Sejanus, as it is of much earlier 
origin. It has recently been cleared of rubbish and supported by walls. 
on which occasion an inscription was found , recording that the tunnel 
had been repaired by the Emp. Honorius about the year 400. At the E. 
end of this passage, especially near the rocky promontory of La Qajola, 
the most beautiful views are obtained of Nisida, Procida, Ischia, Capri, 
and the bay of Naples, and a number of relics of antiquity are observed. 

The custodian conducts the visitor from the grotto to a vineyard in 
the vicinity (fee 30-50 c), whence a magnificent view is enjoyed, and 
where some of the scattered fragments of the Pausilypon, or villa of 
Vedius Pollio (p. 92) are visible, extending from the slope of the hill 
down to the sea, and overgrown with myrtles, erica, and broom. — 
The fish-ponds , in which the cruel Vedius was in the habit of feeding 
large lampreys with the flesh of his slaves, lay nearer the town. — A small 
Theatre is also seen , which belonged to the villa of Lucullus , with 
seventeen rows of seats hewn in the rock. Besides these are numerous 
other relics of the villas with which the Posilipo was covered in ancient 
times. We also observe, close to the sea, in the direction of the town, 
the Scuola, or properly Scoglio (rock) di Virgilio, perhaps once a temple 
of Fortune, or of Venus Euplcea, to whom mariners sacrificed after a 
prosperous voyage. 

The S.W. spur of the Posilipo is called Capo Coroglio, opposite 
which rises the small rocky island of Nisida, the Nesis of the an- 
cients, an extinct crater, which opens towards the S. On the N. 
side is a rock, connected with the mainland by a breakwater, and 
bearing the Lazzaretto (for quarantine purposes). The building 
on the height is a bagno for criminals (no admission). 

The son of Lucullus possessed a villa on this island, to which Brutus 
retired after the murder of Csesar in the spring of B. C. 44, and where 
he was visited by Cicero. He took leave here of his wife Portia on his 
departure for Greece, previous to the battle of Philippi. In the 15th cent. 
Queen Johanna II. possessed a villa on the island of Nisida, which was 
converted into a fort for the purpose of keeping the fleet of Louis of 
Anjou in check. 

From the entrance of the Grotto of Sejanus to Bagnoli (p. 99) 
is another mile, so that the whole distance thither from the Largo 
della Vittoria (p. 34) is about 4 M. — Bagnoli is a station on the 
tramway to Pozzuoli (p. 97). 

94 Route .3. NAPLES. Hill of Posilipo. 

The Hill of Posilipo is traversed by numerous roads and 
paths connecting the different villages, houses, and villas. Most of 
them are flanked by walls and command no view, but here and 
there they afford fine prospects of the city and bay and towards 
the W. The following route is recommended, particularly for driv- 
ing (or at least part of the way ; cab-fare from the Piazza Salvator 
Rosa to Antignano, with one horse I'/o; w ith two horses 2 l / i fr. ). 

We follow the Strada Salvator Rosa, mentioned at p. 89, 
from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to the right (nearly ^ M. from the 
Museum), passing between houses for nearly l /-2 M. and after- 
wards between garden walls. — A road diverges hence to Arenella, 
the birthplace of the talented landscape-painter Salvator Roan 
(b. 1605, d. at Rome in 1673 after a chequered career). — We 
continue to follow the main road in a straight direction. By the 
(_'/3 M.) chapel of S. Maria Costantinopolitann the road to S. 
Elmo, mentioned at p. 90, diverges to the left. To the right, 
farther on, we reach Antignano (PI. B, 4) in 2 min. more. From 
the small piazza at the beginning of the village the road to Vomero 
(left) and Camaldoli (right , see p. 95) separate. 

We turn to the left ('Strada Belvedere'), and then, halfway 
to the village, to the right, and next reach C/3 M.) Vomero (PI. 
B, 5), where the Villa Belvedere on the left commands a charm- 
ing *Panorama of both land and sea (attendant who shows the ter- 
race, 5-10 soldi). About a hundred paces farther the steep Salita 
del Vomero descends to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and to the 
Chiaja. — Our route continues to follow the heights, passing be- 
tween the garden-walls which enclose the villas Regina, Ricciardi, 
Belletieri, and Tricase. Beyond the last of these, at the Trattoria Pal- 
lino (a favourite resort, with fine view ; 8/4 M. from the Belvedere), 
diverges the new Via Tasso (p. 92) , by which we may descend to 
the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, enjoying a fine view the whole way. 

Beyond the Strada del Vomero the *Street on the Posilipo [comp. 
Map, p. 98) turns a little to the S., and then ascends, under the 
name of 'Strada Patrizi', past the ( Y3 M.) Villa Patrizi, command- 
ing an admirable view of the district to the W. , the Phlegrsean fields 
of antiquity (p. 96). The road continues to follow the top of the 
Posilipo, under which the tunnels mentioned at p. 88 pass. A 
little before we reach the entrance to the (2/3 M.) village of Posi- 
lipo, the Salita di S. Antonio diverges to the left, descending- 
past Virgil's Tomb (p. 88) to the iMergellina. — If the traveller 
prefers, he may pass through the village of Posilipo and follow the 
same road, which commands beautiful views and descends, past 
the village of Strata on the right, to (2 M.) the Strada Nuova di 
Pnsitipo, which we reach at its highest point, near the Villa Tlial- 
berg. The (irotto of Scjanus is 3 / 4 M. farther, and the Villa is 
about •> M. distant thein-e' (romp. p. 92, and the Map at p. 98). 

Cnmaldoli. NAPLES'. 3. Route. 95 


An Excursion to Camaldoli and back on foot, including stay there, 
takes 4'/2-5 hrs.; on donkey-back a little less (from the Museum or op- 
posite the Petraio, mentioned at p. 90, 2-2'/2 fr. and a trifling fee to the 
attendant). Those who prefer it may drive as far as Antignano fone-horse 
carr. l'/a, two-horse 2'A fr. ; comp. p. 24), where donkeys may be hired; 
carriages for returning may also sometimes be procured here , so that 
it is not absolutely necessary to keep one waiting. The bridle - path 
from Antignano, which walkers will find pleasant, cannot be mistaken 
if the following directions be attended to (see also Plan, p. 19, and 
Map, p. 98). — Th» early morning and the evening lights are the most 
favourable for the views, particularly the latter. The traveller, however, 
should start on the return-journey in good time , as it is anything but 
pleasant to encounter frequent walkers and riders on the rough path 
after dusk. — The monastery, suppressed by government in 1871 , has 
lately become private property, and is once more forbidden ground for 

Leaving the Museum , we follow the Strada Salvator Rosa, 
mentioned at p. 94, as far as Antignano (l'/4 M.), where we 
turn to the right (comp. Plan B, 4). At the next bifurcation we 
turn to the left, and reach (4 min.) V Archetiello gate (PI. B, 4), 
at which is the office where the Dazio Consumo, or municipal tax 
on comestibles, is levied. About 200 paces farther on, we take the 
bridle-path diverging to the left and passing an osteria on the 
right. The path then immediately passes under a viaduct and 
enters a hollow (to which point our Plan of Naples extends : A, 

4, 3). The path runs between bushes and pines. After 20 min., 
beyond an archway through which we pass, the path turns by a 
white house a little to the left to the (4 min.) farm - buildings of 
Camaldolilli, and passes through the gateway, immediately be- 
yond which it ascends to the right at a sharp angle. Fine view of 

5. Elmo, Naples, Vesuvius, and the bay towards the right. After 
7 min., at the point where the path descends slightly, a path diver- 
ges to the right to Nazaret, while our route descends to the left 
and passes the mouth of a gorge, through which is obtained a fine 
view of Capri. In 3 min. more we pass a path turning sharply to 
the left, and in 7 min. reach a point where a path diverges to the 
right to Nazaret and a forest-path leads to the left, while the main 
path, leading to Camaldoli, ascends steeply in a straight direction. 
Where the road divides, 5 min . farther, we keep straight on, and 
in 7 min. more we turn to the right to a closed gate, on passing 
through which riders have to pay 20 c. and walkers 15 c. each. The 
path then skirts the wall of the monastery garden , rounds the 
N.W. corner, where it is joined by the path from Nazaret via Pia- 
nura, and where the path to the point of view outside the monas- 
tery (mentioned at p. 96) diverges. We reach the entrance to the 
monastery in 5 min. more. Visitors ring at the gate, and on leaving 
give the porter a few soldi. 

**Camaldoli , a monastery of the Camaldulensian order insti- 
tuted by S. Romuald near Florence about the year 1000, was found- 
ed in 1585. There are still a few surviving monks, who offer wine 

96 Route 3. NAPLES. Camaldoli. 

and bread , and who in any case expect a small donation (^/s fr. for 
one person). The monastery stands on the B. summit of an amphi- 
theatre of Mils which enclose the Phlegrsean plain on the N., being 
the highest point near Naples (1476 ft.), and commands one of the 
most magnificent views in Italy. The monastery and church contain 
nothing worth seeing, and we therefore proceed at once to the garden. 
The best point of view is straight before us. The view embraces the 
bays of Naples, Pozzuoli, and Gaeta, the widely extended capital 
(of which a great part is concealed by S. Elmo) with its environs, 
the Lago d'Agnano, the craters of Solfatara and Astroni, the pro- 
montories of Posilipo and Mlsenum, the islands of Nisida, Procida, 
and Ischia, and the districts of Baiie, Cumie, and Liternum. Towards 
the S. the view is bounded by Capri and the Punta della Campa- 
nella, the ancient promontory of Minerva. The small towns of 
Massa, Sorrento, and Castellammare are visible ; also Monte Sant 7 
Angelo, the smoking cone of Vesuvius, and the luxuriant plain 
at its base. Towards the N. the eye wanders over the expanse of the 
Campania Felix with its numerous villages, over Nola, Cancello, Mad- 
daloni , Caserta, Capua, Monte Tifata , the volcanic group of the 
Rocoa Monflna, the lake of Patria, Gaeta, the hills of Formia;, and 
the Monte Circello beyond. To the W. stretches the open sea, with 
the islands of Ponza, Ventotene, S. Stefano, and Isola delle TiOtte. 

Parties which include ladies , who are not admitted into the 
monastery, may reach a scarcely inferior point of view, by striking 
off by the path descending to the right, between the N.W. corner 
of the monastery wall and the entrance (see p. 95), and then pro- 
ceeding along the slope beneath the wall to a (5 min.) gate, for 
opening which a fee of 25 c. is demanded. 

The return may be made by the route mentioned above by Nazavet 
tn Piainira at the N.W. base of the hill, where there are extensive quar- 
ries; thence to Fuorigrotta (p. 89 1, 4 M. — At the S. base of Camaldoli 
lies the village of Soccavo, to which a steep and rough path descends in 
3 /4 hr. from the point of view outside the walls, shortly before the 25 c. 
gate is reached. 

4. Pozzuoli, Baise, Misenum, and Cumae. 

The Phlegraean Plain, a district to the W. of Naples, has from time 
immemorial been a scene of tremendous volcanic activity, and as lately as 
the 16th cent, has undergone vast changes , of which the traveller will 
observe traces at every step. This tract is scarcely less interesting in an 
historical than in a physical point of view. It was here that Hellenic 
civilisation lirst gained a footing in Italy, and constant communication was 
thenceforth maintained between this portion of the peninsula and the East. 
The legends of Hellenic tradition are most intimately associated with these 
coasts, and the poems of Homer and Virgil will continue to invest it with 
a peculiar interest as long as classic literature exists. The prosperity of 
this lovely coast has long since departed. The grand creations of imperial 
Rome, the innumerable palatial villas of the Roman aristocracy, have long 
been converted into a chaotic heap of ruins by convulsions of nature and 
have left behind comparatively slight traces of their former ma^nilici'iice. 
Tile malaria which prevails in many parts of the district, and the stupendous, 
though slumbering, -a'z: ucies beneath the soil cast a certain gloom over 


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LAGO D'AGNlNO. i. Route. 97 

the scene; but the inexhaustible beauties of Italian nature are still in- 
vested with the same charms as they possessed two thousand years ago. 
Islands and promontories, bays and lakes, and singularly beautiful inden- 
tations of the coast form the chief features of this scenery, which is per- 
haps without rival. 

The fertile imagination of the natives has assigned all kinds of impos- 
ing classical names to many insignificant and uninteresting objects in this 
district, and strangers are therefore often importuned to inspect pretended 
curiosities which make serious inroads on time, temper, and purse. The 
chief objects of interest are enumerated in the following description. 

Two Days should if possible be devoted to exploring this region as 
follows: First: — Take the tramway from the Torretta station through 
the new Grotta di Posilipo (p. 88) to Agnano in 25 min. ; thence on foot 
to the Lago d'Agnano, 1 |« hr., where the Dog Grotto is scarcely worth a 
visit ; walk over the hill ("View) to the Solfatara, 1 hr. ; halt there, 20 min. ; 
walk to Pozzuoli and the "Amphitheatre, 20 min. ; halt there, and visit the 
cathedral, harbour, and "Temple of Serapis, 1 hr. ; drive (carriages gene- 
rally to be found in Pozzuoli) back to Naples by the * Strada Nuova di 
Posilipo (which route must be expressly stipulated for; 4 frs. and fee), 
l'/4 hr. ; in all 4'J2-5 hours. If we take the tramway on to Bagnoli, and 
return thence on foot to Naples, we require l'|2 hr. more. — Second : — 
Take the tramway to Pozzuoli, 3 \t hr. ; drive thence to the Arco Felice, 
1 hr. ; walk to Oumae and back, 1 hr. ; walk through the Grotta della 
Pace to the Lago Averno and Baja, 1 hr. ; drive to Bacoli, 20 min. (Pis- 
cina Mirabilis '/4 hi*-); ascent of Capo Miseno and back, l'/j hr. ; drive 
back to Naples 2V4-2'|2 hrs. ; in all V^S 1 ^ hours. — A pleasant variety 
may be introduced into the excursion by going from Pozzuoli to Baja or 
to the Grotto of Sejanus by boat. A single seat ('un posto') may often 
be obtained in one of the small 'Corricoli' or gigs which ply on the high 
roads (V2-I fr. according to the distance). 

If Cumse, which is chiefly interesting to archaeologists, or the Dog 
Grotto and the, Lago d' Agnano be omitted, all the other places may easily 
be visited in one day. (The Solfatara may also be omitted by those 
who intend to ascend Vesuvius.) The important antiquities of Pozzuoli 
may in this case be visited either in going or returning. The start should 
be made early. — The inns are generally dear and indifferent. Luncheon 
or early dinner may be taken at the Lucrine Lake or at Baja, but it is 
preferable to bring provisions from Naples and to picnic at Cumae or on 
the Capo Miseno. 

Steam Tramway, from La* Torretta at Piedigrotta (PL B, 7), the ter- 
minus of the tramway-line No. 1 (p. 24), to Pozzuoli in *\t hr., almost 
every 11(2 hr. from 5.30 a.m., fares, 65 and 50 c. The intermediate 
stations are Fuorigrotta (at the Piazza Leopardi, p. 89) ; Pilastri; Agnano, 
where the road diverges to the Lago d' Agnano (p. 98) ; Bagnoli (p. 99) ; 
La Pietra and Subveni Homini. 

Carriages. There is no fixed tariff except for the drives to the Lago 
d'Agnano and to Bagnoli , for either of which the fare is 2 fr. with one 
horse , or 3 fr. with two horses (from the stand in the Strada di Piedi- 
grotta; comp. p. 24). — The usual fare to Pozzuoli for a cab with one 
horse is 3 fr., there and back 4 fr., or back by the Strada Nuova di Po- 
silipo 5 fr. ; to Pozzuoli and Baja, and back, 10 fr. ; to Miseno and back 
12 fr. ; driver's fee extra in each case, and special stipulations must be 
made for halts at Pozzuoli, the Solfatara, etc. A carriage with two horses 
for the day costs 20-25 fr. , with one horse 10-12 fr., a corricolo 8 fr. ; a 
distinct bargain should be made beforehand. 

Guides. The following directions, the map, and a slight knowledge 
of the language will enable the traveller to dispense with a guide. Those, 
however, who desire to avoid the importunities of the guides at Pozzuoli 
and Baja may engage a cicerone at Naples for the excursion (6 fr. ; see 
p. 30). The Naples guides undertake the hiring of a carriage, the pay- 
ment of fees, etc. , thus relieving the traveller of all trouble (total cost 
for two persons with one-horse carriage about 20 fr.). 

Baedekeb. 'italv III. nth T^H-nr. 7 

08 Route 4. LAGO D'AGNANO. Environs 

The usual and shortest route to the W. environs of Naples is 
through the Grotta di Posilipo and Fuorigrotta (p. 89), from which 
the main road, with the steam-tramway, leads straight to Bagnoli 
(p. 99). From that road, a few hundred paces beyond Fuorigrotta, 
a cart track, and nearly l*/2 M. farther, at a station of the tram- 
way, a broad road planted with trees, diverge to the dried up Lago 
d'Agiiano, a /4 Al. from the tramway. 

The Lago d'Agiiano, which was drained in 1870, is an old 
crater of irregular form, 2 l / t M. in circumference. The water pro- 
duced malaria , but now that it is drained the sanitary gain is 
very doubtful, while the beauty of the landscape is sadly impaired. 
On the S. bank, immediately to the right of the point where the 
road reaches it , are the old Stufe di San Oermano , or chambers 
in which the hot sulphureous fumes rising from the ground here 
are collected for the use of sick persons (adm. 1 fr. each person). 
A few paces farther on is the famous Grotta di Cane, or Dog 
Grotto. It derives its name from the fact that the ground and sides 
are so thoroughly impregnated with carbonic acid gas, that the fumes 
render dogs insensible in a few seconds, and produce a feeling of 
languor on human beings. Dogs are provided for the exhibition 
of this somewhat cruel experiment, but the curiosity of the trav- 
eller may be sufficiently gratified by observing that a light is im- 
mediately extinguished when brought in contact with the vapour. 
Pliny (Hist. Nat. ii. 93) mentions this grotto as : 'spiracula et 
scrobes Charoneae mortiferum spiritum exhalantes in agro Puteo- 
lano '. (Adm. ! /2 fr- eacn person ; 1 fr. more is demanded for the 
experiments with the dog and the light.) 

The road skirting the S.W. bank of the dried lake leads to (1 II.) 
the royal chasse of Astroni, the largest and most important of the volcan- 
ic craters in this region , being upwards of 3 II. in circumference , and 
densely overgrown with holm-oaks and poplars. On the S. side it con- 
tains a small lake, and in the centre an eminence of trachytic lava. 
Picturesque , but somewhat dull park - scenery. Driving is practicable 
only as far as the margin of the crater. We then ascend the old road 
to the left to the large gate, where we show our 'permesso' (see p. 36). 
Fee V2 fr - 

From the Lago d'Agnano to Pozznou, l>/ 4 hr., a pleasant footpath 
commanding a superb view towards the end, leads across the hills to the 
W. By a solitary house, about 8 min. from the Dog Grotto, a road di- 
verges to the left from the above-mentioned Astroni road, and skirts the 
N. base of the Monte Spina. After 3 min. we turn to the right, and in 
10 min. more to the right again; where the road divides into three (2 
min.) we turn to the left, then immediately afterwards to the left again, 
continuing to follow the main road. At a farm-house (10 min.) the road 
narrows to a footpath, which ascends steeply past ancient walls to a (8 
min.) white building and yard, through which we pass by a door on the 
left. Passing through a narrow dell, the path leads in 8 min. more to 
the top of the hill, where we take the road to the right. Looking back, 
we obtain a beautiful glimpse of Nisida and Capri, and by the (5 min.) 
suppressed Capuchin monastery of S. Gennaro (p. 102), we enjoy a superb 
:: Survey of Pozzuoli and its bay, the Capo Miseno, and Ischia. After 
4 min. more in a straight direction, we may turn to the right to the 
entrance of the Solfatara (p. 102), or to the left to ("1 hr.) Poz/.uoli. 


*$ CONTORJil •■ NAP9LI. 


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Scala j«l 1:25.000 

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of Naples. VOZZVUhi. 4. Route. 99 

The monotonous high-road from Fuorigrotta to (2 1 / 4 M.J 
Bagnoli leads between gardens. When it approaches the coast, the 
island of Nisida (p. 93) becomes visible on the left. 

Bagnoli (called by the Neapolitans Bagnol) is a small water- 
ing-place with hot springs, some of which contain salt and carbonic 
acid gas, others sulphur and iron. There are several bath and lodg- 
ing-houses. Near the tramway-station is the *Figlio di Pietro 
restaurant, with a pretty view. From Bagnoli by the Strada Nuova 
di Posilipo to Naples, see pp. 93, 92. 

From Bagnoli to Pozzuoli, 2 1 / 4 M., the road skirts the coast, 
commanding delightful views. In the lava hills which rise near 
the sea, not far from Pozzuoli, are extensive quarries (petriere), 
where convicts are employed. The tramway stops just outside 
the town. 

Pozzuoli. — Hotel. Gean Brettagna, in the Villa Cardito, in the 
street ascending to the right at the entrance of the town, E. from 2fr., B. 
2 fr., pens. 6-12 fr., well spoken of. — Restaurants. Ponte di Caligola, 
near the harbour, in the small Piazza S. M. delle Grazie; Gaetano Lugli, 
Strada Torre 17-20, near Armstrong's Factory (p. 102), new. 

Guides, whose services may well be dispensed with (p. 98), assail 
the traveller pertinaciously the "moment he arrives. Their demands are 
generally extravagant. For a walk through the town, to the Amphitheatre, 
and the temple of Serapis 1 fr., or, with the addition of the Solfatara, 
l'/s fr- suffices. — The guides and others also importune visitors to buy 
'antiquities' which are manufactured at Naples and then buried to give 
them the requisite coating of rust or verdigris. Genuine antiquities may 
be purchased of the Canonico Criscio, in the road ascending to the right 
from the entrance to the town. 

Carriage (from the tramway terminus) with one horse to Cumie or 
Baja 3, to both 4-5 fr. ; with two horses, 4-4>| 2 and 5-6 fr. ; seat in a 'cor- 
ricolo' i/g-1 fr. — Donkeys (bad) 2-3 fr. for an afternoon. — Boat to Baja 
for 3-4 persons, in i/ a -l hr., about 2 fr. 

If the traveller takes a carriage from Naples to Pozzuoli and wishes 
to proceed at once to Baja he had better drive straight to the Solfatara 
(walking, however, for the last 5 min.), then to the Amphitheatre, and 
lastly to the Serapeum. The harbour may be visited in returning. 

Pozzuoli , a quiet town with 16,000 inhab. , situated on a 
projecting hill and at its base, on the bay of the same name, 
which forms part of the Bay of Naples, was founded at an early 
period by the Greeks and named by them Dicaarchia. It was 
subdued by the Romans in the Samnite wars, repeatedly colo- 
nised by them, and called by them Puteoli. It afterwards be- 
came the most important commercial city in Italy, and the prin- 
cipal depot for the traffic with Kgypt and the East, whence 
Oriental forms of worship were introduced here at an early pe- 
riod. St. Paul once spent seven days here (Acts, xxviii). Its 
ruins , which lie close to the modern town , are now the only 
indication of its ancient importance. The town itself presents 
few attractions. — The volcanic puzzolana earth found in the 
whole of this district, from which an almost indestructible ce- 
ment is manufactured, derives its name from Pozzuoli. 

At the entrance to the town a broad paved road ascends to 


100 Route 4. POZZUOLI. Environs 

the right in windings, leading to the upper town, the Amphi- 
theatre, and the Solfatara (see p. 102). 

Entering by the gate we soon reach the principal Piazza, 
in which rise the statue of a senator, bearing the name of Q. 
Flav. Mavortius Lollianus, discovered in 1704 (head formed of a 
separate block , but also ancient) , and that of Bishop Leon y 
Cardenas, Viceroy of Sicily under Philip III. 

Proceeding in a straight direction, and turning to the left 
by the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, we come to the Harbour, 
where we see the remains of the ancient pier, called by Seneca 
Pilae , by Suetonius Moles Puteolanae , and now Ponte di Cali- 
gola. Of twenty-five buttresses , which supported twenty-four 
arches , sixteen are left , three being under water. They are 
constructed of bricks and puzzolana earth, and bear an in- 
scription recording that the pier was restored by Antoninus Pius. 
A common , but erroneous impression is , that they were con- 
nected with the bridge- of- boats which Caligula threw across 
the bay of Baiw. in order that, clad in the armour of Alexander 
the Great , he might there celebrate his insane triumph over 
the Parthians. Route along the quay to the Serapeum, see below. 

If at the first bend in the above-mentioned road which leads 
to the upper part of the town we turn to the left we soon reach 
the Piazza del Municipio , commanding a fine view, whence we 
may follow the Via del Duomo and its second side-street to the 
left to the cathedral of 8. Proculo. It occupies the site of 
a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Calpurnius, six Corinthian 
columns from which are still outside. The church contains relics 
of St. Proculus and the monuments of the Duke of Montpensier, 
Governor of Naples under Charles VIII. of France, and of Giovanni 
Battista Pergolese of Jesi, the talented composer of the original 
Stabat Mater, who died in 1736 at the age of 26. (This digression 
is, however, more conveniently made in descending, on the way 
back from the Amphitheatre and the Solfatara.) 

At the extreme N. end of the town begins a narrow street 
(bearing the inscription 'Bagni di Serapide') which leads from the 
sea to the *Temple of Serapis, or Serapeum (fee 1/2 h'-)> which, 
however, is now considered by many to be an ancient market- 
hall (macellum). It was known as early as 1538, but not com- 
pletely excavated till 1750. It consisted of a square court, en- 
closed by forty-eight massive marble and granite columns , and 
with thirty-two small chambers adjoining. The portico rested on 
six Corinthian columns (three of which remain ) , bearing a rich 
frieze. In the centre of the court stood a circular temple, sur- 
rounded by a peristyle of sixteen Corinthian pillars of African 
marble , which have been transferred to the theatre of the pa- 
lace at Caserta (p. 10), the bases alone being left. The interior 
was approached by four flights of steps. The pavement declined 

of Naples. POZZUOLI. . 4. Route. 101 

inwards towards the centre. The statues of Serapis, now in the 
museum at Naples, were found in the neighbourhood. Two in- 
scriptions found here mention the restoration of the temple by Mar- 
cus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. The lower parts of the ruin 
are under water, but the level of the ground has recently been 
raised, in order to prevent unhealthy exhalations. 

In the course of centuries a species of shell-fish (lithodomus, or modiola 
Uthophaga , still found in this vicinity) had undermined the bases of the 
central columns, whilst the upper parts remained intact. Interesting obser- 
vations may be made fiere with respect to the changes which have taken 
place in the level of the sea at different periods. That it had risen con- 
siderably, even in ancient times, is proved by the fact that mosaics have 
been found 6 ft. below the present level of the pavement. After the decline 
of heathenism the sea continued to rise, as the different water-marks testify. 
Subsequently the lower part of the edifice was buried to a depth of 13 ft., 
probably by an eruption of Solfatara, and thus protected against the farther 
invasions of the Crustacea. These extend to a height of 9 ft., so that at 
one period the sea-level must have been at least 20 ft. higher than at 
present. This great change was caused by the convulsion connected with 
the upheaval of Monte Nuovo (p. 103) in 1538. Since the last century the 
ground has again been gradually sinking. The salt springs in the ruins 
were called into existence by the last eruption. 

The Temple of Neptune is a name applied to another ruin, to the W 
of the Serapeum , consisting of a few pillars rising from the sea. In the 
vicinity, also under water, is situated the so-called Temple of the Nymphs, 
from which a considerable number of columns and sculptures have been 
recovered. Farther on, a few fragments mark the site of Cicero's Puteolaneum, 
a villa delightfully situated on the coast, which the orator in imitation of 
Plato called his Academy, and where he composed his 'Academica' and 'De 
Fato'. Hadrian (d. at Baise, A.D. 138) was temporarily interred within the 
precincts of Cicero's villa, and Antoninus Pius erected a temple on the spot. 

On leaving the Serapeum , we proceed to the right, and by 
a fountain again to the right , after 4 min. cross the high-road, 
and ascend the broad paved road to the left to an open space, 
whence the Via Anflteatro leads after about 250 paces to the 
Amphitheatre , the most interesting and perfect of all the ruins 
of Pozzuoli (admission 1 fr. ; Sundays gratis). 

The * Amphitheatre rests on three series of arches, which were 
surrounded by an external court ; the two principal entrances were 
adorned with triple colonnades. The interior contained four tiers of 
seats in several compartments (cunei), connected by flights of steps. 
The imperial seat was distinguished by Corinthian columns of black 
marble. The arena, 369 ft. long, and 216 ft. broad, was excavated 
in 1838 , when a number of subterranean passages and receptacles 
for the wild beasts, etc., 98 paces long and 53 broad, were dis- 
covered , affording us a distinct idea of the arrangements and 
machinery of the ancient amphitheatres. By means of a water 
conduit (to the left of the principal entrance) the arena could be laid 
under water when naval combats were to be represented; the 
outlet is in the principal passage. The entrances for the glad- 
iators, and the air-holes and outlets of the dens of the animals 
are easily recognised. The celebrated gladiator-combats under 
Nero, when he received Tiridates, King of Armenia, as a guest 

102 Route 4. SOLFATARA. Environs 

at his court , took place here , and even the emperor himself 
entered the arena. Under Diocletian St. Januarius and his 
companions were thrown to the wild beasts here in vain, as an 
inscription on the chapel dedicated to him records, before they 
were put to death near the Solfatara. The high ground near the 
amphitheatre commands a fine view in the direction of Misenum. 

Above the amphitheatre was situated a theatre , the ruins of which 
have not yet been excavated. Other ruins in the vicinity , externally of 
circular construction, are believed to have been either Baths or a Temple 
of Diana. The Villa Lusciano contains the so-called Labyrinth , really a 
piscina, or ancient reservoir. The Piscina Grande , with vaulted ceiling, 
resting on three rows of ten columns each, still serves as a reservoir, and 
was doubtless once connected with the ancient aqueduct from the Pausi- 
lypon to Misenum. 

Roman Tombs have been discovered in great numbers on the old 
roads, the Via Campana leading to Capua, the Via Puteolana to Naples, 
and the Via Cumana to Cumee, but are now mere shapeless ruins. 

We now return to the Piazza del Municipio (p. 100), from the 
opposite end of which, by the small church 'Deipane Consolatrici 
Sacrum', the road to the entrance of the town descends to the 
right (p. 100), while that to the Solfatara leads to the left. 
The latter (after 2 min. , to the right, afterwards to the left) 
ascends through vineyards. The ascent to the Solfatara on foot 
takes 20 min. ; donkey 1 fr. (not recommended). 

The *Solfatara (adm. l /2 lr - ea °h person) is the crater of a 
half extinct volcano, an oblong space enclosed by hills of pumice- 
stone, from numerous fissures ('fumaroli') in which vapours and 
sulphureous gases ascend. The ground is hollow in every direction, 
powder found at the top, which the guides erroneously call salt- 
petre, is really ceramohalite, or sulphuretted potter's clay. The 
ancients (Strabo) called this crater Forum Vulcani, and believed 
it to be connected with the crater of Ischia. The only recorded 
eruption from it, attended with an emission of lava, took place 
in 1198. A manufactory of stucco is now established here. 

Above the Solfatara, towards the E., rise the Colles Leucogaei , the 
white hills whose light-coloured dust was so highly prized by the an- 
cients for colouring groats and other kinds of grain. Several small brooks 
containing alum have their source here, called / Pisciarelli, the Pontes 
Leucogaei of the ancients (Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxi. 2), which fall steaming 
into a ravine between the Solfatara and the Lago d'Agnano, and are fre- 
quently iised as a remedy for cutaneous diseases. The ground is warm 
and saturated with gas in every direction. 

Shortly before our route reaches the Solfatara it is joined on 
the right by a road coming from the Lago d'Agnano (p. 98). The 
*View on the latter road is so fine that the traveller should not omit 
to ascend as far as (6 min.) the now suppressed Capuchin monas- 
tery of S. Oennaro, erected in 1580 on the spot where St. Janu- 
arius is said to have been beheaded in 305 (see above). 

The high-road which leads towards the W. from Poz/.uoli 
passes first the Stnhilimento Armstrong, a branch of the well- 
known cannon and armour-plate works of Armstrong & Co. at 

of Naples. LACUS AVERNWS. 4. Route. 103 

Newcastle. The undertaking, actively supported by the Italian 
government, promises to introduce new life into this hitherto 
deserted region. The road divides at the foot of the Monte Nuovo, 
nearly l 1 ^ M. beyond the town. The branch to the right leads 
to the Lago Averno, Arco Felice, and Cumae (p. 108) ; that to the 
left to Baia? and Misenum ('Strada di Miniscola'). 

The Monte Nuovo (456 ft.) is a volcanic hill of comparatively 
recent origin, having been upheaved on 30th Sept., 1538, after 
a violent earthquake. Its form is that of an obtuse cone, in the 
centre of which is a very deep extinct crater, enclosed by masses 
of pumice-stone, trachyte, and tufa. The ascent is interesting, 
and not less so the toilsome descent into the crater. 

The road to Baise (274 M. from the above-mentioned bifur- 
cation) traverses the narrow strip of land which now separates the 
Lacus Lucrinus from the sea. Here stands the small but clean 
H6tel de Russie (D. 4y 4 , lunch S 1 /^ bottle of wine 1, pens. 7, 
R. 3 fr.). 

The Lacus Lucrinus, which was famed for its oysters in an- 
cient times, was separated from the sea by a bulwark, called 
the Via Herculea, from the tradition that the hero traversed it 
when driving the bulls of Geryon across the swamps. This barrier 
afterwards fell to decay and was again repaired , but was seri- 
ously damaged by the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. Part 
of it, 250 yds. in length, is still visible under the water, where 
remains of the Portus Julius, or harbour constructed by Agrippa, 
are also distinguishable. Instead of oysters, the lake now yields 
the spigola, a fish much esteemed by the Neapolitans. 

About V 2 M. to the N. of the Lacus Lucrinus , a little in- 
land, bounded on three sides by hills clothed with chestnuts, 
vineyards, and orange-gardens, lies the celebrated *Lacus Avernus, 
which was regarded by the ancients as the entrance to the infernal 
regions on account of its sombre situation and environs. Its 
banks are now bordered with blocks of lava. Circumference 
nearly 2 M. ; depth 210 ft. ; height above the sea-level 3'/2 ft. 
Tradition affirmed that no bird could fly across it and live, owing 
to its poisonous exhalations, and that the neighbouring ravines 
were the abode of the dismal, sunless Cimmerii, mentioned by 
Homer (Odyss. xi). "Virgil, too, represents this as the scene of 
the descent of .(Eneas, conducted by the Sibyl , to the infernal 
regions (^En. vi. 237). Augustus, by the construction of the 
Julian harbour, and by connecting this lake with the Lacus 
Lucrinus, was the first to dispel these gloomy legends. Horace and 
Virgil accordingly extol the harbour as a prodigy. — The canals 
and wharves of Agrippa were still in existence in 1538, but the 
upheaval of the Monte Nuovo destroyed every vestige of them, 
half filled the Lucrine lake, and so altered the configuration of the 
neighbourhood that the two lakes are now quite separate, and the 

104 Route 4. BAJA. Environs 

intervening space is completely overgrown with underwood. In 
lt">58 an attempt was made to convert the Lacus Avernus anew 
into a war-harbour, hut the scheme was soon found impracticable. 

On the S. Side of the lake are observed grottoes and cuttings, hewn 
in the tuffstone rock, which probably once belonged to the Portus Julius. 
One of these caverns, situated a few hundred paces to the left of the end 
of the road coming from the Lucrine Lake, and now called the Grotto 
of the Sibyl, or Grolta d'Averno, is entered by a gateway of brick , and 
consists of a long, damp passage hewn in the rocks and ventilated by 
vertical apertures. Midway between the two lakes a passage to the right 
leads to a small square chamber, the '■Entrance to the Infernal Regions'. 
Near it is a chamber with mosaic pavement and arrangements for a warm 
bath. It contains luke-warm water, 1 ft. in depth, which rises in the 
neighbourhood and is styled by the guides the '■Bath of the SibyV. The 
grotto is 280 paces in length , and blackened with the smoke of torches. 

Visitors are carried through the pools of water by the guides. Torches 
(1 fr. each) are necessary, and even with their aid the effect is very ob- 
scure. The fee for admission to the grotto is 1 fr., but the custodian 
generally demands 2-3 fr. A distinct bargain should be made beforehand. 
A visit to the grottoes is on the whole scarcely worth the trouble , and 
should certainly not be attempted by ladies. 

On the N.W. Side of the lake is one end of the Grotta delta Pace 
(p. 108). 

On the E. Side are the interesting ruins of magnificent Baths, some- 
times called a Temple of Apollo, Pluto, or Mercury. 

Having returned to the Baja road, we reach, about ] /2 M. from 
the Lucrine Lake , the ruins of ancient baths , called Le Stufe 
di Tritoli. Near them a path on the slope of the mountain leads to 
the Bagnl di Nerone, a long, narrow, dark passage in the rock, 
at the farther end of which rise several warm springs, the famed 
Thermae Neronianae of antiquity, and still frequented by invalids. 

The water is hot enough to boil eggs (1 fr. ; admission to the baths 
'/a fr.). But there is nothing worth seeing, and the interior is so hot that 
a visit to it is anything but pleasant. 

After we have ascended a little and rounded the projecting 
Punta delV Epitaffio, a charming view of Baja is disclosed to us. 
On the hill to the right we observe innumerable fragments of old 
masonry, passages, colonnades, mosaic-pavements, etc., all now 
overgrown with plants and buried in rubbish. 

Baja. — Hotel della Regina, a tavern commanding a charming 
view, not suitable for spending the night ; bargaining advisable in spite of 
the announcement of fixed charges, D. 5, lunch 3 l |4 fr., A. 25 c; Albergo 
della Vittoria, at the foot of the castle, 1/2 M. farther, less pretentious, 
well spoken of, good cuisine, 1) 5, lunch 3'/4 fr. The H6tel de Russie 
(p. 103) is preferable to both. 

(Inide unnecessary, l-l'/2 fr. according to bargain. Giosaphata di Luccia, 
who understands English, French, and a little German, is well spoken of; 
he provides boats and carriages. 

Boat to Pozzuoli for 3-4 persons about 2 fr. ; to Bacoli and Miseno 
the same; there and back 3-4 fr. ; according to bargain in each case. 

Bajn, the ancient Bake, now a very insignificant village, situat- 
ed on the bay of the same name and commanding a charming view 
was the most famous and magnificent watering-place of antiquity, 
and had attained the zenith of its splendour in the age of Cicero, 
Augustus, Nero, and Hadrian. 'Nothing in the world can be com- 
pared with the lovely bay of Baiie', exclaims Horace's wealthy lio- 

of Naples. BACOLI. 4. Route. 105 

man (Epist. i. 85) , who is desirous of erecting a magnificent villa 
there. Luxury and profligaoy, however, soon took up their abode 
at Baiae, and the desolate ruins which now alone encounter the eye 
point the usual moral. With the decline of the Roman empire the 
glory of Baiae speedily departed. In the 8th cent, it was devastated 
by the Saracens, and in 1500 entirely deserted by its inhabitants 
on account of malaria. 

Of the imposing baths and villas of the Romans , the founda- 
tions of which were often thrown far out into the sea, nothing but 
mere fragments now remain. In modern times these ruins are often 
exalted into temples, or otherwise dignified in a manner for which 
there is not the slightest foundation. The principal remains consist 
of three extensive colonnades which belonged to baths. 

We first observe in a vineyard between the high-road and the 
road to the Lago Fusaro,' a large octagonal building, with a circu- 
lar interior, a half-preserved dome, and four recesses in the walls, 
and remains of a water-conduit, styled a Temple of Diana (fee 
30-50 c). 

If we ascend the road to the Lago Fusaro for 5 min. we reach a 
path to the right on the slope , which in 10 min. more leads us to the 
top of the hill, and commands an admirable view of Cumse, Ischia, Lago 
del Fusaro, etc. 

Close to the village, in another vineyard to the right of the road, 
is a large circular building, with a vaulted ceiling, open in the 
centre , and four niches in the walls , obviously a bath , but called 
a Temple of Mercury , or by the peasantry it troglio (trough). Fine 
echo in the interior (fee 30-50 c. ; women here offer to dance the 
tarantella for the traveller's entertainment, 50 c). 

A little farther on, to the right, is the Hotel della Regina. 
About 100 paces beyond it, to the left, by the small harbour where 
the boats from Pozzuoli land , is situated an octagonal structure 
with a vaulted ceiling, in the interior circular, and 25 paces in 
diameter, with remains of the ancient lateral chambers, windows, 
and staircases , somewhat resembling the Minerva Medica at 
Rome, now called the Temple of Venus. (As this is a public 
thoroughfare , no gratuity need be given.) 

The high-road skirts the bay, and passing several columbaria 
on the left, ascends the hill occupied by the Castle of Baja, which 
was erected in the 16th cent, by Don Pedro de Toledo. It now con- 
tains a small garrison ; admission is granted, but is not worth the 

About 2 M. beyond Baja we reach the village of Bacoli, which 
is believed (not with absolute certainty) to derive its name from 
the ancient Villa Bauli, and also boasts of a number of antiquities. 
The traveller who is pressed foT time, however , had better confine 
his attention to the Piscina Mirabilis (see p. 106). 

The Villa Bauli is celebrated as having been the frequent residence of 
distinguished Romans , and it was here that Nero planned the murder of 
his mother Agrippina, in March, A.D. 59, a crime which was afterwards 

106 Route 4. MTSENUM. Environs 

perpetrated at her villa on the Lucrine Lake. The tomb of Agrippina, of 
humble pretensions as Tacitus informs us (Ann. xiv. 9), was situated on 
the height by the road to Misenum, near the villa of Csesar, but the 
spot cannot now be exactly determined. What is commonly named the 
Sepolcro (V Agrippina, on the coast below the village, a semicircular pass- 
age with vaulted ceiling, reliefs, and paintings, is really the ruins of a 
small theatre. Extensive ruins near this, partly under water, are supposed 
to belong to the villa of the eminent orator Hortensius, and may be visited 
by boat. Even the pond in which he reared his favourite lampreys is 
said to be visible. In this villa Nero is believed to have sanctioned the 
proposition of his freedman Anicetus, commander of the ileet, to drown 
his mother Agrippina by sinking her in a ship. The attempt , however, 

The Villa of Julius Caesar, on the height near Bauli, was afterwards 
the property of Augustus, and was occupied by his sister Octavia after the 
death of her second husband M. Antony; and here she lost her hopeful 
son, the youthful Marcellus, whom Augustus had destined to be his suc- 
cessor. It is believed by many that the subterranean chambers, known as 
the Cento Camerelle, or Garceri di Nerone, or the Labyrinth, belonged to 
the basement story of this villa (fee l ji fr. ). They are sometimes 
visited by torchlight, but the view from them is the chief attraction. 

On the hill to the S. of Bacoli, 10 min. from the entrance to 
the village, is situated the *Piscina Mirabilis. (Guide unnecessary. 
We may either leave the road by the Ufflzio Daziario and follow 
the long street of the village ; or, better , follow the road to the 
bifurcation mentioned below , and 60 paces beyond it ascend a 
path diverging to the left from the Misenum road. On the hill we 
turn to the right. Custodian, whose house is on the right, near 
the Piscina, !/ 2 fr- i he sells vases and other antiquities found in 
the vicinity.) The Piscina is a reservoir at the extremity of the 
Julian Aqueduct, 230 ft. in length, 85 ft. in width, with a vaulted 
ceiling supported by forty-eight massive columns, and admirably 
preserved. — Following the top of the hill in the same direction 
(S.) for 7 min. more, we reach a cottage (good wine), the roof of 
which commands a very fine view , though inferior to that from 
the Capo Miseno. 

Near Bacoli, about l / i M. beyond the Ufflzio Daziario, the road 
divides : the branch to the right leads to Miniscola and the 
( 2 / 3 M.) starting-point of the ferry-boat to Procida and Ischia (see 
p. 108); the road to the left leads in a straight direction to Misenum. 
Both of these roads skirt the margin of the shallow Mare Morto, 
part of the old harbour of Misenum , from which it has only 
recently been separated by the embankment which bears the road. 
The two basins are now connected by a narrow channel only, which 
is crossed by a bridge. 

In the time of Augustus a vast war-harbour was constructed at Mise- 
num by Agrippa, in connection with the works at the Lacus Avernus 
and the Lacus Lucrinus, in order to serve as a receptacle for the Roman 
Ileet on this coast, like Ravenna in the Adriatic. The harbour consisted 
of three basins, two outer, one on each side of the promontory called 
Forno, and one inner, the present Mure Morto. The Punta di Pennala, 
a. narrow promontory which bounds the harbour of Misenum on the N., 
was penetrated by a double subaqueous passage for the purpose of pre- 
venting the accumulation of sand at the entrance. A pier was also con- 
structed mi pillars, three of which av.- still visible under water. Other 

of Naples. CAPO MISENO 4. Route. 107 

relics of antiquity abound in the neighbourhood , but it is a difficult 
matter now to ascertain to what they belonged. Even the situation of 
the Town of Misenum is not precisely known , although it probably lay 
near the modern village of that name. Scanty remnants of a theatre are 
still traceable near the small promontory /( Fomo. Some ruins on the 
height above are supposed to belong to the once famous villa of Lucullus, 
afterwards the property of Tiberius, who died here, and subsequently 
that of Nero. The Grotta Dragonara, a long subterranean passage on 
the W. side of the promontory, with vaulted roof, supported by twelve 
pillars, is variously conjectured to have been a naval depot or a reser- 
voir for water. 

The fleet stationed at Misenum, to which the place owed its impor- 
tance, was commanded in A.D. 79 by the Elder Pliny, who perished 
during the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius (p. 121). In 890 the town was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens. 

Driving is not allowed beyond the above-mentioned bridge, 
Y4 M. from the bifurcation of the road. Beyond it we pass a 
white powder-mill, soon reach (*/2 M.) the village of Miseno, 
situated at the foot of the cape, and proceed to the church. The 
ascent (to the top and back IV4-IV2 hr.) is fatiguing for ladies. 
A boy may be taken as guide ('in coppa', to the top). We follow 
the main road to the Tenuta , a little before which we ascend to 
the right ; a steep and narrow path then leads to the summit through 

The *Capo Miseno is an isolated mass of rock rising from the 
sea, which was formerly only connected with the mainland by the 
narrow Spiaggia diMiniscola (see below), extending towards theW. 
Its remarkable form once gave rise to the belief that it was an 
artificially constructed tumulus of very ancient origin. Thus Virgil 
(JEn. vi. 232) describes it as the burial-place of the trumpeter 
Misenus : — 

At pius jEneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 
Jnponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque 
Monte sub aereo, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicitur aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 

The summit (300 ft.) commands one of the most striking 
** Views in the environs of Naples. It embraces the bays of Nap- 
les and Gaeta and the surrounding heights, with the peculiarity 
that the spectator appears to stand in the midst of a complicated 
assemblage of straits, peninsulas, bays, lakes, and promontories. 
On the side next the sea rises a picturesque mediaeval watch-tower ; 
another similar tower has recently been removed to make way for 
a lighthouse. 

To the W., opposite the Capo Miseno, rises the Monte di Pro- 
cida, a volcanic rock , covered with vineyards yielding excellent 
wine, and fragments of ancient villas. 

The narrow strip of coast, about 1 M. in length , between the 
Capo Miseno and the Monte di Procida, separating the sea (Canale 
di Procida) from the Mare Morto, is called the Spiaggia di Minis- 
cola, or Miliscola, a name which is said to be a corruption of Militis 
Schola ('military exercising-ground'). At the foot of the Monte di 

108 Route 4. ARCO FELICE. Environs 

Procida, at the point where the road from Baja reaches it, is the 
landing-place (sbarcatojo) for boats to Ischia and Procida, to -which 
there are frequent opportunities of crossing. (To Procida , for one 
or more persons l'/V^fr. ; to Casamicciola in Ischia, 10 fr. ; the 
bargain should be made with the boatmen themselves.) — On the 
road to Baja, y 4 M. to the N. of the landing-place, at the junction 
of the road with that from the Lago Fusaro, is the poor Osteria del 
Monte di Procida (no sign ; good wine). 

The N. (right) branch of the road ascends gradually from the 
bifurcation at the foot of the Monte Tmiovo (p. 103), i'/o M. from 
Pozzuoli, tothe(iy4M.) top of the E. margin of the crater of the Lago 
Averno, which soon becomes visible below to the left. About '/^M. 
farther, where the road turns a little to the right, a cart-track di- 
verges to the left, leading in a few minutes to the Arco Felice, a 
huge structure of brickwork, about 63 ft. in height, and 18 '/a ft. 
in width, situated in a deep gully. On the summit are traces of 
an aqueduct. The arch may have been exclusively destined for 
the latter purpose, or it may also have carried a road over the high- 
er ground. 

The road to Cumae passes through the arch and then descends. 
About 400 paces beyond it an ancient paved way diverges to the 
left to a subterranean vaulted passage , called the Orotta delta Pace 
(after Pietro delta Pace, a Spaniard who explored it in the 16th 
cent.). It was constructed by Agrippa for the purpose of affording 
direct communication between Cumae and the Lacus Avernus. This 
tunnel is upwards of !/ 2 M- in length, and is lighted at intervals 
by shafts from above. 

The entrance is closed by a gate (admission l /-> fr.), which carriages 
can scarcely pass. The floor is covered inch-deep with fine sand. Torches, 
which are, however, unnecessary, are offered for sale at Pozzuoli (1 fr. per 
pair). — Travellers from Curaie, or those who wish to combine the ex- 
cursion to Baja with a visit to the Lacus Avernus in such a way as not 
to be obliged to traverse the same ground twice, may avail themselves 
of this tunnel in order to reach the N. bank of the lake (see p. 104). 

We continue to follow the road to Cumae, the acropolis of which 
we observe on the hill to theW. About l /z~M.. from the Arco Felice 
near the entrance to a vigna bearing the name 'Villa Martino', the 
road forks : to the left to the Lago del Fusaro (p. 109) ; to the 
right to Cumae. In a vigna to the left of the former branch of the 
road, about 120 paces from the bifurcation, is situated an ancient 
Amphitheatre with twenty-oiie tiers of seats, covered with earth and 
underwood. If we follow the branch of the road to the right, and 
after 90 paces diverge from it to the left , we are led through a 
farm-yard and by a path through vineyards in ^4 nr - to the site of 
ancient Cumae. 

Cumee, Greek Cyme, the most ancient Creek colony in Italy, was 
situated near tin; sea on a volcanic eminence (trachyte), which 

of Naples. CUJVLE. 4. Route. 109 

•ises from the extensive plain between the Monte di Procida and 
;he mouth of the Volturno. 

The town is said to have been founded by ..Eolians from Asia Minor 
n B. C. 1050, or at an even earlier period. Cumte in its turn founded 
Jicsearchia, the modern Pozzuoli, and Palseopolis, the modern Naples, and 
sxercised the most widely extended influence on the civilisation of the 
talian peninsula. All the different alphabets of Italy were derived from 
lie Cumsean ; and Cumse was the centre whence the Hellenic forms of 
vorship, and with them Hellenic culture, became gradually diffused among 
.he aboriginal tribes. Rome received the mysterious Sibylline books from 
3umse, and the last of IJie Tarquinii died here in exile. The city, which 
>nce boasted of great wealth and commercial prosperity, was often seri- 
lusly imperilled by the attacks of the neighbouring tribes, especially the 
Etruscans , who were signally defeated in a naval battle near Cumse , by 
Hero of Syracuse , the ally of the citizens , B.C. 474. Pindar cele- 
irates this victory in the first Pythian ode , and a helmet of the en- 
;my dedicated at Olympia as a votive offering from the spoil was found 
here (now in the British Museum). At the close of the 5th cent. Cumse 
>articipated in the general decline of the Hellenistic towns. In 420 it was 
tormed by the Samnites, and in 337 taken by the Romans, after which 
t became a Roman municipium of little importance. Under the emperors 
t fell entirely to decay, but was restored by the Goths. In the 9th cent, 
t was burned by the Saracens , and in the 13th it was finally destroyed 
is a stronghold of pirates by the inhabitants of Naples and Aversa. 

Fragments of the huge external walls of the former * Acropolis 
ire still standing. Beautiful prospect thence towards the sea, 
laeta, and the Ponza Islands, and (to the left) of the Lago Fusaro, 
Ischia, etc. Extensive remains of the anoient fortifications are 
preserved, especially on the E. side and by the S. entrance. The 
rock on which this castle stood is perforated in every direction 
jvith passages and shafts. One of these (descend to the left by the 
lut), with numerous lateral openings and subterranean passages, is 
thought to correspond with the description given by Virgil (Ma. 
vi. 41) of the Orotto of the Sibyl, which had a hundred entrances 
md as many issues, 'whence resound as many voices, the oracles 
)f the prophetess'. The principal entrance is on the side of the 
lill towards the sea, but most of the passages are blocked up. It 
s believed that one of the passages leads to a large, dark cavern 
n the direction of the Lago del Fusaro, but the investigations have 
been abandoned as dangerous. — The form of the temples of Apollo, 
Diana, the Giants, and Serapis, where recent excavations have 
brought sculptures and columns to light, is not now traceable. The 
scanty ruins are concealed by vineyards and underwood. 

From Cumee a good road leads to the S. to (l'/2 M.) the Lago 
lei Fusaro, perhaps once the harbour of Cumae, to which the poet- 
ical name of the Acherusian Lake is sometimes applied. The lake 
is believed to occupy the crater of an extinct volcano. It is still, as 
in ancient times, celebrated for its oysters. In the lake, near the S.E. 
shore, is a pavilion, erected by Ferdinand I. On the bank, oppo- 
site, is a restaurant (de"pendance of the Rest, de 1'Europe at Nap- 
les), with garden, good but expensive (closed after June). At the 
S. end of the lake is a Roman 'emissarius', the Foce del Fusaro, 

110 Route 5. PROCIDA. Environs 

which connects it with the sea. To the N. of the cniissarius, on 
a projecting tongue of land, stands the Torre. di Gaveta, with ex- 
tensive ruins of the villa of Servilius Vatia, who retired hither 
when Nero's folly and tyranny at Rome had become insufferable. — 
A road leads from the Lago del Fusaro, passing numerous relics 
of ancient tombs, to ( 3 / 4 M.) Baja, and another to (2 l /2 M.) Minis- 
cola (p. 107). 

5. Frocida and Ischia. 

Cornp. the Map. 

The Steamboat Connection between Naples and these two islands 
(once or twice daily, morning and afternoon) is subject to continual altera- 
tion (like the Capri route, p. 161) ; so that before starting on the expedi- 
tion the traveller would do well to make particular enquiries at his hotel, 
or still better, at the steamboat -office, concerning both the time and 
place of departure (from the Immaeolatella, Pl.F, 5, or S. Lucia, P1.E,6). 
The office of the Societal Florio-Rubattino is at No. 28 Strada Piliero (PI. 
K. F, 5), and that of the Societa Napoletana di Navigazione (formerly 
Manzi), at No. 14 Marina Nuova. — The voyage from Naples by Procida 
and Ischia to Casamicciola takes 3 ! |4 hrs. ; fares , 5 and 3 fr. Embarking 
or landing at Naples, at the Immaeolatella 15c., at S.Lucia 30c, at Pro- 
cida or Ischia 15c, at Casamicciola 30 c; the boatmen are rarely satisfied 
with this tariff, but their importunities should be disregarded. 

The most convenient arrangement for visiting these islands varies 
with the hour at which the start is made from Naples. Travellers who 
start early in the morning, and omit Procida , need spend only one night 
on the excursion. We reach the town of Ischia in the course of the fore- 
noon, walk or drive from the quay in ^2 hr. to Porto d'Ischia, where 
alone tolerable inns are to be found. Here we lunch and engage a bed; 
then take a one-horse carriage (about 5 fr.) via Casamicciola, destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1883, to Forio, in 2'|2 hrs.; ascend thence to the top 
of the Epomeo (donkey 3-5 fr.), and descend by Barano to Porto d'Ischia. 
Next morning an early steamer conveys us back to Naples. — Those who 
leave Naples in the afternoon, may quit the steamer at Procida, ascend to 
the fort for the sake of the view, and then traverse the island lengthwise 
tn the creek of Chiajolella (2 SI.), where boats (l'|2 fr.) are found for the 
crossing to Porto <f Ischia, where the night is spent. The second day, see 
above. — Those who only wish to see Casamicciola and the effects of 
the earthquake of 1883 (about 3 hrs.), may sometimes, by starting by an 
early steamer, reach Naples again on the same evening. 

A visit to these islands may be very conveniently combined with the 
excursion to Cumse and Baja. After breakfasting at Baja, we arrange to 
start thence about 11 a. m., drive by Bacoli (p. 105; visit the Piscina 
Mirabilis; see the view from the roof of the cottage; no time for the Capo 
Jliseno) to Sliniscola in l-f/2 hr., cross to Procida (p. 108) in 3 /4-lhr. (visit 
the castle if time permits , 3 /< nr 1 and then proceed by steamboat to 
Ischia (3/4 hr.). 

A rowing-boat takes 6 hrs. to cross from Ischia to Capri in fine wea- 
ther (20 fr.). 

Procida, the Prochyta or Prochyte of the ancients, like its 
sister island Ischia, with which it appears once to have been con- 
nected, is of volcanic origin, being composed of pumice-stone 
and lava. It consists of two contiguous craters, which now form 
two semicircular bays , their S. margins having been destroyed 
by the action of the sea. A third and smaller crater forms 
the creek of Chiajolella, and a fourth the neighbouring island 

of Naples. PROCIDA. 5. Route. 1 1 1 

of Vivara, which has been separated from Procida by some con- 
vulsion of nature. The island is 2 M. in length, and of varying 
width ; population 14,000, whose occupations are fishing and the 
cultivation of the vine and other fruit. The surface is somewhat 
flat compared with that of its more majestic sister isle. 

As the island of Procida is approached, the most conspicuous 
object is the fort, situated on the Punta di Rocciola, the N.E. ex- 
tremity. Below lies the town of Procida, extending along the N. 
coast , partly built on. the higher ground above , and stretching 
thence towards the S. side. The white, glistening houses with 
their flat roofs present a somewhat Oriental aspect. On festivals, 
especially that of St. Michael (29th Sept.) and on 8th May, the 
women in commemoration of their ancient origin assume the Greek 
costume (red upper garment with gold embroidery), and perform 
the tarantella, their national dance. 

The landing-place ('Marina') is on the N. side, and close to it 
the indifferent Vittoria inn (R. 2,D. 3-4 fr., also furnished apart- 
ments, bargaining necessary). In order to reach the castle we follow 
the main street of the village which ascends to the left by the Cafe 
del Commercio at the W. end of the Marina, and take the first side- 
street to the left. This leads to the small Piazza dei Martiri, 
where a tablet was placed in 1863 in memory of twelve Procidans 
who were executed during the reaction of 1799 (fine view towards 
the S.). In 5 min. more we reach the Castle, now a house of cor- 
rection, situated on a precipitous rock, and commanding fine *Views 
of Procida and the Epomeo , Capo Miseno, Capri, Vesuvius, and 
the peninsula of Sorrento. 

The above-mentioned main street intersects the town from E. 
to W., and is prolonged to the left by the 'Strada Vittorio Ema- 
nuele', which runs between garden- walls and rows of houses, and 
traverses the whole island towards the S.W. In 40 min. we reach 
the Bay of Chiajolella, situated below the old chateau of S. Mar- 
garita , and near the small olive -clad island of Vivara. At the 
Chiajolella boats for the passage to Ischia are always to be found 
( 3 /4 hr. ; fare 2 fr.). As soon as we have passed Vivara, we obtain 
a view of Ischia with its beautiful hills, commanded by the summit 
of the Epomeo, with the town and castle of Ischia in the foreground. 

Ischia, the Pithecusa, Mnaria, or Inarime of antiquity, and 
the mediaeval Iscla , the largest island near Naples, is about 19 
M. in circumference, without taking the numerous indentations 
into account, and has about 20,000 inhabitants, who are princi- 
pally engaged in fishing, the culture of the vine (white wine, light 
and slightly acid) and other fruit, and recently in straw-plaiting 
(p. 27). There are few mendicants. The climate is genial, the soil 
extremely productive ; the scenery almost everywhere singularly 

112 RoiUe5. ISCHIA. Environs 

beautiful, for which it is indebted to its volcanic origin. Monte 
Epomeo (the ancient Epomeus, or Epopeus) was an active volcano 
at a much earlier period than Vesuvius, and in consequence of 
its eruptions the island was deserted in B. C. 474 by the greater 
number of the Greek inhabitants. Eruptions also took place in 
B.C. 92, and in the reigns of Titus, Antoninus Pius, and 
Diocletian. According to the ancient poets, the giant Typhosus, 
transfixed by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, lay buried beneath this 
mountain, like Enceladus under ^Etna, periodically groaning and 
causing fearful eruptions of Are. The last eruption recorded took 
place in 1302. The stream of lava which on that occasion de- 
scended to the sea near Ischia is not yet wholly covered with ve- 
getation. The earthquake of 28th July 1883 displaced a large 
mass from the mountain. 

After the fall of Rome Ischia suffered many attacks and devastations 
at the hands of the different lords of Italy, especially the Saracens in 813 
and 847, the Pisans in 1135, and the Emp. Henry VI. and his son 
Frederick II. In 1282 it revolted with Sicily against the Anjou dynasty, 
but was subdued by Charles II. of Naples in 1299, and has since been 
united with the kingdom and shared its vicissitudes. The celebrated 
general, the Marchess Pescara, was born in 1489 at the castle of Ischia, 
which was afterwards gallantly defended by his sister Constance against 
the forces of Louis XII. of France. As a reward, her family were invested 
with the governorship of Ischia, which they retained till 1734. In 1525 
Pescara's widow, Vittoria Colonna, celebrated alike for her talent and 
beauty, the poetical friend of Michael Angelo, retired to Ischia to mourn 
her husband's loss. So too Maria of Arragon in 1548, widow of the Mar- 
chese del Vasto. 

Ischia, the capital of the island, with 7000 inhab., and the 
seat of a bishop, stretches picturesquely along the shore in the 
form of a street, 1 M. in length, extending from the Castle on its 
lofty isolated rock on the S. to the Punta Molina on the N. The 
castle, erected by Alphonso V. of Arragon (Alphonso I. of Naples) 
about 1450, and connected with the land by a stone pier, is now 
used as a prison. Beautiful view from the roof. 

From Ischia a good road skirts the whole N. coast of the is- 
land, passing Porto d'Ischia and Casamicciola, to (7 M.) Forio, 
which is situated on the W. coast. From the landing-place at 
Ischia we follow the road to the right in a straight direction, 
crossing the Lava dell' Arso, or lava-stream of 1302, at Punta Mo- 
lina. About 1 M. from Ischia, after passing a royal park and casino 
(now a military bath) on the left, we reach. ■ — 

Porto d'Ischia ( Grand Hotel Fasolini , definite bargai n advisable ; 
Cafedei Viaggiatori; Cafe Epomeo; Cafe Angarella, P>. 2>/ 2 , 'pens.' 
6-7 fr. ; and other cafes with R. and trattorie), also called Bagno 
d'Ischia, from several warm salt springs, which are used at differ- 
ent bathing establishments. The harbour, the circular shape of 
which denotes that it occupies an old crater, was at one time a lake, 
but it was connected with the sea in 1853-56 in order to afford 
refuge to vessels in stormy weather. 

of Naples. ISGHIA. 5. Route. 113 

The road ('Via Quercia') ascends to the left by a yellow church 
with Ionic columns, being accompanied by the telegraph wires, and 
commanding a beautiful view of the rocky coast and the sea. 
About 2 7-2 M. farther we reach — 

Casamicciola (Restaur.- Pens. Bellevue , on the coast, 1 UM. 
from the steamboat-quay, with pretty view, R. 3, 'pens.' 8fr., 
some of the rooms in a barrack ; Restaur. -Pens, des Etrangers, unpre- 
tending), formerly a village with 4500 inhab., frequented by Ital- 
ians and. foreigners sfb a summer-resort on account of its charming 
situation on the N. slopes of the Epomeo and its warm alkaline 
aud saline springs. The terrible earthquake of 28th July 1883, 
however, laid it almost entirely in ruins, and cost thousands of 
lives. The church, the bath-houses, and the Monte della Miseri- 
cordia hospital lie in shattered heaps, and most of the few houses 
that are still standing have suffered severely. A visit to the scene 
of the calamity, the traces of which have not yet been removed, 
takes 2-3 hrs. One-horse carriages may be hired at the quay 
for I1/2 fr. per hr. (bargaining necessary), donkeys for 1 fr. The 
hill commands a fine view. 

The road continues along the slope a little longer, and then 
descends to Lacco, a village where the earthquake was much less 
disastrous. Here is situated the church of Sta. Restituta , the pa- 
troness of the island, on the occasion of whose festival (17th May) 
numerous national costumes are observed. Near the former mona- 
stery and in the garden attached to it rise hot springs which are used 
for vapour-baths. 

Forlo, the most populous place in the island after Ischia, 
with 6500 inhab. , lies on the W. coast, 3 M. from Casamicciola. 
The Franciscan monastery by the sea merits a visit on account of 
the beauty of its situation . 

The Asobnt op the Epombo (donkey 4-5 fr. and fee) may be 
undertaken from any of the principal towns. It occupies about 
2 1 /2 hrs.; the descent, direct or via Barano to Ischia, 2-2!/2 hrs.; 
while II/2 h r - is usually spent at the top. The ascent on foot is 
very fatiguing and should not be attempted without a guide ; pro- 
visions should be taken. — The **Epomeo (2625 ft.) falls away on 
the N. side almost perpendicularly, but is less steep on the other 
three sides. At the top are a Hermitage and the Chapel of S. Nicola, 
hewn in the volcanic rock, from which the mountain is also called 
Monte S. Nicola. Wine and bread (1 fr.) may be obtained from the 
hermit, and in any case a trifling donation is expected. Passages 
and steps cut in the rock ascend to the Belvedere, commanding a 
strikingly beautiful panorama, embracing the bays of Gaeta and 
Naples. At our feet lies the island of Ischia itself; to the W. the 
open sea ; to the E . the coast of Italy from Terracina , the pro- 
montory of Circello, and the Ponza islands to Capo Miseno, Ve- 
suvius, and the Capo Campanella, the extremity of the peninsula 

BaEDKKEE. Tt.alv TTT OH. VA-.i-! — g 

114 Route 6. PORTICI. From Naples 

of Sorrento ; in the foreground Procida, then the indentations of 
the Bay of Naples, to the right the island of Capri; towards the 
N. the distant snowy peaks of the Abruzzi. 

The following extracts from the writings of Nicolovius, an eminent 
German author, and husband of Goethe's niece, although dating from 1792, 
are in most respects still applicable to Ischia. 

'The climate of this charming island is genial, the sky rarely overcast, 
the winters mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied by nature with the 
necessaries of life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs, and 
all kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in the rich volcanic soil. Here and 
there are observed groves of young oaks and chestnuts. Orange, pome- 
granate, fig, and arbutus trees are the most common in the gardens -, the 
myrtle and mastich-tree form the most frequent underwood in the unculti- 
vated parts. The inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar dialect, 
costume, and figure. Fashion is unknown. The island cannot boast of a 
single carriage or horse. The king himself on landing here must, like the 
humblest inhabitant, have recourse to a donkey, unless he prefers to 
walk .... Nowhere have we seen the tarantella, or national Neapolitan 
dance, in greater perfection than here. It is usually performed by two 
girls ; a third plays on the tambourine and sings. The woes of an absent 
cr unhappy lover are usually the theme of the song. In many of them 
the Madonna and Cupinto (Cupid) are depicted as in perfect harmony with 
each other. The dancers stand opposite to each other, grasp the corners 
of their broad aprons, and begin their evolutions. They place their arms 
alternately akimbo, while the disengaged hand grasping the apron raises 
it high in the air, and occasionally draws it tightly across the knee. The 
posture and the manipulation of the apron changes incessantly. At one 
time the dancers flit past each other, at another with a slight curt- 
sey and sweep of the foot give the sign to meet again, whereupon they 
let go their aprons and career round in a circle, striking their castanets 
with upraised hands , or imitating the sound with their fingers. The ca- 
price of the dancer is capable of imparting an entirely different character 
to the dance, which is generally intended to manifest the state of the feel- 
ings. Fortunata, a relative of our host, performed the dance one evening, 
at our request, with an uncouth Lombard youth, and the expression of the 
dance was one of bitter derision. 1 

6. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). 


Railway to Pompeii, 15 M., in 50 min.; fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 10 c. 
(return-tickets 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 85 c). — High-road, see p. 118. 

The railway from Naples to Pompeii , and thence to Salerno 
and Metaponto (best views to the right), traverses the suburbs 
and crosses the insignificant Sebeto, a stream which bounds Naples 
on the E. The large red building on the right is the Granili, 
used as barracks and (as the name imports) corn -magazines. 
Beyond these we obtain a retrospect of the Castel S. Elmo. 
This district is densely peopled ; the first village is the straggling 
S. Giovanni a Teduccio. To the right the view becomes less cir- 
cumscribed; and Naples, thePosilipo, beyond which rise the moun- 
tains of Ischia, the island of Capri opposite , and the peninsula 
of Sorrento are now visible. 

b M. Fortici. — Trattoria. Asso di Coita, clean, cuisine well spo- 
ken of. 

Oakkiages. With one horse to the Pia/'/.a del Jhinuipio at Naples 

to Pompeii. RESINA. 6. Route. 115 

i'/ 2 fr., or from one hour after sunset till midnight 2'/* fr. ; to the Rivi- 
era di Chiaja 2 or 3 fr. ; to the Museo Nazionale 1 fr. 75, or 2 fr. 60 c; 
to Kesina 50 or 75 c. — With two horses doable these fares. 

Tbamwat, see p. 24. 

Portici, a town with 12,500 inhab., is also the station for Be- 
sina (see below). It has a small harbour formed by a molo, from 
the end of which a fine view is obtained of the bay. The high- 
road from Naples to Salerno traverses the town, and also leads 
through the court of the palace built by Charles III. in 1738. 
In the somewhat neglected park of the latter is now a school of 
agriculture. — Continuation of the Railway Journey, see p. 117. 

Adjoining Portici, immediately beyond the palace, are the 
houses of Resina, a town with 13,000 inhab., built upon the lava- 
streams which cover the ancient Herculaneum. About l /i M. 
beyond the palace, and 200 paces beyond the office of the Vesuvius 
guides, immediately on this side of a viaduct crossing the Vicolo 
di Mare, and to the right of the high-road, is the entrance to the 
excavations. — Distance thither from the Portici station 2 /3M. (guide 
unnecessary). On leaving the station we follow the main street 
to the right, and after 7 min. turn to the left ('Linea Daziaria del 
Comune di Resina') ; in 5 min. more , near the palace of Portici 
(on the left) we reach the above-mentioned high-road, which we 
follow to the right. Over the entrance is the inscription, ; Scavi 
di Ercolano'. Admission 2 fr., for which the visitor is provided 
with a guide (no fees) ; on Sundays gratis. 

Herculaneum, the Heracleia of the Greeks, derived its name from the 
worship of Hercules peculiar to the place. Tradition attributed its 
foundation to the hero himself, who during his wanderings in the West 
visited this district. It was inhabited by Oscans, the aboriginal natives 
of the country, by Etruscans, and by Samnites , before it became subject 
to Rome. Owing to its salubrious situation on a height, between two 
rivers, and being near the sea! it became a favourite site for Roman 
villas (thus that of Servilia, sister of Cato of TJtica). The spot retained 
its name even after the total annihilation of the town by the eruption of 
79. A number of poor families then took up their abode here, but in 472 
their village was again destroyed by an eruption, which altered the config- 
uration of the whole coast. Subsequent eruptions increased the depth of 
ashes and lava under which the old town was buried to 40-100 ft. , that 
being the depth of the remains at the present day below the surface of 
the soil. The discovery of Herculaneum took place in 1719. Prince 
d'Elbceuf of Lorraine, whilst erecting a casino at Portici, caused a well to 
be dug to supply it with water. This led to the discovery, at a 
depth of about 90 ft., of the ancient theatre, where a number of sta- 
tues were found. Two of these, beautiful portrait-statues of an old and 
a younger woman, are now in the museum at Dresden. During the 
next thirty years the excavations were discontinued, but in 1737 Charles 
III., when engaged in erecting a palace at Portici, recommenced opera- 
tions, which were unfortunately directed by unskilful hands and led 
to no satisfactory result; nor was it an easy task to remove the ashes, 
that had hardened into tuffstone, and the lava which covered the ruins, 
especially as the buildings and streets of Portici and Resina were thereby 
undermined. In 1750 a long, narrow passage was hewn through the rock, 
leading to the theatre, which lies 69 ft. below the level of the street, and 


116 Route 6. HERCULANEUM. From Naples 

this is the entrance at the present day. In 1755 the Accademia Ercolauese 
was instituted for the investigation of the antiquities discovered, and 
under their auspices was published the 'Pitture d'Ercolano' in 9 vols. 
(Napoli, 1757), which caused immense sensation in the learned world. 
The excavations during the next 50 years were conducted too superficially 
and unsystematically, but progressed more favourably under the French 
kings Joseph Napoleon (1806-8) and Joachim Murat (1808-15). Under theBour- 
bons operations were suspended till 1828. Many of the most interesting 
objects were excavated and again covered ; thus the theatre , part of 
the forum with its colonnades, a colonnade (erroneously called a basilica), 
resembling the building of Eumachia at Pompeii, various temples, a large 
villa, in which were found most (and by far the finest) of the bronzes 
now in the museum at Naples, as well as the 3000 papyrus-rolls (p. 75), 
private houses, etc. Although the works were carried on without any defin- 
ite plan, the yield was remarkably rich, and has furnished the museum 
of Naples with a large proportion of its most valuable treasures, including 
statues, busts, mural paintings, inscriptions, and utensils of all kinds. 
The excavations were recommenced with great ceremony in 1868, but 
as they are conducted on a limited scale no great results have yet 
been obtained. In due time , however , a number of interesting dis- 
coveries may confidently be expected. This is all the more likely as the 
ancients appear soon to have given up their search for objects of value 
here as being unprofitable; and while Pompeii was thoroughly explored 
and ransacked, the treasures of Herculaneum have been preserved for the 
benefit of posterity by the mantle of lava with which they are enveloped. 
The attractions presented by Herculaneum are at present of a very 
limited character, but an opportunity of seeing them should not be neglect- 
ed. The visit may be paid on the way to Mt. Vesuvius, or , better still, 
after the excursion to Pompeii. 

From the entrance we are first conducted down a dark flight 
of more than a hundred steps to the Theatre, of which an accurate 
idea is not easily formed by the light of the flickering candle. 
Owing to the buttresses built to support the rock above, the 
place rather resembles a profoundly dark subterranean labyrinth. 
It contained four broad tiers or steps for the chairs of the more 
dignified spectators, above which were sixteen tiers of seats in six 
compartments (cunei) : between these, seven flights of steps as- 
cended to a broad corridor, above which were three more tiers 
of seats. The number of spectators cannot have exceeded 3000. 
The orchestra lies 85 ft. below the level of the modern Itesina, 
and is faintly lighted from above through the shaft of the well 
which was the occasion of the discovery. One inscription records 
that L. Annius Mammianus Rufus erected the theatre, another 
that Numisius, son of Publius, was the architect. On each side 
of the proscenium are pedestals for honorary statues, with in- 

A visit to the buildings brought to light by the Scavi Nuovi 
of 1828 to 1S37, and resumed in 1<868, is of far higher interest. 
We are conducted by the custodian down the Vicolo di Mare 
(p. 115) for 4 min. ; the entrance is by an iron gate to the left. 
A street, part of a large private house, and several houses used for 
trading purposes have been excavated here. They lie 40 ft. below 
the present surface, and the different layers of the superincumbent 
lava are readily distinguished. The houses with their fittings and 

CON TORN I »i napolk 


Scala nel 1:100.000 


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"W«,gn«t JtBebesjIeipiig. 

to Pompeii. TORRE DEL GRECO 6. Route. 117 

decorations resemble those of Pompeii. The building-material is 
a yellow tufa from Mte. Somma, of very soft consistency, which 
accounts for the thickness of the walls. The garden of the principal 
house, that of the Argus, is one of the most interesting objects. 
It is enclosed by an arcade of twenty columns and six buttresses. 
To the right of it is a triclinium with a painting (not now visible) 
of Mercury before Argus and Io, from which the house derives its 
name. Towards the sea, the proximity of which at that period is 
indicated by the rapid 6*escent of the street, are situated magazines, 
three stories in height, and well preserved. 

Near Portici we enjoy a fine view from the railway of the Bay 
of Naples with the Castello dell' Ovo and Pizzofalcone, commanded 
by Camaldoli ; in the background the Capo Miseno and the moun- 
tains of Ischia. Farther on, to the left, Vesuvius and Resina. 
The train skirts the coast and traverses the huge lava-stream of 
1794, 38 ft. in thickness and 700 ft. yds in breadth. 

7^2 M. Torre del Greco. — Hotels. 'Pension Suisse, in the Villa 
Ferro, between Torre del Greco and Resina, moderate, pens. 5 fr. ; Pen- 
sion Allemande, in the Villa Mancini, Salita Cappuccini 4, pens. 5-7 fr. ; 
Hotel-Pension dv Vesuve, in the Villa Vallelunga, pens. 6-8 fr. ; Pension 
Belvedere, with garden, pens. 5 fr. 

Torre del Greco , a flourishing town with 25,000 inhabitants, 
stands on the lava-stream of 1631, which destroyed two -thirds 
of the older town. The lava-streams of 1737 and 1794 also caused 
great damage. The earthquake of 1857, and particularly the 
eruption of 8th Dec. 1861, proved still more destructive. On 
this last occasion eleven small openings were formed immediately 
above the town, whence vast showers of ashes were precipitated, 
while the shore in the vicinity was upheaved to the extent of 
3 ft., causing the ruin of many houses. Although the entire base 
of Vesuvius as far as Torre Annunziata is covered with traces 
of similar catastrophes, yet the inhabitants appear never to be 
deterred from rebuilding their dwellings , a circumstanoe which 
has given rise to the jesting saying of the Neapolitans, 'Napoli 
fa i peccati e la Torre li paga\ Every April a fleet of 200-300 
boats leaves Torre del Greco for the coral-fishery off the coasts of 
Africa and Sicily, returning in November. 

The line intersects Torre del Greco (to the right a small har- 
bour), and then skirts the sea. To the left the monastery of Ca- 
maldoli delta Torre is visible, standing on an isolated volcanic peak 
at the base of Vesuvius, and protected by its situation against 

After passing another stream of lava, the train reaches — 

I2V2 M. Torre Annunziata, Citth station, a prosperous town of 
17 000 inhab., with a small harbour and an office of the Vesuvius 
guides. A beautiful glimpse is disclosed here of the bay of Castel- 
lammare with the town, commanded by Monte S. Angelo , the 


summit of which is crowned by the chapel of S. Miohele; beyond 
it Vico Equense, in the distance Sorrento. 

13^/2 M- Torre Annunziata, Central station, the junction for 
the railways from Caserta to Castellammare (p. 10), and from 
Naples to Oragnano (p. 153) via Castellammare. 

The Pompeii train now proceeds inland towards the S. E., and 
on the left the partially overgrown heaps of ashes thrown up by 
the excavations soon become visible. 

15 M. Pompeii, see p. 126. 

Continuation of the line to Salerno, see R. 10. 

High Road from Naples to Pompeii. 

The High Road from Naples to Pompeii is also still much frequented, 
and in cool weather may be recommended as a route as far as Portici 
and Resina, as the railway-stations at Naples and Portici are inconveni- 
ently situated. In the hot season the dust is extremely unpleasant. 
(Carriages take 50 min. from the Piazza del Municipio to Resina, see 
pp. 24, 115; tramway to Torre del Greco, see p. 24). 

The road, which traverses the busy and. bustling E. suburb of 
Naples, leaves the town near the Castello del Carmine, skirts the 
Marinella, and crosses the Sebeto by the Ponte della Maddalena, 
passing the barracks of the Granili (p. 114) to the right. It then 
leads along the coast, which, however, is so covered with villas and 
other houses that the route is more like a long street than a country 
road. Maccaroni hung out to dry is seen on every side. The first 
village reached is S. Giovanni a Teduceio , which is adjoined on 
the left by the small town of La Barra. We next reach Portici 
and Resina (p. 115), which stretch along the road for a distance 
of 2 M., the boundary between them being immediately beyond 
the royal palace, through the court of which the road passes. At 
the beginning of Resina on the left is the office for the Vesuvius 
guides (p. 119). On the right, farther on, is the entrance to the 
excavations of Herculaneum (p. 115), beyond which the road to 
Vesuvius diverges to the left (see p. 124). We next pass the 
chateau of Favorita on the right, with a fine park, now the re- 
sidence of the ex-khedive Ismail Pasha (no admission). 

As far as Torre del Oreco (p. 117) the road runs between 
houses and garden-walls . but farther on it commands an unim- 
peded view. Torre Annunziata, see above. The drive from 
Naples to Pompeii takes 2 hrs. (carr. and pair 20 fr.). Pompeii, 
see p. 126. 

7. Mount Vesuvius. 

Comp. Map, p. 116. 

The ^root majorify of travellers now make the ascent of Mt. Vesuvius 
liy means of the Wire Rope Railway (Ferrovia Funicolare del Vesuvio), 
which was opened in 1880 and approaches 1" within 150 yds. of the mouth 
of the crater. The expenses of (tie excursion are. however, rather increased 

MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 119 

than diminished by this new mode of transport. The Office of the 
Railway Company at Naples, S. Lucia 92, is open in summer (May-Sept.) 
from 6.30 a.m. to 7 p.m., and in winter from 7.30 a.m. to 5 p.m. The 
company undertakes the conveyance of passengers from Naples to the top 
of the cone. Its carriages ('victoria' with 3 seats, 'landau' with 5 seats) 
start from the office at 7 a.m. in summer and 8 a.m. in winter. A party 
of three persons is entitled to a victoria and a party of five to a landau, 
which they may order to fetch them from their hotel at a later hour (see 
also below). The drive from Naples to Sesina (p. 115), and thence up Ve- 
suvius and past the Observatory (p. 124) to the foot of the cone, occupies 
about 4 hrs. The railway-station here (Stazione Inferiore ) contains a good 
restaurant, where time is generally allowed for refreshments (lunch with 
wine 3>/2, D. incl. wine 6 fr., bottle of Vesuvian wine 2>/2 fr. ; fee 25 c). 
The railway-carriages contain 12 seats each , for which tickets are distri- 
buted on the arrival of the travellers, who, however, are not bound to 
proceed by the first train that starts. Trains start at various intervals, 
according to the number of visitors, from 10 a.m. till 5 or 6 p.m. Ascents 
are also sometimes made at night with the aid of electric light. The 
ascent or descent occupies 12 minutes. At the upper station the travellers 
receive a guide, who conducts them to the crater. Ladies and delicate 
persons had better engage a 'portantina' or porte-chaise to carry them up 
(see below). A stay of 3 hrs. is allowed on the mountain (i.e. between 
departure from and return to the Stazione Inferiore). Those who remain 
longer do so at the risk of finding no disengaged seat in the train. The 
coachmen below also are not bound to wait longer. 

Tickets should be taken on the evening before. The cost of the ascent 
for a single traveller amounts to 28 fr. , or if the ascent is made at night 
32 fr. This sum includes the carriage to and from Naples, the ascent 
and descent in the train, the use of a guide to the Old Crater, and all 
gratuities. For an 'aiuto', or aid of a strap (comp. p. 125), to the crater a charge 
of 1 fr. is made, to the central cone and back 6 fr. ; a 'portantina' to the 
crater costs 5 fr., there and back 10 fr., to the central cone and back 
25 fr. Parties leaving Naples at other than the regular hours above noted pay 
a small additional sum if there is a seat vacant in the carriage: thus 
2 persons pay 8'/2 fr. for the empty seat in a victoria, 4 persons pay 6 fr. 
for the 5th seat in a landau. It is not advisable to drive to Vesuvius in 
carriages not belonging to the railway-company, for in that case each 
person pays 18 fr. (23 fr. at night) for the railway - ticket alone, besides 
5 fr. for the use of the company's carriage-road between the Observatory 
and the lower station. 

The Guides of the Railway Company, to whose care the passengers 
are entrusted at the upper station, are distinguished by numbers on their 
caps. The services of men without such numbers should be at once re- 
jected. Those who wish to visit the 'New Crater' and the 'Lava' (comp. 
p. 124) should make a bargain with the guide in the presence of the 
Inspector at the lower station, as the demands of the guides at the upper 
station are very extortionate. A fee of 1 fr. is sufficient, whether the 
guide is hired by a single person or by a party. Many complaints are 
made of the annoyances and extortions to which travellers who make 
use of the railway are subjected. 

The traveller should in no case attempt to combine a visit to Pom- 
peii with an ascent of Mt. Vesuvius, though the Railway Company issues 
tickets for the double excursion (52 fr.), including luncheon at the Hotel 
Diomede in Pompeii and dinner in the railway-restaurant on Mt. Vesuvius. 

Those who wish to make the ascent of Mt. Vesuvius on foot or on 
horseback procure guides and horses at the Officina delle Guide del 
Vesuvio at Besina (p. 118) or at Torre Annunziata (p. 117). The prices 
are fixed by tariff, which may be seen at the offices. Guide 6-7 fr. ; horse 
or mule 5 fr. ; for holding horse during the ascent of the cone l fa-l fr. ; 
use of a stout stick 25 c. ; gratuities 2-3 fr. Travellers who are experienced 
in bargaining may pay even less than the above fees. It is quite un- 
necessary to hire a horse for the guide. — Use of the railway company's 
road and of the railway by those not using the company's carriages from 

1 20 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Eruptions. 

Naples, see p. 119. — Ascent from Pompeii, on which the railway is not 
approached, see p. 125. — Carr. from Resina to the Observatory, with one 
horse 7-9, with two horses 10-13 fr. 

Numerous other attacks on the traveller's purse are of course made 
en route , especially by unauthorised persons offering their services as 
guides; these should be silently disregarded. 

Mount Vesuvius, sometimes called Vesevus by ancient poets 
(e. g. by Lucretius and Virgil), rises in isolated majesty from the 
Campanian plain, near the sea. The height varies, according to 
the different effects of the eruptions , from 3900 to 4300 ft. ; 
in 1845 the height was 3900 ft., and in 1868 it had increased 
to 4255 ft. ; it was somewhat diminished by the eruption of 1872, 
but is now steadily increasing. The N.E. side of the mountain is 
named Monte Somma, of which the highest peak is the Punta del 
Nasone (3642 ft.). A deep sickle-shaped valley, the Atrio del Cu- 
vallo, separates Somma from Vesuvius proper, which consists of a 
cone of ashes with the crater in the centre, the 'Forge of Vulcan'. 
The summit is also liable to constant change after eruptions, having 
sometimes a single crater with an opening in the middle , and 
sometimes two or three craters adjacent to each other. The moun- 
tain rises from the sea at an angle of 10°, while the cone itself 
lias a gradient of 30-35°. Monte Somma descends almost perpen- 
dicularly to the Atrio del Cavallo , but slopes very gradually 
down to the plain (3°). 

Vesuvius in Ancient Times. Vesuvius forms the S.E. ex- 
tremity, and has for the last three centuries been the only active 
crater, of a highly volcanic district, which includes Ischia, Procida, 
the Solfatara , and the Monte Nuovo. The case was reversed in 
ancient times , as we are informed by the geographer Strabo 
(Bk. v., chap. 4), who lived in the time of Augustus: 'Mount 
Vesuvius is covered with beautiful meadows, with the exception 
of the summit. The latter is indeed for the most part level, but 
quite sterile ; for it has an appearance like ashes , and shows 
rugged rocks of sooty consistency and colour , as if they had 
been consumed by fire. One might conclude from this that the 
mountain had once burned, and possessed fiery abysses, and had 
become extinguished when the material was spent. And just 
from this cause its fertility may arise , as in the case of Catania 
the eruption of ashes from .-Etna renders it so productive of 
wine'. About fifty years later, in the time of Nero, A. D. 63, 
the volcanic nature of the mountain manifested itself by a fearful 
earthquake , which destroyed a great part of the prosperous en- 
virons, and seriously damaged Herculaneum and Pompeii. This was 
repeated at Naples in 64, and again at intervals till the reign 
of Titus, when, on 24th Aug. 79, the first (recorded) eruption 
took place with appalling fury, and devastated the country far 
and wide , covering it with showers of ashes and vast streams 
of lava. On that occasion, it would appear, the peak now call- 

Eruptions. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 121 

ed Vesuvius was formed. Previously it had been a rounded 
crater; the S. side, where Vesuvius now rises, having been the 
lowest. The crater-like form of M. Somma is still distinctly re- 
cognisable, although somewhat concealed by the more recent de- 
posits of ashes. It was on that eventful day that Pompeii, Her- 
culaneum , Stabia , and other villages of this smiling district 
were overwhelmed. The naturalist Pliny, then in command of a 
section of the fleet stationed at Misenum, also perished on 
this occasion. He had* ventured too near the scene of desolation, 
both as an observer and for the purpose of rendering aid to 
the distressed, when he was suffocated near Castellammare by 
the ashes and exhalations. His nephew, the younger Pliny, in 
two letters (Ep. vi. 16, 20) to his friend the historian Tacitus, 
gives a graphic description of this fearful phenomenon. He 
mentions the premonitory earthquakes, day turned into night, 
the extraordinary agitation of the sea, the dense clouds over- 
hanging land and sea, and riven by incessant flashes of light- 
ning, the emission of Are and ashes, the descent of streams of 
lava, and the universal terror of men, who believed the end of 
the world had arrived. A similar description is given of an erup- 
tion in the reign of Alex. Severus , A.D. 222, by Dio Cassius 
(lxvi. 23), who describes how the clouds which hovered over the 
mountain assumed the form of awful colossal figures. Herculaneum 
and Pompeii were thus lost to the world for seventeen centuries. 
The eruptions of Vesuvius have been repeated at intervals with 
varying violence, down to the present day. The next took place 
in 203, under Septimius Severus , and another in 472, sending 
its showers of ashes as far as Constantinople. 

Vesuvius in Modebn Times. Down to the year 1500 nine 
eruptions are recorded , and from that date to the present time 
fifty. The mountain has been known to be quiescent for centuries 
in succession, while at other periods its activity has been al- 
most uninterrupted, e.g. from 1717 to 1737. From 1500 to 
1631 Vesuvius was quiescent, while in 1538 the Monte Nuovo 
was upheaved near Pozzuoli, and iEtna was labouring without 
intermission. During that period Vesuvius was entirely covered 
with wood and bushes, like the deer park of Astroni at the 
present day, and cattle grazed peacefully within the crater. After 
this lull, on 16th Dec, 1631, came a most terrific eruption, the 
first of which we possess detailed accounts. A huge cloud of 
smoke and ashes rising in a conical form , cast a profound 
gloom over Naples in the middle of the day , and extended 
with incredible rapidity over the southern portion of Italy , as 
far as Tarentum. Heavy stones were thrown to a distance of 
15 M. (one which fell at the village of Somma being 25 tons 
in weight) , while the earth was convulsed by violent earth- 
quakes , and seven streams of lava poured from the summit, 

122 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Eruptions. 

overwhelming Bosco, Torre Annunziata, Torre del Greco, Re- 
sina, and Portici. No fewer than 3000 persons perished on that 
occasion. The following year an eruption of ./Etna also took 
place , although that mountain is usually quiescent when Ve- 
suvius is in an active state. An eruption in 1707 was of a 
very alarming nature, lasting from May to August, and covering 
Naples with dense showers of ashes, to the terror of the cit- 
izens. The eruptions of 1737, 1760, and 1767 emitted consider- 
able quantities of lava and scoriae, which in 1767 descended on 
Portici, and even reached Naples. One of the most stupendous 
of these phenomena took place in Aug. 1779, when a vast 
number of red-hot stones were hurled to a height of 2000 ft., 
some of them exceeding 100 lbs. in weight, spreading terror 
among the inhabitants far and wide. The lava eruption of 1794 
was even more fatal in its effects ; the streams precipitated 
themselves into the sea by Torre del Greco, heating the water 
for a considerable distance ; upwards of 400 lives were lost, 
and the ashes were carried as far as Chieti and Taranto. Erup- 
tions during the present century took place in 1804, 1805, 
1822, Feb. 1850, and May 1855; in June 1858 the upper 
crater sank about 195 ft. below its former elevation ; and, on 8th 
Dec. 1861, an outbreak remarkable for its violence, and inter- 
esting from the fact that it was witnessed by Humboldt and 
other men of science , devastated Torre del Greco. After this 
the mountain remained quiescent until 1865. In November of 
that year the lava began to overflow , but at length in November, 
1868 , it forced a passage for itself through a Assure on the side of 
the cone, after which no change took place till 1871. 

The most recent period of great activity began in January 
1871 , when the mountain showed renewed symptoms of internal 
disturbance by the emission of a stream of lava through a fissure 
on the N.E. side. This was followed by another on the W. side 
about the end of October, and early in 1872 these phenomena gra- 
dually increased in violence , until at length they culminated in 
the great eruption of 24th-30th April of that year. During these 
days the lava burst forth on every side — on the N.E., S.W., and 
more particularly at the Atrio del Cavallo (p. 120), from which a 
huge stream issued with such suddenness on 26th April as to 
overtake and destroy 20 persons out of a crowd of spectators who 
were watching the spectacle , while others were injured by the 
stones thrown from the summit. The torrent descended to Masaa 
and 8. Sebastiano, and passed between these villages, which it partly 
destroyed, in a stream upwards of 1000 yds. wide and 20 ft. deep. 
This overflow ran to a distance of 3 M. in 12 hours. At the same 
time, amidst terrific thundering, the crater poured forth huge vol- 
umes of smoke mingled with red-hot stones and lava to a height of 
4000 ft., whilst clouds of ashes, rising to double that height, were 

Eruptions. MOUNT VESUVIUS". 7. Route. 1 23 

carried by the wind as far as Cosenza, a distance of 140 M. The lava 
emitted during this eruption covers an area of 2 sq. M., and aver- 
ages 13 ft. in depth. The damage was estimated at upwards of 3 mil- 
lion fr. — From this eruption till the end of 1875 the mountain 
remained almost entirely quiescent, but since then it has been giv- 
ing premonitions of a new period of activity. The crater of 1872 
became gradually filled with masses of lava, which at the end of 
1878 were precipitated into the Atrio del Cavallo. 

Volcanic Phenomena. Notwithstanding the long series of 
works on the subject which have appeared since 1631, the 
cause of these phenomena is still to some extent a matter of 
mere conjecture. It is highly probable that they are intimately 
connected with the water of the sea, near which all the prin- 
cipal volcanoes are situated. There is reason to believe that the 
enormous clouds of steam generated during eruptions are due to 
some temporary communication of the water with the burning 
liquids of the interior of the earth, and that the premonitory 
earthquakes are occasioned by the vapours and gases as they expand 
and endeavour to find an outlet. The red-hot fluids expelled from 
the volcano by means of these vapours are called Lava. When, 
however, they are broken by the vapours into fragments, the 
larger of these are known as Lapilli (Rapilli) or Scoria!, whilst the 
minute portions form Volcanic Sand or Ashes. If the sides of the 
cone are strong enough to resist the pressure of the molten lava, 
the latter flows out from the top of the crater ; but if not, it flows 
out at the sides, generally in several streams. When freed from 
the pressure of the lava, the vapours rise to a height of 10,000 ft., 
resembling a pine in form , as Pliny has aptly described it, car- 
rying dense masses of rapilli and ashes along with them ; they 
are then condensed in the air, and in descending give rise to 
those formidable streams of mud (Lave d'Acqua) which proved so 
destructive to Herculaneum. Vesuvius has of late been active in 
the manner described, although to a very limited extent, ejecting 
vapours and stones with a roar resembling that of distant artillery; 
but the effects of this action have been confined to the formation 
of the cone in the crater. More serious eruptions are accompanied 
by loud subterranean noises, earthquakes, and flashes of lightning 
and peals of thunder, owing to the electricity produced by the 
unwonted pressure of the air. The temperature of the lava as it 
descends occasionally exceeds 2000° Fahr. The volume of the 
streams, as well as their velocity, depends on a variety of external 
circumstances. The surface of the lava ultimately becomes disinte- 
grated into black sand. The smoke which ascends from the 
CTater is more or less dark in colour, according to the quantity 
of ashes mingled with it. The appearance of fire at night is not 
flame, but the reflection of the molten lava in the interior of 
the crater on the rising clouds of vapour and ashes. 

1 24 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Ascent 

Of the Minerals ejected by the volcano, most of which are 
found in the older lava of Mte. Somma, as well as in that ejected 
during later eruptions, about 40 species, according to the investi- 
gations of Professor Seacchi of Naples, are at present known. Most 
of these minerals are sold by the guides at Resina ; a small box 
may be purchased for •/.> fr. The yellow masses, usually taken for 
sulphur, really consist of lava coloured by chloride of iron. 

The ** Ascent of Vesuvius is unquestionably an excursion 
of extreme interest, though not unattended with fatigue, and 
it should not be undertaken in rainy or stormy weather. When 
the mountain is covered with snow in winter the difficulty of 
the ascent is of course greater. The ascent is most interesting 
when the mountain 'works', or ejects scoriae and ashes, a con- 
dition indicated by smoke during the day and a reflection of fire at 
night, which may be observed from Naples. Even if its state is that 
of perfect repose, which is not often the case, the fatigue of the 
ascent is repaid by the imposing appearance of the crater and the 
magnificent *1'anorama commanded by the summit, extending as 
far as the Ponza Islands and Mte. Circello , and most beautiful 
about sunrise or sunset. An ascent at night is, of course, made 
only when the mountain 'works'. 

From Resina. The road to Vesuvius diverges to the left from 
the high-road immediately beyond the entrance to the excavations 
of Herculaneum (comp. p. 115). The luxuriant vineyards here, 
which are interspersed with gardens and cottages , presenting a picture 
of teeming fertility, yield the famous 'Laerimae Christi' wine, 
which is generally strong and heavy, and never of a very re- 
fined quality. The wine is offered for sale at nearly every cottage, 
but had better not be partaken of before the ascent (usual price 
1 fr. per bottle, bargain beforehand; change for coins larger than 
a franc is almost invariably withheld). Higher up, beyond the 
garden-walls, the beautiful view is gradually disclosed. In about 
3 / 4 hr. we reach the huge dark lava-stream of 1872 , which we can 
trace down to S. Sebastiano and Massa di Somma (p. 122), and 
which the windings of the road cross several times. 

Jn 3 /4 hr. more we reach the so-called Hermitage and the Me- 
teorological Observatory , situated 2218 ft. above the level of the 
sea and 19(if) ft. above Resina, on the shoulder of the hill which 
divides the lava-streams descending from the crater into two 
branches. The Observatory, which the railway-passengers have no 
time to visit, contains, in addition to the usual instruments, a 
•seismograph', or apparatus for recording the phenomena of earth- 
quakes. The first director of the observatory was the famous Mel- 
loni (A. LSf)4). The late director Palmieri (d. 1882") published an 
interesting account of the eruption of 1872. A slab has been 
placed at the entrance of the building in memory of the tra- 
vellers who perished in the Atrio del Cavallo in 1872 (p. 122; 

of Vesuvius. MOUNT VESUVIUS.- 7. Route. 125 

on which occasion Sign. Palniieri remained at his post in the Ob- 

The road from the observatory to the foot of the cone (about 
l'/j M.) was constructed by the railway company, which exacts 
5 fr. for its use from each person not a passenger of the company. 
About '/^M. beyond the observatory is the Office of the Wire -rope 
Railway, where tickets are examined. Travellers who have reached 
this point in vehicles not belonging to the railway company must 
here alight, take railway-tickets, and. proceed to the station on foot. 
The road at first leads towards the S.E. , and then ascends in long 
windings to the Stazione Inferiore (seep. 119), which lies 2600 ft. 
above the level of the sea. The length of the railway is 900 yds., 
and the upper end is 1300 ft. higher than the lower. The gradient 
varies from 43 : 100 to 63 : 100. After leaving the railway the 
traveller has still to make an ascent of 10-15 min. by a tolerable 
footpath leading over slag and loose ashes. Travellers who wish to 
make the whole ascent on foot, so as to avoid the high charges 
of the railway-company, leave the road at the above-mentioned 
ticket-office and follow a rough path, which brings them in 3 /i hr. 
to the foot of the cone, near the lower railway-station. They are 
then conducted across the line by the railway officials, and begin 
the ascent on the S. side of the station. The ascent of the preci- 
pitous cone, consisting of slag and loose ashes, takes l 4 /4 hr. 
and is extremely fatiguing, but possesses considerable attraction 
for the robust mountain-climber. An 'aiuto', or aid of a strap in 
ascending the cone , may be obtained for 3 fr. It is advisable to 
be provided wiih refreshments. The descent is usually made over 
the loose ashes on the N. side of the railway, and takes scarcely 
10 minutes. 

From Pompeii. This ascent # is a better method of avoiding the 
railway than that just described, and it is recommended to those 
who are not afraid of a ride of some hours. The cost is less than 
by the other routes, and the traveller is much less harassed for 
payments and gratuities. The landlord of the Hotel du Soleil 
(p. 127) supplies horses and guides for 8 fr. per person ; guides 
alone (one suffices for a party) for 5 fr. The route leads by Bosco- 
reale, now a railway-station (p. 10), and ascends through vineyards 
and across fields of lava, reaching the foot of the cone in 2-274 hrs. 
Thence to the top in l 1 /^ nr -> see above. The guide conducts tra- 
vellers to all the interesting points, without extra fee (if so agreed 
beforehand). Provisions , especially oranges to quench thirst, 
should be taken. 

The crater, which changes its form after every great eruption, 
presents a most striking appearance. Several openings near the 
Central Crater, formed for the escape of the lava, are named the 
Cratere Nuovo. To see fresh lava we must descend about 100 yds. 
below the rim of the crater, on the side next the Atrio del Cavallo. 

126 Route 8. POMPEII. Guides. 

Under ordinary circumstances there is no danger unless one approach- 
es the shelving brink incautiously, or exposes oneself to the fumes of sul- 
phur and showers of stones. Thus in 1854 a young German, imprudently 
approaching the aperture of the active cone, lost his footing, fell in, and 
was killed by the fall. As the mountain was quiescent at the time, his 
body was recovered. — The guides are in the habit of making impres- 
sions on the hot lava with copper coins (charge according to railway- 
company's tariff, 1 fr.), roasting eggs, and inviting the traveller to make 
similar experiments. The only risk incurred in doing so is that of damag- 
ing the soles of one's boots. 

The Monte Somma (3642 ft.) also affords a fine view, and 
is interesting to geologists and botanists. The ascent may be made 
from Massa, Somma, or from Ottaiano (p. 10). 

8. Pompeii. 

Railway to Pompeii, see R. 6. — (The distance to Pompeii from 
Torre Annunziata, Stazione Centrale, is only li/iSI., so that the traveller 
may find it convenient to take one of the Castellammare trains to that 
station; the high-road thence to Pompeii is apt to be very dusty. As 
a rule carriages are to be found only at the Stazione Citta at Torre An- 
nunziata). — From the Pompeii Station a walk of about 200 paces in a straight 
direction brings us to the Hotel Diomede (p. 127) , situated close to the 
Entrance. We ascend a flight of steps, immediately on the right of the 
hotel, to the ticket-office. We are then provided with a guide at the 
turnstile (no attention should be paid to those offering themselves out- 
side), and soon reach the Porta Marina, where our description begins 
(see p. 132). 

High Road to Pompeii, very dusty in summer, like all the roads 
near Naples. Carriage with one horse 10 , with two horses 20 fr. and 
gratuity; drive of 2hrs. See p. 118. 

Duration op Stat. The time which the traveller devotes to the 
ruins must depend on his own inclination. A superficial inspection may 
be accomplished in 4-5 hrs. ; but in order to summon up from these mutilated 
walls a tolerably accurate picture of ancient life , frequent and prolonged 
visits and patient observation are indispensable. The enthusiasm called 
forth by the discovery of Pompeii and the fascination attaching to the 
name are calculated to raise the expectations of the non-archaeologist to too 
high a pitch. The remains are simply the bare ruins of a town destroyed 
by fire, which have been extricated from the rubbish accumulated during 
seventeen centuries. 

Admission on Sundays gratis, on other days 2 fr. (If the ruins be 
quitted and re-entered, the entrance-money is exacted a second time; 
tickets must be shown at the Amphitheatre and elsewhere.) At the en- 
trance visitors are provided with a guide (except on Sundays , when one 
cannot be had even by payment of a fee) , who is bound to accompany 
them and pilot them through the ruins during any number of hours be- 
tween sunrise and sunset. These guides are about 60 in number, and each 
is provided with a badge (numbered according to the seniority of the 
wearers, No. 1 being the oldest). One of those who speak French 
or a little English will be assigned to the traveller on application. They 
;ire strictly forbidden to accept any gratuity. Complaints made to the in- 
spectors (soprastaiiti), or better still to the director Euggiero , are sure to 
receive attention. The discipline and order maintained by the latter are 
deserving of the highest commendation. Permission to draw, take mea- 
surements, etc., is obtained at the Segreteria of the Museum at Naples 
(comp. p. 60) , where the applicant must show his passport. Artists or 
students who desire to make prolonged studffcs may, on application at the 
office and production of their passports, obtain a free ticket of admission 
available for a fortnight, which they are most liberally permitted to renew 


£3 ^UJ'^% 

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Hotels. POMPEII. 8. Route. 127 

as often as they desire. Permission to visit the ruins by moonlight is 
only accorded to persons specially introduced to the director. 

Before visiting Pompeii the traveller should acquire some previous 
acquaintance with the place from books and plans, t The more familiar 
the objects are to him, the greater will be his enjoyment. Implicit confi- 
dence cannot be placed in the guides for anything beyond mere technical 
explanations. Those who visit the ruins once only should avoid occupying 
much of their time with the minutiae, as the impression produced by the 
whole is thereby sacrificed, or at least diminished. On account of the phy- 
sically and mentally fatiguing nature of the expedition, the stay should not 
be extended much beyond 3 hrs. In summer the streets of Pompeii are 
often insufferably hot ; the evening is therefore the most enjoyable time for 
the visit, when the lights and shades on the surrounding mountains and the 
illumination of the ruins by the declining sun invest the place with magic 
fascination. The traveller should, if possible, contrive to visit it at least 
twice, once with and once (on a Sunday) without a guide. 

Hotels. At the entrance to Pompeii, opposite the railway-station, 
Hotel Diomede, tolerable, lunch 2V2-3'|4, D. 4 fr., and 25 c. for atten- 
dance, pension 5 fr., beefsteak l'/2 fr., bargaining advisable. A little 
farther on, near the Amphitheatre, Hotel du Soleil, lunch 2-2'|2, D. 
incl. wine 3, B. 2, pension for scholars and artists, 4>/2 fr., chiefly frequent- 
ed by artists and highly spoken of; the landlord procures guides for Ve- 
suvius and other excursions in the neighbourhood (see p. 125). 

Pompeii was once a prosperous provincial town, with a popu- 
lation of 20-30,000 souls. The original Oscan inhabitants had at 
the close of the republic become completely Romanised, and after 
the earthquake of A.D. 63 the town was re-ereoted in the new Ro- 
man style composed of Greek and Italian elements. Pompeii, there- 
fore, represents one definite epoch of antiquity only, but it is 
the most important and almost the only source of our acquaintance 
with ancient domestic life. The investigation of the various phases 
of this life, even in its minuter details, forms a pursuit of inex- 
haustible interest. 

Pompeii is mentioned in history for the first time in B.C. 310; but 
its monuments, such as the wall of the town and the so-called Greek 
Temple, clearly prove it to be of much greater antiquity. Founded by the 
Oscans, it soon became imbued with .the elements of Greek civilisation, like 
the other towns of this extensive tribe. Being situated near the sea on 
an ancient volcanic eminence, it carried on extensive commerce with the 
inland Campanian towns by means of the navigable river Sarnus, and 
enjoyed an uninterrupted, though not brilliant share of prosperity. (The 
sea and river were separated from the town by subsequent convulsions of 
nature.) After the Samnite wars, in which Pompeii had also participated, 
the town became subject to Rome. It united with the other Italians in 
the Social War. The rebels were defeated in the vicinity of Pompeii by 
Sulla, who attacked the town itself, but unsuccessfully. After the termi- 
nation of the war , however , B.C. 82, a colony of Roman soldiers was sent 
thither, and the inhabitants were compelled to cede to it one-third pt their 
arable land. In course of time Pompeii became thoroughly Romanised, 
and was a favourite retreat of Romans of the wealthier classes , who (e. g. 
Cicero) purchased estates in the vicinity. It was also favoured by the em- 
perors. Tacitus records a serious conflict which took place in the amphi- 

t A work recommended to the traveller's notice is Professor OverbecVs 
Pompeii, which contains a plan, 26 coloured views, and 315 woodcuts 
(4th ed. Leipzig, 1884; 20 marks). Another is Professor Nissen's Pompeja- 
nische Studien (Leipzig, 1877; 25 marks), to which Mau's Pompejanische 
Beitrage (Berlin, 1879 ; 6 marks) forms a supplement. 

128 Route 8. POMPEII. History. 

theatre, A. D. 59, between the Pompeians and the neighbouring Nucerines, 
in consequence of which the former were prohibited from performing 
theatrical pieces for a period of ten years. A few years later, A.D. 63, a 
fearful earthquake occurred, evidencing the re-awakened activity of Ve- 
suvius, which had been quiescent for centuries. A great part of Pompeii, 
its temples, colonnades, theatres, and private dwellings were destroyed on 
that occasion. This disaster afforded the inhabitants an opportunity of 
re-erecting their town in a style more conformable to the improved 
architecture of imperial Rome , and it accounts for the comparatively 
modern and often unfinished character of the buildings. The new town 
had not long been completed, although it had been restored in a re- 
markably short period with the aid afforded by private liberality, when 
it was overtaken by the final catastrophe of 24th Aug. 79. The first 
premonitory symptom was a dense shower of ashes, a stratum of which 
covered the town to a depth of about 3 ft. , allowing the inhabitants 
time to escape. Many of them, however, returned, some doubtless to rescue 
their valuables, others paralysed with fear and uncertain what course to 
pursue. In the years 1861 -T2 were found eighty -seven human skeletons, 
and those of three dogs and seven horses. The whole number of those 
who perished is estimated at 2000. The ashes were followed by a shower of 
red hot rapilli, or fragments of pumice-stone of all sizes, which covered the 
town to a depth of 7-8 ft. , and was succeeded by fresh showers of ashes 
and again by rapilli. The present superincumbent mass is about 20 ft. in 
thickness. Part of this was formed by subsequent eruptions, but the town 
had already been completely buried by the original catastrophe, and was 
entirely lost to view. Extensive excavations, however, had been made 
in ancient times. Immediately after the calamity the survivors doubtless 
recovered as many valuables from their buried homes as they could ; and 
in subsequent centuries the ruins were repeatedly ransacked for the 
marbles and precious stones used in the embellishment of the temples 
and other buildings. We therefore now find the town in the con- 
dition in which it was consigned to oblivion some fifteen centuries 
ago as no longer containing anything of value. During the middle ages 
Pompeii was entirely unknown. In 1592 the architect Fontana constructed 
a subterranean water-conduit in order to supply Torre Annunziata from 
the Sarno, actually intersecting the ruins, and to this day in use; yet no 
farther investigations were then attempted. In 1748 the discovery of 
some statues and bronze utensils by a peasant attracted the attention of 
Charles III., who caused excavations to be made. The amphitheatre, the- 
atre, and other parts were then disinterred. The enthusiasm caused by the 
discovery has been the frequent theme of poetical and other compositions 
by Bulwer, Schiller, and other celebrated authors: 

What wonder this? — we ask the lymphid well, 
O Earth! of thee — and from thy solemn womb 
What yield'st thou! — Is there life in the abyss — 
Doth a new race beneath the lava dwell? 
Returns the Past, awakening from the tomb ? 

The earth, with faithful watch, has hoarded all ! 
Under the Bourbons the excavations were continued in a very unsatis- 
factory manner. Statues and valuables alone were extricated, whilst the 
ruins were either suffered to fall to decay or covered up again. To the 
reign of Murat, however, we are indebted for the excavation of the Forum, 
the town-walls, the Street of Tombs, and many private houses. The political 
changes of 1860 have likewise exercised a beneficial effect. Under the able 
superintendence of M. Fiorelli, instead of the former predatory operations, 
a regular plan has been adopted, according to which the ruins are systema- 
tically explored and carefully preserved, and highly satisfactory results thus 
obtained. The movable objects found, as well as the more important 
frescos, have been removed to the Museum at Naples, — a very desirable 
course, as is obvious from the injury caused by exposure to those left 
behind. At Pompeii itself a museum and library have been instituted, a 

Typography. POMPEII. 8. Route. 129 

dwelling-house erected for students supported by government, and a railway 
constructed for the removal of the debris. The workmen employed in the 
excavations average eighty in number, but several hundred are at times 
engaged. If the works continue to progress at the same rate as at present, 
the complete excavation of the town, according to Fiorelli's calculations, 
will occupy sixty years more, and will cost about 5 million francs. A 
sum of 30-40,000 fr. is realised yearly from the money paid by visitors for 

Before beginning our walk, we may make a few remarks on the 
plan and architecture of the town. 

Town Walls. The* town is built in the form of an irregular 
ellipse, extending from E. to W. The circumference of its walls 
amounts to 2843 yds . There are eight gates , to which the 
following names have been given : Porta di Ercolano , delta 
Marina, di Stabia, di Nocera, del Sarno, di Nola, di Capoa, and 
del Vesuvio. In consequence of the prolonged peace, however, the 
walls had entirely lost their importance. Towards the sea they 
had been demolished, and outside the Gate of Herculaneum a 
considerable suburb had sprung up, called Pagus Augustus Felix, 
after the settlement established by Augustus. 

Plan op the Town. The excavated portion (in 1878, about 
275,000 sq. yds.) embraces not quite one-half of the town, but prob- 
ably the most important part, including the Forum with the con- 
tiguous temples and public buildings , two theatres with large 
colonnades, the amphitheatre, and a considerable number of private 
dwellings of more or less ornate character. The principal streets 
are : 1 . The Consular Street, or Via Domitiana, which , prolonged 
by the Strada de' Sepolcri , or Street of Tombs , leads to the Porta 
di Ercolano, and thence in several ramifications to the Forum ; 
2. The Street of Mercury (named Street of the Forum as far as the 
Temple of Fortuna), from the Forum to the N. extremity of the 
town; 3. The street leading from the sea, past the Thermae and the 
Temple of Fortuna, to the Por£a di Nola (called successively the 
Street of the Thermae, Fortuna, and Nola~); 4. Strada dell' Ab- 
bondanza, leading apparently from the Forum to the Porta del 
Sarno ; 5. Strada Stabiana, from the Porta di Stabia to the Porta 
del Vesuvio. 

According to the new Official Aebangbmbnts the town is 
divided into nine 'Regions' (Regiones) by the four principal 
streets connecting the gates (Strada dell' Abbondanza, Str. della 
Fortuna, Str. Stabiana, and another, parallel to the last but not 
yet excavated). Seven of these quarters have been wholly or partly 
excavated, viz. the Vlth, Vllth, and VHIth to the "W. of the 
Str. Stabiana, and the 1st, Ilnd (amphitheatre), Vth, and IXth to 
the E. of it. Each region is subdivided into Jnsulae, or blocks of 
houseB bounded by four streets , each provided with a number. 
Each house is also numbered. Thus 'Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 5' means 
the house No. 5 in the eighth insula of the sixth region. Lastly, the 
streets of each region are numbered (Via prima, secunda, etc.), 

Baedf.kek. Italv III. fltl) Edition. 9 

130 Route 8. POMPEII. Topography. 

while the Str. Stabiana is entitled the 'Cardo' (line through the 
centre from N. to S.), the Str. della Fortuna the 'Decumanus 
Major' (major transverse line) , and the Str. dell' Abbondanza the 
'Decumanus Minor' (minor transverse line). The older names of 
the houses , by which many of them are known, were generally 
chosen in a very arbitrary fashion ; the newer names are generally 
taken from signet-rings or seals found in the interiors. 

The streets, bordered by pavement, are straight and narrow, 
not above 24 ft. in breadth, the narrower lanes 14 ft. only. They 
are admirably paved with large polygonal blocks of lava. At in- 
tervals, especially at the corners, are placed high stepping-stones, 
leading from one side of the pavement to the other, intended for 
the convenience of foot-passengers in rainy weather. The waggons 
have left deep ruts in the causeways, which do not exceed 4^2 ft. 
in width ; and the horses' hoofs have made impressions on the 
stepping-stones over which they were obliged to pass. At the 
corners of the streets are public fountains, decorated with the head 
of a god, a mask, or similar ornament. 

In the streets are frequently seen notices painted in red let- 
ters, referring generally to the election of the municipal authori- 
ties, and recommending some particular individual as sedile or 
duumvir. Trade-signs, like those of the present day, are very 
rare. On the other hand an occasional 'phallus' is seen, for the 
purpose of averting the evil eye ; and one or two large snakes, 
the emblems of the Lares, the gods of the hearth and of cross- 
ways, are very common. Stuccoed walls are often covered with 
graffiti, or roughly scratched drawings resembling those with which 
our 'Street Arabs' still delight to decorate blank surfaces. 

Construction. The houses are slightly built of concrete 
(small stones consolidated with cement) or brick, and sometimes, 
particularly the corner pillars , of blocks of stone. The hasty 
and patched character of the construction is accounted for by the 
earthquake of 63. The numerous well-preserved staircases prove 
that the houses must uniformly have possessed a second and per- 
haps also a third story. These upper portions, consisting chiefly 
of wood, have, with a single exception (p. 149), been destroyed 
by the red-hot scoriae of the eruption. 

Shops. In traversing the streets of Pompeii, we soon ob- 
serve a difference between the various houses, which were shops 
(tabemae) or dwelling-houses according as their rooms are turned to 
or from the street. The former belonged to the large dwelling-houses, 
and were let to merchants and shopkeepers, in the same way as the 
ground-floors of the palazzi in Naples are occupied by shops at 
the present day. These shops were generally in no way connected 
with the back part of the house, and presented their whole fron- 
tage to the street, from which they could be separated by large 
wooden doors. Many of the shop-tables, covered with marble. 



8. Route. 131 

and once fitted up with large earthen vessels for the sale of 
wine, oil, etc., are still preserved. At the back of the shop 
there was occasionally a second room, probably occupied by the 
shopkeeper, who in other cases must have lived in the upper 
part of the house, or in a different part of the town. The nu- 
merousness of these shops affords proof of the importance of the 
retail traffic at Pompeii. Where the street was not thus enli- 
vened, it was flanked by bare walls, adorned here and there 
with a painting. The* absence of glass forms one of the chief 
differences between an ancient and a modern dwelling. The 
ancients therefore concentrated their domestic life in the interior 
of their houses, which presented to the street a blank wall with 
as few openings as possible, and these covered with an iron 

House of Pansa (p. 139). 

grating. A distinct idea of this mode of building, so different 
from that of the present day , and without parallel except in 
some Oriental countries, is best obtained in the more recently 
excavated and better preserved streets between the Forum and 
the Stabian Street, and to the E. of the latter. 

Plan of the Houses. The dwelling-houses of Pompeii vary 
greatly in size, and have obviously been very differently fitted up, 
in accordance with the nature of the situation, or the means and 
taste of their owners. Their chief peculiarity is the internal court, 
which provided the surrounding chambers with light, and was the 
medium of communication between them. Most of the Pompei- 
an houses of the wealthy middle class are entered from the 
street by a narrow passage (vestibulum) leading to the court (atri- 


132 RouteS. POMPEII. Architecture. 

um), which is surrounded by a covered passage, with the implu- 
vium, or reservoir for rain-water, in the centre. The roof sloped 
inwards and had an opening in the centre (compluvium) which 
afforded light and air to the court and the adjoining rooms. 
Beyond the atrium is a large apartment opening into it , called 
the tablinum. This front portion of the house was devoted to 
its intercourse with the external world; and it was here that 
the patron received his clients and transacted business. The rest 
of the house was destined solely for the use of the family. Its 
centre also consisted of an open court, enclosed by columns, and 
thence termed the peristylium , the middle of which was laid 
out as a garden. Sometimes, however, there is a flower-garden 
(xystus), surrounded by columns, beyond the peristyle. At the back 
of the peristyle are generally several business rooms, called ceci. 
Around these principal apartments , in which the magnificence 
of the house is concentrated , are situated the sleeping and eat- 
ing-rooms , slaves' rooms, kitchen, cellar, etc. The upper floor 
was destined principally for the slaves. Most of the apartments 
are very small , but the family worked and spent most of their 
time in the light and airy courts. 

The reconstruction of a complete house in its original form woul<l 
he most interesting and instructive, but has not yet been carried out. 
(A good model is to he seen at the Museum of Naples, p. 65.) 

Decoration. Marble is rarely met with in the public or 
domestic architecture of Pompeii , the columns being invariably 
constructed of tuffstone or bricks, cemented by mortar. The brick 
walls and columns were then covered with stucco, which took the 
place of marble, and afforded ample scope for decorative painting. 
It is in fact hardly possible to imagine a gayer or more richly 
decorated town than Pompeii must have been. The lower halves of 
the columns are generally red or yellow, the capitals tastefully 
painted; the walls, too, where undecorated, are painted with bright, 
and almost glaring colours , chiefly red and yellow , harmonising 
well with the brilliancy of a southern sun. The centre of the walls 
is generally occupied by a painting unconnected with the others. 
The best of these were removed to the museum at Naples, to pro- 
tect them from exposure to the elements; many, however, of those 
left merit inspection. The scenes present a uniformly soft, erotic 
character, corresponding to the peaceful and pleasure-seeking taste 
of the age (conip. Introd., p. xl|. 

We now proceed to describe the different streets and build- 
ings , beginning with the Porta Marina , by which we enter the 
town on arriving from the station (p. 126). We shall then proceed 
(coiop. Plan) to the Forum and first explore thence the streets in 
the N.K. quarter of the town — those of the Koruni, of the 
Tlicimir, of tin; llerculaneiim Gate, and of the Tombs. Returning 
in the Sciiola Archeologica. we shall next traverse the Yicolo di 

Museum. POMPEII. S. Route. 133 

Mercurio to the Strada di Mercurio , then follow the Str. della 
Fortuna to the recently excavated quarter near the point where it 
intersects the Stabian street, and then proceed by the Stabian 
street, crossing the Str. degli Augustali and the Strada dell' Abbon- 
danza, to the Forum Triangulare and the theatres. Our description 
terminates with the Amphitheatre. The names of the chief sights 
are printed in heavier type. Those who are pressed for time had 
better omit the Amphitheatre. 

The Guides usually eonduct visitors from the Forum to the E. into 
the Strada dell' Abbondanza, and to the theatres and the Amphitheatre, 
and then return through the street of the Augustales to the Fortuna 
street. They next show the N. prolongation of the Strada Stabiana, and 
beyond it the Mercurius street; and they end with the Herculaneum Gate 
and the Street of Tombs. Those who desire to form a distinct idea of 
the topography and arrangements of the town are recommended either to 
adopt the following plan, or to frame one for themselves and name to 
the guide in order the places they desire to see. Travellers who intend 
to dine or put up at the Hotel du Soleil should intimate as much to the 
guide at once, and arrange to visit the Amphitheatre last. 

The above-mentioned Porta Marina is a vaulted passage under 
and between ancient magazines. The street here ascends rapidly, 
like all the other approaches to the town, which lies on an emi- 
nence. The passage, 17^2 ft- in width and 75!/2 ft- in length, has 
a path for foot-passengers on the left. 

On the right in this passage is the entrance to the *Museum, 
which contains many interesting objects, though none of artistic 
value, arranged in three rooms. 

Among these are casts and models of doors, windows, shop-shutters, 
and other objects in wood. 

In glass-cases are preserved casts of eight human corpses, and one 
of the body of a dog. Although the soft parts of the bodies had decayed 
in course of time, their forms frequently remained imprinted on the 
ashes, which afterwards hardened. In 1863 Fiorelli made the ingenious ex- 
periment of carefully removing the bones of a body thus imbedded, 
and filling the cavity with plaster, and he has succeeded in preserving 
the figures and attitudes of the deceased after their death-struggle. On 
the point of flight, many of them had divested themselves of most of 
their clothing. Among the figures are a young girl with a ring on her 
finger, two women, one tall and elderly, and the other younger; a man 
lying on his face; and a man lying on his left side with remarkably well- 
preserved features. 

Immediately to the right in the second room is a handsome Fable. 
There are also amphorae, vases, rain-spouts, etc., in terracotta; vessels 
in bronze; carbonised articles of food like those at Naples (p. 75); 
skulls, and skeletons of men and animals. 

The Via Maejna ascends hence in a straight direction to the 
Forum, being hounded by a wall on the right, and by uninteresting 
shops on the left. Behind these are a number of houses presenting 
little attraction. 

On the right at the end of the Via Marina is a side-entrance to 
the' Basilica (Keg. VIII, Ins. 1), an oblong edifice, 220 ft. long and 
82 ft. broad, with its facade towards the Forum . A passage round 
the interior consists of twenty-eight brick columns with capitals 
of tufa ; the entire space in the centre was roofed in , and was 

liU Route 8. POMPEII. Temple of Apollo. 

lighted by openings in the upper part of the side-walls. On the 
walls are half-columns, all covered with stucco, slighter and lower 
than the brick columns , and above them was another system of 
columns and half-columns , placed tolerably far apart. The frag- 
ments of tufa-columns by the walls belonged to this upper row. 
At the end of the building was the elevated tribune, or seat of 
the presiding magistrate, which was probably approached by mov- 
able steps. In front of it is a pedestal for a statue ; below are 
vaults (perhaps a prison) , reached by a staircase. In the year 79 
the building seems to have been in a state of ruin occasioned by 
the earthquake of the year 63. 

Also on the W. side of the Forum , to the left of the Via 
Marina, is situated the *Temple of Apollo (Reg. VII, Ins. 7), 
usually called the Temple of Venus, though the deity to whom it 
was really dedicated was named in an Oscan inscription on the 
flooring (now at Naples, p. 64). It is an edifice of very early 
origin, but restored after the earthquake of 63. The temple is 
surrounded by a spacious, irregular quadrangle, 177 ft. long, on 
the S. side 103 ft. and on the N. side 109 ft. broad. As the side 
towards the Forum was not parallel with it, the wall, in order to 
prevent the eye being offended by this irregularity, was furnished 
in the interior with eight buttresses at intervals, each projecting 
farther than the last. The portico is borne by forty-eight columns, 
originally Ionic, which had been converted by means of stucco 
into Corinthian ; but this coating has now fallen off. The Temple 
itself rises in the centre of the court, on a basement 65 ft. in 
length, 39 ft. in width, and l 1 /^ ft. in height, and is approached 
by thirteen steps. On the column next these to the left was a sun- 
dial. Facing the steps stands an Altar, with an inscription of the 
donors, the quatuorviri of the town. Against the columns of the por- 
tico are six bases arranged in pairs, which formerly bore six Statues: 
Mercury and (probably) Maia (marble hermse), Apollo and Diana 
(bronze statues), Venus and a Hermaphrodite (marble statues). The 
Mercury is still in situ, the Maia is lost, and the four others are now 
at Naples. To the left, in the corner in front of the Venus and 
Diana, are two small Altars. The temple itself was surrounded by 
a Corinthian colonnade, and had a facade of six columns. Within 
the vestibule was the shrine, where the figure of the god stood 
on a lofty pedestal. On the left was the conical Omphalos, the 
well-known symbol of Apollo. The large tripod painted on the 
first pilaster to the right in the portico is also an attribute of this 
deity. — Behind the court of the temple are chambers for the 
priests, decorated with paintings. 

The *Forum (Reg. VII, Ins. 8) forms the central point of the 
town (109 ft. above the sea-level). On the N. side, detached, 
stands the temple of Jupiter (p. 136); the other sides are en- 
closed by an arcade. The Area, or open space in the centre, 

Building of Eumachia. POMPEII. 8. Route. 135 

515 ft. in length and 107 ft. in breadth , is paved with large 
slabs. Six streets converge here, but the forum was protected 
against the trespass of riders or waggons by stone pillars round 
the margins, and could even be entirely shut off by gates. In 
the area are twenty-two bases for statues, erected in honour of 
emperors and other illustrious men , five of which (four on the 
W- side, one at the S.E. corner) still bear incriptions, dedicat- 
ed to officials of high rank, the duumviri (similar to the consuls 
of Rome) and quinquennales (censors) of the town. The exten- 
sive basements on the S. side were destined for equestrian statues, 
most of the pedestals never having been completed. The colon- 
nade surrounding the Forum varies in breadth from 26 to 45 ft., 
a number of the buildings which adjoin it having been erected 
at a date prior to the construction of the Forum. Above the 
lower columns of the Doric order rose a second series of the Ionic, 
thus constituting an upper, covered passage, approached by steps, 
several of which are still preserved. At the time when the town 
was destroyed the builders seem to have been employed in sub- 
stituting travertine columns for the older columns of tuffstone on 
the S. and E. sides; rough, unfinished portions of the uew columns 
and architrave lie round the colonnade ready for completion and 

To the right of the Basilica, on the S. side of the Forum, are 
situated the Tribunals (Reg. VIII, Ins. 2), three adjacent cham- 
bers, eaoh with a semicircular extremity, handsomely built of brick 
which was once covered with marble. Probably one of them (that 
in the centre?) served as the meeting-place of the town-council, 
while the others were used for administrative or judicial purposes. 

Farther on , the Street of the Schools diverges to the right, 
pursuing an E. direction as far as the Forum Triangulare (p. 150). 
The excavated houses are devoid of interest. 

On the E. side of the Forum, at the corner of the handsome 
Strada dell' Abbondanza (p. 147), is a square hall, erroneously 
supposed to be a school. 

On the opposite side of the street, Forum No. 1, is situated 
the *Building of Eumachia (Reg. VII , Ins. 9), erected by the 
priestess Eumachia, and perhaps used as an exchange. On the 
frieze of the portico facing the Forum, and still more fully over 
the entrance in the Str. dell' Abbondanza, may be read the follow- 
ing inscription : '■Eumachia Lucii ftlia sacerdos publica nomine suo 
et M. Numistri Frontonis fili chalcidicum cryptam porticus Con- 
cordiae Augustae Pietati sua pecunia fecit eademque dedicavit.' The 
interior is separated from the vestibule (chalcidicum) by a number 
of small chambers , where a great number of marble slabs , des- 
tined for the completion of the edifice, were found. In the interior 
is an open court, 123 ft. in length and 62 ft. in width, once sur- 
rounded by fifty-four columns of Parian marble, of which three 

136 Routes. POMPEII. Temple of Jupiter. 

only are left, and these in a mutilated condition. This colonnade 
(porticus) is surrounded by a covered passage (crypta), which afford- 
ed protection against the weather. At the hack of this, in a niche, 
stands the statue of Eumachia (a copy, the original being at Naples, 
p. 68), erected by the fullers (fullones) of Pompeii. — On the ex- 
ternal wall of the Chalcidicum is the copy of an inscription found 
here, dedicated to Romulus. 

We next reach No. 1, the so-called *Temple of Mercury (Reg. 
VII, Ins. 9), really a Temple of Augustus, 83 ft. in length and 
53 ft. in breadth (opened at the request of the traveller). A number 
of excavated objects have been placed here : vases, spouts of foun- 
tains , rain - gutters , capitals, stone - weights with iron handles, 
mortars, earthenware, etc. To the left of the entrance are vessels 
of lead, fragments of glass , bone articles, iron gratings, fetters, 
tires of waggon-wheels ; to the right earthenware and fragments of 
marble. In the centre an * Altar in marble with reliefs: on the 
front victims, on the sides the sacrificial utensils, on the back an 
oak-garland between two laurels, the symbol of Augustus. The 
form of this temple has been skilfully adapted to the very irregular 
site on which it stands. At the extremity of the area is the small 
shrine with a pedestal for the statue of Augustus. 

No. 3, adjacent, is the so-called Curia (Reg. VII, Ins. 9), 
where it is generally believed the town-council held their delibera- 
tions , though more probably it was used in connection with the 
worship of the emperor. It is a square, uncovered hall, 65 ft. long, 
58 ft. broad, with an altar in the middle, a hemicyclical termina- 
tion, and several niches, but greatly damaged. 

Opposite, on the N. side of the Forum and in the most con- 
spicuous part of it, rises the *TempIe of Jupiter (Reg. VII, Ins. 8), 
on a basement 9Y-2 ft. in height. At the time of the eruption it 
was in process of being restored. The Pronaos is approached by 
eighteen steps , and has a facade of six columns with three on 
each side. Apertures in the ground admit light to the underground 
chambers, which were used as a magazine for building materials, 
having probably been originally a treasury. The whole length 
of the temple is 118 ft. Behind the Pronaos is the shrine, with 
two series of Ionic columns, eight in each, arranged close to the 
painted walls. At the back are three chambers. At the farther 
end, to the left, a flight of steps ascends to the basement which 
bore the statue of the god, which the visitor should not omit to 
visit as it affords a fine *Panorama of Pompeii, M. Sant' Angelo 
with the chapel of S. Michele, the palace of Quisisana, and the 
chain of the Apennines. 

Passing along the W. side of the Forum, we observe, at the end 
of the Temple of Apollo, No. 31, a niche, in which the standard 
weights and measures were kept on a stone table with an inscrip- 
tion (its place now occupied by a poor reproduction). Then follows 

Macellum. POMPEII. 8. Route. 137 

a flight of steps , which led to the arcade , and formed an ap- 
proach to the Temple of Venus, Adjoining the latter is No. 29, 
the so-called Lesche, a hall apparently for commercial purposes. 
Beyond this is No. 28, a public latrina, and then No. 27, a build- 
ing which from its narrow, gloomy cells appears to have been a 
prison. Farther on, the Forum is bounded by a wall. In front of 
it, adjoining the Temple of Jupiter, is a Triumphal Arch. 

At the E. end of the Forum, adjoining the Curia, stands the 
so-called * Temple of Augustus, sometimes named the Pantheon, but 
in reality a Macellum (Keg. VII, Ins. 9), or hall for the sale of 
provisions, with a chapel in honour of the Emperor Augustus. In 
front of it are pedestals for statues ; on the exterior, shops pos- 
sibly occupied by money-changers. The building is entered by 
two doors (Nos. 7 and 8). The interior consists of a rectangular 
court, 122 ft. in length and 80 ft. in width. The walls are de- 
corated with *Frescos, of which those to the left of the entrance, 
representing Argus and Io, Ulysses and Penelope , are the best 
preserved. Above , on the walls , are representations of various 
kinds of edibles, indicating the purpose of the building. The court 
was still unfinished when the catastrophe took place ; it was des- 
tined to be enclosed by a colonnade, but the limestone slabs of 
the pavement have been laid on the N. and W. sides only, while 
on the other sides the enclosure is formed by blocks of tufa. A 
dodecagon is formed in the centre by twelve pedestals (or altars ?), 
on which stood columns bearing a domed roof (or perhaps statues). 
To the right are eleven chambers simply painted red , probably 
trading stalls ; at the extremity is an exit into a back street. To 
the left is an outlet to the Street of the Augustales (named after 
this edifice). On the E. side, opposite us as we enter the building, 
rises the shrine. On the principal pedestal stood the statue of the 
emperor, in the side-niches Livia (evidently a misnomer) and the 
younger Drusus (here replaced by copies). To the left of this shrine 
was another with an altar, which perhaps was employed in the 
celebration of the sacrificial banquets ; the gallery by the lateral wall 
is believed to have been an orchestra. To the right a larger apart- 
ment, containing stands of masonry with a slight inclination, and 
furnished with gutters below to carry off blood or water, is supposed 
to have been a slaughter-house. 

Adjacent to the Temple of Augustus rises a Triumphal Arch 
of brick, now divested of its marble, which here forms the bound- 
ary of the Forum. The niches on the N. side served as fountain- 
basins. Under it begins the Street of the Forum , which we 
now follow (called in its prolongation the Street of Mercury, p. 142). 
The first transverse street immediately beyond the Triumphal AtcIi 
is that of the Augustales. At the corner is a relief with figures of 
two men carrying a wine-jar, being the sign of a wine-merchant. 

No. 1, at the corner of the next cross-street, is the Temple of 

138 Routes. POMPEII. Thcrma>. 

Fortuna (Reg. VII, Ins. 4), erected according to the inscription by 
M. Tullius during the reign of Augustus. It is approached by thir- 
teen steps ; length 79 ft., breadth 29 ft. Two portrait-statues found 
in the Cella are believed to have belonged to the Gens Tullia. 

At the entrance to the Street of Mercury rises a Brick Arch, 
on which the pipes of a water-conduit are visible. It was once 
surmounted by the bronze statue of Caligula mentioned at p. 73. 

We now turn to the left into the Stkada dklle Terme. 
No. 2, on the left, is the entrance to the * Thermae (Reg. VII, 
lus. 5 ), which occupy a whole insula , i. e. the space enolosed 
by four streets; breadth 161 ft. , depth 172ft. The exterior was 
surrounded by shops, which had no connection with the interior. 
Entrances six in number. A great part of the establishment 
is now employed as magazines, and the public are admitted to 
one half of the actual baths only. A passage leads first to the 
chamber for undressing (apodyterium) , 37 ft. long , 21 ft. wide, 
and surrounded by benches. Beyond this is the cold bath (frigi- 
dariuin), a rotunda with four niches. The vault above was pro- 
vided with a glass window. In the centre is the basin , 14 ft. 
in diameter, with a marble ledge surrounding it. From the un- 
dressing room to the right the warm bath (tepidarium) is enter- 
ed, an apartment 3'2 ft. in length, 1 T '/2 ft. in breadth. A frieze 
running round it is furnished with niches for depositing clothes and 
articles of the toilet, and is supported by figures of Atlas in terra- 
cotta. The vaulting was richly decorated, partly with stucco figures 
in relief. This chamber was heated by means of a large brazier 
of bronze. Adjacent is the hot-air bath (calidarium or sudatorium), 
52 ft. long and 17 ft. broad. A niche at the end contains a marble 
basin for washing the hands and face with cold water ; it bears 
an inscription recording that it was erected at a cost of 5250 
sesterces (39i. sterling). At the other end is the basin for warm 
baths. The apartment had double walls and floor, between which 
the steam diffused itself. — The baths also possessed an exten- 
sive colonnade , now converted into a garden , besides several 
other chambfrs and baths for women, none of which are at present 
open to the public. 

Nearly opposite to the Thermae, Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 5, is the 
* House of the Tragic Poet, one of the most elegant in Pompeii, 
so called from two representations found in the tablinum — a poet 
reading, and a theatrical rehearsal (which, together with beautiful 
paintings of subjects from the Iliad, are now in the museum at 
Naples ). This is represented by Bulwer in his LastDays of Pompeii 
as the dwelling of Glaucus. On the threshold was a dog in mosaic, 
with the inscription Cave Canem' (p. 63), now in the Museum at 
Naples. The peristyle of seven columns is closed at the back by 
a wall, on which is a small shrine of the Lares. In a room to the 
left of the latter, Venus and Cupid fishing, and the deserted 

House of Sallust. POMPEII. 8. Route. 139 

Ariadne. In the triclinium on the right, Youth and maiden looking 
at a nest containing Cupids (above, Marsyas and Olympus), The- 
seus abandoning Ariadne, and Diana with Orion (?). On the side 
panels are personifications of the seasons. 

We continue to follow the Strada delle Terme. Reg. VI, Ins. 6, 
No. 1, beyond the cross-street, on the right, is the House of Pansa 
(Domus On. Allei Nigidi Mai), one of the largest in Pompeii, 
occupying a whole insula, 319 ft. long and 124 ft. broad. It com- 
prises sixteen shops and dwellings, facing the different streets. 
On the threshold was found a mosaic with the greeting 'Salve'. 
This house affords a normal specimen of a palatial residence of 
the imperial epoch , complete in all its appointments : atrium, 
tablinum, peristyle, cecus (to the left, adjacent, the kitchen 
with the snakes), and lastly the garden or Xystus-. Comp. Ground- 
plan, p. 131. 

We next turn to the right towards the Porta di Ercolano. At 
the picturesque corner opposite, Reg. VI, Ins. 3, No. 20, is a 
tavern, the street to the left of which leads to the gate. This was 
a business street, and contained few handsome dwelling-houses. 

On the left is a house fitted up as a Library, containing an 
extensive collection of archaeological works, and for the reception 
of students supported by government (Scuola Archeologica). 

On the right, Reg. VI, Ins. 2, No. 4, is the House of Sallust 
(Domus A. Coss. Libani), with the atrium and adjacent rooms 
lined with stucco painted to imitate marble. Behind the tablinum 
is a small irregularly-shaped garden, with a triclinium in an 
arbour in the corner. Instead of a peristyle, this house contains 
a small court enclosed by pillars, to the right of the atrium, and 
styled, though without authority, the Venereum. On the wall oppo- 
site, *Actaon converted into a stag, and torn to pieces by his own 
dogs; to the left, Europa and 'the bull; to the right, Phrixus and 
Helle. In the small room to the right, Venus and Mars. 

No. 6 is a Bake-house, with ovens and mills. The latter 
were probably turned by asses or slaves. — At the corner of the 
street is a fountain, and behind it a reservoir of the aqueduct (?). 

Some of the houses on the left, on the slope of the hill occu- 
pied by the town, had several stories, and large vaults, used as 

A large, open hall to the right, Reg. VI, Ins. 1, No. 13, was a 
kind of Custom House, where a number of weights and measures 
were found. 

No. 10, a little farther on, to the right, is the House of the 
Surgeon, so called from a considerable number of surgical instru- 
ments found here. It is remarkable for its massive construction of 
limestone blocks from the river Sarno, and it is probably the most 
ancient house in the town. We next reach No. 7, on the right, 
the extensive House of the Vestals. 

Mil Routes. POMPEIT. Street of Tombs. 

No. 3, on the left, opposite, is a large Tavern, with a phallus 
towards the street, intended to avert the evil eye. It contains two 
wine-tables, and has an entrance for waggons. From the cham- 
bers at the back, as well as from the preceding and following 
houses on this side, a charming glimpse is obtained of the bay 
with the island of Capri ; near the land is the picturesque little 
rocky island of Revigliano ; to the right is Torre Annunziata. 

No. 2, on the right, is another tavern, and beyond it is the 
Porta di Ercolano (136 ft. above the sea-level). To the right of 
the gate is the approach to the Town Wall, which may be visited 
for the sake of the view. The wall is '2843 yds. in circumference, 
and consists of an outer and inner wall, the intervening space 
being lilled with earth. The height of the external wall varies ac- 
cording to the ground from '25 to 33 ft., the internal being uni- 
formly 8 ft. higher. Being constructed in several very different 
styles, it obviously dates from several distinct periods. The older 
part is built of large blocks of tufa and limestone, while the more 
recent consists chiefly of concrete (small pieces of lava consolidated 
with cement). The difference between these kinds of building 
will be observed neaT this gate. At a later period, probably just be- 
fore the Social War, it was strengthened by the addition of towers. 
During the undisturbed peace of the imperial period, the walls 
on the side towards the sea were probably removed , and their 
site built over. The Gate of Herculaneum is believed to date from 
the time of Augustus. It consists of three series of arches, of which 
the central and largest has fallen in. The depth of the passage is 
;")9 ft. ■ — (From this point onwards, comp. the supplementary part 
of the Plan at p. 126.) 

Outside this gate lay a considerable suburb . the Payus Au- 
iiuxtus Felix, so named in honour of Augustus. It consisted of one 
main street, with several others diverging from it on each side ; the 
former alone has been partly excavated. This is the so-called *Street 
of the Tombs (Strada dei Sepolcri), the great military road from Capua 
to Naples. Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Reggio. The ancient Roman 
custom of burying the dead by the side of a high-road is well 
known. It has been ascertained that rows of graves, similar to 
those discovered here, exist beyond the other gates also. The 
Street of Tombs is in point of situation the most beautiful part 
nf the town. 

On the right. No. 1, is a large unfinished pedestal. 

On the left, No. 1, is the Tomb of Cerrinius, a recess with seats. 
It has been said that this was a sentry-box, and that the skeleton 
found in it was that of the sentinel who expired at his post; but 
this is a mere fiction. 

I.. No. 2, a semicircular seat with the tomb of the duumvir 
A . Veius. 

1.. No. 3, Tomb of M. Fortius, probably [the builder of the 

Street of Tombs. POMPEII. S. Route. 141 

amphitheatre and the small theatre; according to the inscription 
the town-council granted him a piece of ground 25 ft. square for a 

L. No. 4, *Tomb of Mamia; in front a seat like the above, with 
the inscription : 'Mamiae Publii filiae sacerdoti publicae locus se- 
pulturae datus decurionum decreto'. At the back, enclosed by a low 
wall, is the tomb, with niches for cinerary urns. The view hence of 
the bay and the mountains of Castellammare is singularly beautiful. 
— On a street diverging to the right, No. 2, is the ruinous Tomb of 

Farther on, on the right, No. 6, is the Tomb of the Garlands, 
so called from its decorations; name unknown. R. No. 9, an open 
recess and seat. 

On the left is the so-called Villa of Cicero, again covered up. 
The buttresses still visible belong to a colonnade which ran parallel 
to the street. 

R. Nos. 10 and 11, two shops. No. 12, House of the Mosaic 
Columns, very dilapidated, probably an inn. The entrance leads 
first into a garden, at the end of which is a recess inlaid with mo- 
saic, and used as a fountain ; to the left is a court with a private 
chapel and altar. Two staircases ascend to the upper floor. 

On the left, beyond the villa of Cicero, several handsome mon- 
uments will be observed : No. 16, that of Servilia. No. 17, that of 
Scaurus, with reliefs in stucco, representing gladiatorial combats, 
but in a very ruinous condition. The columbarium contains niches 
for the urns. 

On the right is a long arcade, at the back of which there were 
shops. From the skeleton of a mule found here it has been 
suggested that this was a resort of peasants on market-days. — 
Farther on are several ancient tombs of limestone discovered in 
1872, belonging to the remote Oscan period, when the dead were 
buried instead of being burned , and when painted vessels of ter- 
racotta were interred with them. — The street which diverges here 
is still unexcavated. 

On the right are several ruined tombs, the first of which is 
supposed to have been an ustrinum, or place of cremation. 
L. No. 18, a circular monument, name unknown. 
L. No. 20, *Tomb of the Augustalis Calventius Quintus ; below 
the inscription is represented the bisellium (seat of honour) ac- 
corded him in recognition of his liberality. 

R. No. 36, *Tomb of M. Alleius Luccius Libella and his son, of 
travertine, and well-preserved, with inscriptions. Beyond, to the 
Tight, are several ruined tombs, with inscriptions partly preserved. 
L. No. 22, *Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche, with chamber for ciner- 
ary urns. The deceased was a freedwoman , who , according to 
the inscription, destined this tomb for herself and C. Munatius 
Faustus, chief official of this quarter of the town, ami for their 

142 Routes. POMPEII. Villa of Diomedes. 

freedmen ; a relief below refers to the consecration of the tomb ; 
on the left side is the bisellium, or magisterial seat of Munatius, 
on the right a vessel entering the harbour, a symbol of human life. 
No. 23 was a Triclinium for banquets in honour of the dead. 

No. 24, * Villa of Diomedes, arbitrarily so called from the 
opposite tomb of the family of Arrius Diomedes. The arrange- 
ment of this, like that of other villas, differs considerably from 
that of the urban dwellings. A flight of steps with two columns 
leads at once to the peristyle of fourteen Doric columns, whence 
the bath is entered to the left. Opposite are terraces, which rise 
above the second and lower portion of the house. The garden, 
107 ft. square, with a basin for a fountain in the centre, is sur- 
rounded by a colonnade. From the terrace a staircase descends to 
the left (another, from the entrance from the street, to the right). 
Below this colonnade , on three sides, lies a vaulted cellar which 
merits a visit , lighted by small apertures above , and approached 
by staircases descending at each end. Eighteen bodies of women 
and children, who had provided themselves with food, and sought 
protection in this vault against the eruption, were found here. But 
impalpable ashes penetrated through the openings into the interior, 
and too late the ill-fated party endeavoured to escape. They were 
found with their heads wrapped up, half buried by the ashes. The 
impression made on the ashes by a girl's breast is now in the 
museum at Naples. The probable proprietor of the house was 
found near the garden-door (now walled up), with the key in 
his hand; beside him was a slave with money and valuables. 

We now retrace our steps by the same route to the Gate of 
Herculaneum and the Scuola Archeologica (p. 139), whence we 
enter the Vicolo di Mercurio {Via Prima, Reg. VI, between Ins. 2 
and Ins. 3), the transverse street to the left. 

The third street intersecting the latter at right angles is the 
important Strada di Mercurio (Via Sexta), leading from the town- 
wall to the Forum, and deriving its name from a Fountain with a 
Mercury's head immediately on the right. We now turn to the 
left towards the town-wall. 

Nos. 6 and 7 (Reg. VI, Ins. 9) on the opposite (E.) side are 
the House of Castor and Pollux (Domus Cn. Caetroni Eutychi), 
consisting of two distinct houses, but connected. No. 7 is simple 
and homely. It is connected with the neighbouring house by a 
large peristyle, adorned with paintings all round ; at the end is a 
basin for a fountain ; beyond it is a hall. From the peristyle the 
atrium of the other house is entered to the left, beyond which 
are the tablinuin ;ind a garden with lararium. Fine frescos in the 
room to the right of the tablinum ; to the left, Birth of Adonis; 
mi the entranc-e-wall , Hippolytus and Phaedra; in an apartment 
to tlic lift of thp "rnrrlen. Apollo and Daphne. 

House of Meleager. POMPEII. 8. Route. 143 

Farther on, Nos. 5-3, House of the Centaur (Reg. VI, Ins. 9), 
two different nouses, connected by a door. No. 5 has an under- 
ground dwelling, the vaulting of which has fallen in, but has been 
partly restored. 

Adjacent, No. 2, *House of Meleager (Reg. VI, Ins. 9). Within 
the doorway, to the right, Mercury handing a purse to Fortuna. The 
richly decorated atrium contains a marble table , borne by grif- 
fins. Contrary to the usual arrangement, the peristyle does not lie 
behind, but to the left of the atrium. This is the finest peristyle 
whioh has been discovered at Pompeii, being 73 ft. in length, and 
60 ft. in breadth. The porticus is borne by twenty-four columns 
(lower part red, upper white), and adorned by a graceful fountain. 
Adjoining the peristyle at the back is an oecus, enclosed on 
three sides by twelve yellow painted columns. The fresoos are 
also yellow ; among them, to the right, a young Satyr startling a Bac- 
chante with a snake. To the left of the cecus is a hall with frescos : 
on the transverse wall to the left, the Judgment of Paris. 

We return along the opposite side of the street. Reg. VI, 
Ins. 7, No. 23, House of Apollo (Domus A. Herenulei Communis), 
so named from the numerous representations of that god which were 
found here. Behind the gaily-painted tablinum, a fountain of a 
grotesque style. To the right is an adjoining court, at the end of 
which is a handsome sleeping-chamber (for two beds); on the 
external wall is a landscape with a Bacchanalian, and a mosaic of 
Achilles in Scyrus ; among the weapons which Ulysses offers him 
is a shield, on which Achilles and Chiron are represented. In the 
interior are representations of Apollo and Marsyas and other mytho- 
logical subjects. 

No. 18, House of the Wounded Adonis (Domus M. Asellini). 
In the Xystus , to the right, a fresco , above life-size , of *Adonis 
wounded, tended and bewailed by Venus and Cupids ; at the sides, 
Achilles and Chiron. In a room to the left, 'Toilet of the Herma- 

Continuing to follow the Strada di Mercurio, we next observe 
on the left, opposite the fountain mentioned at p. 142, Reg. VI, 
Ins. 10, No. 1, a *Tavem; towards the street is a table covered with 
marble and a fire-place. A door leads from the shop to the left 
into a small room adorned with various allusions to drinking : 
a waggon with a wine-skin, players and drinkers, eatables, etc. 
In the corner to the left a soldier is being served ; above him is 
scribbled : 'da fridam pusillum' (a glass of cold). To the right 
two other chambers, out of the first of which a door leads to the 
neighbouring house No. 2, the Casa dei Cinque Scheletri (so called 
from the five skeletons found here), which was perhaps used as 
a lodging-house. 

From the corner of the Vicolo di Mercurio a digression may be 
made in the adjacent street to the left to the House of the Labyrinth 

144 Routes. POMPEII. Fullonica. 

(opposite side of first side-street, immediately to the left), a roomy 
dwelling with two atria; principal entrance, Reg. VI, Ins. 11, 
No. 9, second door No. 10. In the passage leading to the peri- 
style, immediately to the left and opening on the latter, is a 
window of terracotta with six small apertures, resembling pigeon- 
holes. In the room beyond the peristyle, to the left), a mosaic 
pavement: Theseus killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. The 
left half of the house was destined for the menage ; it contains a 
finely decorated bath with three rooms, and a large bake-house. 

We now return to the Strada di Mercuric 

R., Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 23, *House of the Small Fountain 
(della piccola fontana) ; to the right of the entrance a staircase 
ascends to the 2nd floor. At the end of the house is a *Fountain 
of gaily coloured mosaic, adorned with a small and graceful bronze : 
Boy with a goose (a copy, original at Naples). The walls are deco- 
rated with landscapes, among which is a *Harbour on the left. 

R. No. 22, House of the Large Fountain, at the end of which 
is a mosaic *Fountain similar to the above. 

R. No. 20, the Fullonica, or fuller's establishment. The square 
pillars (on one of which were frescos alluding to the fuller's art, 
now in Naples) supported a gallery (Solarium) for drying the 
cloth. Around are dwelling-rooms and bed-chambers, as well as 
rooms for the workmen. To the right is the kitchen, with an 
oven; and behind are four basins on different levels, destined for 
washing the cloths, which were afterwards stamped with the feet 
in the small stands to the right. One egress leads to the Strada 
della Fullonica. Adjacent to these premises, and connected with 
them by a door, was the hexastyle atrium, No. 21. 

L., Reg. VI, Ins. 10, No. 6, House of Pomponius, with an oil- 
mill to the right of the entrance. 

L. No. 7, House of the Anchor, named after an anchor in 
mosaic on the threshold. By the tablinum we descend to a peri- 
style the pavement of which was higher than the garden. The 
latter , to which a staircase descends , was on the level of the 
Strada della Fortuna, and was surrounded by a cryptoporticus and 
numerous niches containing altars. 

R., Reg. VI, Ins. 8, No. 14. Barber's Shop, very small. In the 
centre a seat for customers ; to the right a bench and two recesses. 

Having reached the brick archway of the Strada di Mer- 
ciirio (p. 137j, we now turn to the left into the Strada della 
Fortuna (Decumanus Major), a prolongation of the Strada delle 
Terine , leading to the Gate of Nola. 

L., beyond the first cross-street, Reg. VI, Ins. 12, Nos. 2-5, 
the *House of the Faun, so named from the bronze statuette of a 
dancing Faun found here ( p. 72 ). The house occupies a whole insula, 
ami is the handsomest in Pompeii, 262ft. long and 12") ft. broad. 
Tin' style of its decoration proves it to date from the republican era 

House of the Chase. POMPEII. S. Route. 145 

(2nd cent. B.C.)- It contained beautiful mosaics , but hardly any 
mural paintings. The stucco on the -walls is an imitation of in- 
crustation in coloured marble (comp. p. xlii). On the pavement 
in front of the house is the greeting 'Have'. It possesses two 
entrances and two atria. The left atrium (35 ft. by 38 ft.) is 
in the Tuscan style , i. e. the roof was borne by cross-beams 
without vertical support. On each side of it there are four 
rooms. The 4th on the left contains a mosaic representing doves 
by a casket. In the Centre of the impluvium stood the bronze 
statuette already mentioned. The simpler atrium on the right is 
an atrium tetrastylum , i. e. the roof-beams were borne by four 
columns near the impluvium. The peristyle contained twenty-eight 
Ionic columns of tufa coated with stucco. At the back of the 
exedra, beside the red columns, was found the celebrated mosaic 
of the Battle of Alexander (p. 69). At the back is a garden 105 ft. 
long, 115 ft. broad, enclosed by forty-four columns of the Doric 
order. Numerous amphorse were found here. 

R., Reg. "VII, Ins. 4, No. 59, Casa della Pareta Nera, so called 
from the black wall in the exedra, covered with representations 
of Cupids, beautifully executed, but unfortunately in bad preser- 

R. No. 57, Casa dei Capitelli Figurati, named after the capitals 
of the entrance-pillars , adorned with heads of Bacchantes and 
Fauns. From the peristyle we enter a sugar-bakehouse, the use 
of which has been conjectured from the nature of the objects found 
in it. The oven is still in existence. 

R. No. 56, House of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, small, with 
mosaic fountain . 

R. No. 51 , House of Ariadne, extending to the Street of the 
Augustales, towards which it has its atrium. From the Stada della 
Fortuna we first enter the garden , which is surrounded with 24 
columns ; in the centre is the peristyle with sixteen columns, the 
lower parts being yellow, and the capitals variegated. In the centre 
is a fountain. Various representations. 

R. No. 48, House of the Chase. In the peristyle (which has 
columns on two sides only and a basin in the centre) , opposite, 
wild beast fights, whence the name of the house ; on the right, 

If we follow the Strada della Fortuna for a short distance, 
we reach the broad Strada Stabiana (p. 147 ; Cardo), diverging to 
the right, the N. extension of which, with Insulse VI. 14 and V. 1, 
was excavated quite recently. At the corner to the left are a 
Fountain and an Altar of the Lares; adjacent is the pillar of an 
Aqueduct. Of the houses in the N. Prolongation of the Strada 
Stabiana the following are noticeable: — L., Reg. VI, Ins. 14, 
No. 20, with a mutilated herma erected by the arcarius (cashier) 
Anteros to M. Vesonius Primus, the master of the house, with 

ISAKDEKF" »«'- TTT 0*1. T7J--1-- j Q 

146 Routes. POMPEII. Strada di Nola. 

projecting props for the support of wreaths. The peristyle is adorn- 
ed -with a fresco of Orpheus, over life-size. — No. 22, a Fullonica, 
or fullers workshop. The atrium contains a handsome impluvium, 
in which the bronze summit of the fountain is still preserved, and 
several handsome table-supports. In the room at the back are three 
basins (comp. p. 144), and on the wall are paintings of a banquet 
of fullers (fullones) and a scene in a court of law. — Opposite, 
to the right, Reg. V, Ins. 1, No. 26, the house of L. Caecilius Ju- 
cundus, the banker, where the receipts now preserved in the Mu- 
seo Nazionale (p. 75) were discovered. In the atrium stood a 
hernia erected to the banker by his freedman Felix; the pedestal, 
with the inscription '6'em'o L(ucl) n(ostri) Felix libertus' is still 
here, but the bronze bust has been removed to the Museo (p. 72). 
The beautiful *Paintings in the tablinum are unfortunately some- 
what faded. — Farther on, No. 18; the last room to the left of 
the peristyle is adorned with paintings and Greek epigrams (to 
the left. Pan and Cupid wrestling). 

The prolongation of the Strada della Fortuna , beyond the 
.Strada Stabiana, is called the Strada l>i Nola, and leads in 5 min. 
to the gate of that name, which is one of the most ancient in the 
town. Here the first two insula? to the S. (Reg. IX, 4, 5) were 
excavated in 1877-78, but beyond them the fronts only of the 
houses have as yet been laid bare. 

The whole of the first insula to the right (IX. 4) is occupied by 
extensive Thermae, which were in course of construction at the 
time the city was overwhelmed. In the large court, which is acces- 
sible on three sides, the labourers seem to have been in the very 
act of making the gutter and laying the bases for the columns of the 
portico when they were overtaken by the catastrophe of A. D. 79. 
The large swimming-basin, to the left, below the windows of the 
inner rooms, was also unfinished. Instead of the two swimming- 
baths, for men and women, usually found in the Thermae, there is 
here only this one, which is, however, of unwonted size, and quite 
destitute of ornamentation. Passing through an antechamber on 
the left, off which open several rooms of unknown purpose, we 
reach the dressing-room (apodyterium), containing a large bath of 
cold water (frigidarium). Next to this is the warm bath (tepida- 
rium), beyond which is the hot chamber (calidarium), with three 
basins for hot baths. To the left of the tepidarium is the laconi-, or sudatory, covered with a vaulted roof, and also connected 
with the calidarium. The three rooms last mentioned appear to 
have been heated by means of double floors and walls, traces of 
which are still visible in the laconicum. The heating-furnaces had 
not yet been built. The three largest rooms are provided with 
large windows, another divergence from the ordinary plan of the 

The houses in the next insula (IX, f)) contain numerous paint- 

Strada dell' Abbondanza. POMPEII. S. Route. 147 

ings, most of which, however, are of little artistic merit. The first 
house, No. 2, contains, in the room to the left of the tablinum, 
three scenes from the story of Achilles : His recognition at Scyros, 
Hephaestus showing Thetis the armour he had made for Achilles, 
and Thetis on a Triton taking the armour to her son. — The house 
No. 6, farther on , which contains an unusual number of pictures, 
is also remarkable for its peculiar oblong ground-plan. In the roof- 
ed room to the right, in front of the peristyle of No. 9, are Egyptian 
landscapes with pygmies. The house No. 11 has representations of 
the Muses (to the right, next the tablinum). — The house in the 
S.E. angle of this insula, No. 16, seems to have been a tavern, 
and contains a room with paintings of the grossest description ; in 
the room to the right of the atrium, the Muses. 

Of the insula to the E. of the last, only the N. portion, con- 
sisting of one large house (Casa del Centenario), has been excavated. 
It contains a spacious peristyle, two covered rooms (one with decora- 
tions on a white ground), and a small bath, the marble flooring of 
which seems to have been removed in some ancient excavation. One 
of the rooms, with black walls and flooring, is tastefully decorated 
with coloured paintings, inserted in the walls at a later period : 
right, Orestes, Pylades, and Iphigenia ; left, Theseus and the Mi- 
notaur; in the middle, Hermaphrodite and Silenus. — Excavations 
are now being carried on to the E. of this house. 

We now turn to the W., and pass through the lane between Reg. 
IX, Ins. 3, and Reg. IX, Ins. 4, to the Strada Stabiana. Im- 
mediately to the left (Reg. IX, Ins. 3, No. 5), the *House of Marcus 
Lucretius, once richly fitted up, though with questionable taste 
(shown at the request of the visitor). Behind the atrium is a small 
*Garden, laid out in terraces, with a fountain and a number of 
marble figures. The best of the paintings are preserved at Naples. 
This is one of the few houses in Pompeii of which the proprietor's 
name is known. The information was afforded by a letter found with 
the address: M. LucrStio Flam. Martis deeurioni Pompei. 

Continuing to descend the Stabian Street towards the gate, we 
reach (r.; Reg. VII, Ins. 1, No. 25), the House of Siricus, with 
a handsome marble table in the atrium. A staircase leads from 
the peristyle to the W. part of the house , entered by the Strada 
del Lupanare (p. 149). 

Farther on, to the right, are the Thermae (see p. 148) at the 
corner of the Strada dell' Abbondanza (from which they are 
entered). This broad street ascends from the Stabian Street (79 ft. 
above the sea-level) to the Forum. On the other side, towards 
the Porta del Sarno , it is only excavated as far as the next street 
(Pico di Tesmo, see p. 148). At the corner here is the buttress of 
an aqueduct, leaden pipes from which are observed on the pave- 
ment farther on. 

On the left, in the direction of the Sarno Gate, Reg. IX, 


148 Routed. POMPEII. Stabian Thermae. 

Ins. 1, No. 20, is the Casa dei Diadumeni, or of Epidius Rufus, 
with a small platform in front of the facade, and a handsome atrium 
with fourteen columns. Within it is a lararium on the right, with 
the inscription , 'Genio Marci nostri et Larihus duo Diadumeni 
liberti'. At the back is a garden, to the left of which is the 
vaulted kitchen. — The atrium of the Bouse of Epidius Sabinus, 
No. 22 (left), contains a well-preserved lararium, with paintings at 
the back, nearly obliterated. These houses have been brought to 
light since 1866. The excavations have been carried as far as 
the old Porta Stabiana to the S., lower down. — Ascending the 
platform in a straight direction, we reach a cart-road leading to 
the Amphitheatre (see p. 152). 

The Vico di Tesmo(left) affords a good example of the monotonous 
character of the more remote streets. At the corner we observe 
the Tannery (Reg. I, Ins. 5, No. 2), and also an atrium (Reg. I, 
Ins. 2, No. 28), the compluvium of which was covered with an iron 
grating (restored) as a protection against thieves. 

We now return and continue to ascend the Strada dell' Ab- 
bondanza towards the Forum , near which this handsome street, 
with its numerous shops, was closed by means of stone pillars, 
in order to exclude carriages. 

L., Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 15, *House of Cornelius Rufus. The 
atrium contains two handsome pedestals for tables, and a bust with 
the inscription, 'C. Cornelio Rufo'. The peristyle has eighteen 

In the Strada dell' Abbondanza, on the right (Reg. VII, Ins. 1, 
No. 8), is the principal entrance to the *Stabian Thermae. They 
are larger and older than the Thermae at the back of the Forum, 
and date from the Oscan period, but were afterwards extended and 
re-decorated. We enter a spacious court , flanked by pillars on two 
sides , which was used for paliestric exercises. Opposite the en- 
trance is a hernia of Mercury resembling that in the Temple of 
Apollo. On the wall on the left are stucco ornaments in relief. 
The first room to the left served for undressing; the walls still 
bear traces of the presses for hanging up the clothes. Next to this 
is a shallow basin used for washing after gymnastic exercises. 
Then a swimming -batli , 16 paces long, 9 paces broad, 5 ft. 
deep. The following room was also originally a bath, but was after- 
wards filled up and used for other purposes. In the wing opposite, 
which has a side-entrance from the street, are four baths for single 
bathers on the left. — In the upper part of the wing to the right 
is the Women's Bath. The door above leads into a vestibule, into 
which the dressing-room opens on the left; from the street are two 
separate entrances. Round the vaulted hall are niches for clothes; 
in the corner is a basin enclosed by masonry. Adjacent is the warm 
bath, a vaulted saloon with double walls. Then the sudatory, the 
vaulting of which has fallen in; at one end is a marble basin, at 

House with the Balcony. POMPEIT. S. Route. 1 49 

the other a fountain for warm water , with a pipe connecting it 
with the stoves (visible on the outside); the walls are double. 
Behind these chambers were the stoves. — The Men's Bath, to the 
right near the entrance, is similar. The first door on the left leads 
from the large dressing-room to the cold, the second to the warm 
bath ; beyond is the sudatory. The two latter are much dilapidated. 

L., Reg. VIII, Ins. 4, No. 4, House of Holconius, with hand- 
some peristyle, rich in paintings, but faded. In the oecus (r.) 
Ariadne and Bacchus ; (1.) Hermaphrodite; in the room to the 
right, Rape of Europa ; in the room to the left, Achilles in Scyrus, 
and Judgment of Paris. 

A few paces farther the Theatre Street (see p. 150) diverges to 
the left, while we follow the Strada del Lupanare to the right. 

R., Reg. VII, Ins. 1, No. 47, *House of Siricus (p. 147). On 
the threshold the inscription, 'Salve luerufmf ; to the same pro- 
prietor belonged the large adjacent bake-house, No. 46. To the left 
of the atrium is a room with good paintings: (1.) Neptune and 
Apollo helping to build the walls of Troy; opposite, *Drunken 
Hercules; (t.) *Vulcan presenting Thetis with weapons for Achilles. 
The columns of the peristyle are painted green. 

To the left on the opposite wall are large snakes, with the in- 
scription: 'Otiosis locus hie non est, discede morator 1 . 

To the left at the corner of the second lane, the Vicolo del 
Balcone Pensile, is Reg. VII, Ins. 12, No. 18, the Lupanare 
(closed) ; at the sides five sleeping-places ; in front, the seat of the 
hostess. The bad character of the house is sufficiently indicated by 
the paintings and inscriptions. A separate entrance from the street 
ascended direct to the upper floor. 

We now follow the Vicolo del Balcone Pensile, which leads 
to the left between Reg. VII, Ins. 12, and Reg. VII, Ins. 11 and 10. 

R. No. 28, *House with £he Balcony (Casa del Balcone Pensile). 
The atrium contains a fountain with a marble figure on the right. 
Three rooms of the upper floor have been preserved by carefully 
replacing the charred woodwork by new beams — a laborious and 
costly undertaking. The projecting wooden structure is similar to 
that frequently seen in old continental towns. 

The Vicolo del Balcone Pensile terminates in the Vicolo di Eu- 
nxachia, which extends behind the buildings of the Forum. This 
street leads us to the left towards the Strada dell' Abbondanza. 
At the corner is a fountain with a head and cornucopia of Abundan- 
tia (or lather Concordia), whence the name of the street. On the 
wall of the Eumachia building public advertisements used to be 
painted (album), but little of them now remains. 

On the opposite side, nearer the Forum, Reg. VIII, Ins. 3, 
No. 8, House of the Boar Hunt, named from the mosaic in the 
passage. The peristyle has fourteen Ionic columns. The border of 
the large mosaic in the atrium represents an ancient town-wall. 

150 Routes. POMPEII. Vorum Triangulare. 

Oil the wall next the Vicolo are represented the twelve gods with 
their attributes, almost effaced. 

We continue to descend the Str. dell' Abbondanza, and enter 
the Theatre Street to the right (Via Sexta, between Reg. VIII, 
Ins. 4, and Reg. VIII, Ins. 6), leading to the Forum Triangulare. 
Near the latter is a portions with six Ionic columns , which has 
been partly restored. Excavations are now going on to the left of 
the Vicolo dei Teatri (on the S. border of the town), which leads off 
from the centre of the right side of the Forum Triangulare. The 
street to the left , which leads to the Stabian Street, is the Street 
of Isis (p. 151), which should now be visited before the theatres 
by those who purpose omitting the amphitheatre. 

This S. quarter has preserved many of its pre-Roman character- 

The so-called Forum Triangulare was bounded on three sides 
by a porticus of a hundred columns of the Doric order, destined 
chiefly for the use of the frequenters of the theatre. On the 
N. side is a pedestal for a statue, with an inscription. The side 
next the sea was open. On a basement here, approached by five 
steps, stood a *Temple in the ancient Greek style (styled, with- 
out the slightest foundation , a Temple of Hercules), 101 ft. in 
length and 67 ft. in breadth. It was surrounded by columns, eight 
being in front and eleven at each side , and in the centre was the 
shrine. The whole building was in the ancient Doric order of about 
the 6th cent. B.C. A few capitals, two broken columns, and some 
fragments of the wall of the cella are now the sole remains of this 
once imposing structure. It was doubtless overthrown by the earth- 
quake of 63 ; and, if so, the inhabitants of the stuccoed buildings 
nf the imperial age would never dream of restoring it in its massive 
and simple dignity. — The enclosed space in front of the temple 
was perhaps used for the slaughter of the victims. To the left of 
it are three altars. 

Beyond the temple, No. 32, is the so-called *Bidental, consist- 
ing of the large embouchure of a fountain within a small circular 
temple, 1'2 ft. in diameter, with eight Doric columns. 

On the other side of the temple is a semicircular seat, with 
a sun-dial. — A number of houses with several stories (the most 
interesting of which is the first, the Casa di Giuseppe II.) have 
been exhumed to the "W. of the Forum Triangulare, on the slope of 
the hill occupied by the town, and beyond the ruined walls. 

Below the Theatre is a large Portico (Reg. VIII , Ins. 8 ; to 
which a flight of steps descends from the Forum Triangulare), 
uriginally belonging to the theatre and afterwards fitted up as 
Barracks for Gladiators. It possesses seventy-four columns, and is 

151 ft. in length and 125 ft. in breadth. Around it are a number 
of detached cells. The edifice had a second floor, as the imitation 
on the S. side shows, which contains the rooms of some of the 

Great Theatre. POMPEII. 8. Route. 151 

custodians. In a chamber used as a prison were found three skeletons 
and iron stocks for the feet, in another some gladiatorial weapons. 
Sixty-three bodies in all were discovered in this building. 

Adjoining the Forum Triangulare on theE. is the *Great Theatre 
(Teatro Scoperto). It is situated on rising ground, and is a building 
of very early origin. About the beginning of the Christian era it was 
restored by the architect M. Artorius, at the expense of M. Hol- 
conius Rufus and M. Holconius Celer. The space for the spectators 
consists of three ranks (ima, media, and summa cavea) ; the first 
contains four tiers for the chairs of persons of rank, the second 
twenty , and the third four. Corridors and staircases led to the 
different parts of the building. It is estimated that 5000 spectators 
could be accommodated. Behind the orchestra is the long and 
narrow stage, in front of which is an opening in the ground for the 
rising and falling of the curtain. The posterior wall of the stage, 
once adorned with statues, is provided with three doors, according 
to the rules of the ancient drama. Behind these was the dressing- 
room. On the summit of the outer wall are seen the stone rings 
for the poles which supported an awning in sunny weather. Behind 
the theatre is a square reservoir, the water of which was used 
in hot weather for refreshing the spectators by means of a slight 

The adjacent * Small Theatre (Teatro Coperto) is better pre- 
served than the great. An inscription records that it was roofed 
in (theatrum tectum, probably a wooden roof). Number of specta- 
tors 1500. The seats are cut out in such a way that the feet 
of the spectator did not inconvenience the person sitting on the 
tier below him. The building dates from about B.C. 75. The 
marble pavement of the orchestra was, according to an inscription, 
presented by M. Oculatius, a duumvir. 

From this point we re-ascend the Stabian Street. On the left, 
at the corner of the Street of Isis, Reg. VIII, Ins. 8, No. 25, the 
so-called Temple of JEscuIapius, the smallest in Pompeii , 68 ft. 
long, 22'/2 ft- broad. The anterior court contains an archaic altar 
of tufa , recalling the sarcophagus of Scipio in the Vatican. The 
cella is approached by nine steps. The name of the temple is de- 
rived from a terracotta statue of Jupiter found here , which was at 
first taken for a statue of iEsculapius. As a statue of Juno and a 
bust of Minerva were also found , it is probable that these three 
deities were all worshipped here (as in the Temple of Jupiter on 
the Capitol at Rome). 

Nearly opposite the temple (Reg. I, Ins. 4, No. 5) is the Casa 
del Citarista , named after the Apollo in the style of Pasiteles 
found here (p. 72). This is one of the largest houses at Pompeii, 
comprising two atria and three peristyles. 

We now enter the Street op Isis to the left. 

Here, on the left, Reg. VIII, Ins. 8, No. 28, rises the *Temple 

1 52 Route 8. POMPEII. Amphitheatre. 

of Isis, which, as the copy of the inscription over the entrance 
informs us, was restored after the earthquake of 63 by N. Po- 
pidius Celsinus, a boy six years of age, at his own expense, who 
in recognition of this service was received into the rank of the 
decuriones. Length 98 ft., width 60 ft. The court is surrounded 
by a porticus ; between the columns are several altars , and an 
ancient aperture for the reception of the remains of sacrifices, 
now used as an air-shaft of the Sarno tunnel. On the left is a 
small shrine, the so-called Purgatorium, in which ablutions were 
performed ; a staircase here descended to a well ; the walls are 
tastefully adorned with reliefs in stucco. The statuette of Isis, now 
in the museum (p. 65), was found in the portico of this temple. 
The chambers adjoining the wall on the left were occupied by the 
priests. Several bodies were found here; and on the altar were 
remains of sacrifices. 

The next door on the left, No. 29, leads into the so-called Cur in 
Isiaca, a court surrounded by columns. Opposite the door is the 
pedestal of a statue , on which the Doryphorus , now in the Naples 
Museum (p. 66), was found. Behind it is a small flight of steps, 
which was perhaps used for placing gaTlands on the statue; in 
front is a low stone plinth or table. The place was a palsestra of 
the Oscan period, and was afterwards shortened. 

We return through the Stabian Street to the Strada dei Dia- 
dumeni, and proceed past the Casa dei Diadumeni to the platform 
mentioned at p. 148 , from the upper end of which a cart-road 
leads over the unexcavated part of the town in 8 min. to the last 
important relic of ancient Pompeii, the — 

* Amphitheatre , situated at the S.E. end of the town, and 
detached from the other ruins. Outwardly the building looks 
somewhat insignificant, as a great part of it, as high as the second 
story, was excavated in the earth for the purpose of simplifying 
the construction. Round the exterior runs an uncovered gallery, 
to which stairs ascend for the use of the spectators in the upper 
places. The principal entrance descends considerably. Whole length 
148, width 114 yds. ; number of spectators 20,000. Three different 
series of seats are distinguished, the first with five, the second 
with twelve, and the third with eighteen tiers ; above these also 
ran a gallery. The seats are cut out in the same manner as in 
the small theatre. Copies of the former paintings on the parapet 
of the arena are preserved in the Museum at Naples (p. 75). The 
building was begun in B.C. 70 . and afterwards continued at inter- 
vals. For several decades before the year 79 the amphitheatre had 
not been used , so that the story of the people having been sur- 
prised by the eruption while witnessing a gladiator combat here 
is a pure myth. 

The excavations of last century led to the discovery of other buildings 

CASTELLAMMARE- 9. Route. 153 

near the amphitheatre , but these owing to the absence of any system at 
that period, were afterwards covered up again. 

On leaving the Amphitheatre we may return to the railway-station 
in 1/4 hi., either by the high-road, or by traversing the mounds of ashes 
and passing part of the town-wall. Those who have driven from Naples 
should order the carriage to wait for them at the Amphitheatre. — If we 
follow the road in the opposite direction (to the E.) from the Amphi- 
theatre, we may visit several recently opened tombs (in the field beyond 
the second house), which lay on the ancient road from Pompeii to Nuce- 
ria. The landlord of the Hotel du Soleil will procure permission to in- 
spect these. 

The neighbouring tlomed church of S. Maria del Rosario , erected 
within the last decade, contains a miraculous image of the Virgin. The 
surrounding hamlet is called Nuova Pompeii. 

9. Gastellammare, Sorrento, and Capri. 

Comp. the Map. 

Railway from Naples to Castellammare, 17 jr., in 40min.; fares 3 fr. 10, 
2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 25 c. ; eight trains in summer, fewer in winter ; from Caserla 
to Castellammare, see p. 10. — Carriage from Castellammare to Sorrento, 
10 M., in l!/2hr. ; tariff, see p. 154. A seat ('un posto* , 1-1 >/s fr.) may 
easily be obtained by a single traveller in one of the numerous carriages 
frequenting this road. 

Steamboat direct from Naples across the bay to Sorrento, 15 M., 
in l 3 /4 hr. (and thence to Capri) comp. p. 161. — A small Local Steamer 
plies daily in summer between Naples and Sorrento (fares 2'/2, l'/2 fr.), 
leaving Naples at 3. 30 or 4 p.m. and returning from Sorrento at 6 a.m. 
(office, Strada Piliero 10, near the Immacolatella, PI. 24; F, 5). 

Those whose time is limited should make little stay at Castellammare, 
in order to arrive at Sorrento early enough for an excursion to the Deserto 
or other interesting point in the environs. The night should be spent at 
Sorrento, and Capri visited next day ; Naples may then be regained on the 
third , or , if necessary , on the evening of the second day. — This route 
may also be combined with the following, in which case it is better to 
begin with the latter (p. 167). The steamboat trip across the Bay of 
Naples is so beautiful in fine weather that it should be made once at least. 

The Castellammare train follows the main line to Salerno and 
Metaponto as far as Torre Annunziata , Stazione Centrale (see 
R. 6), where our line diverges to the right. Skirting the coast, it 
crosses the Sarno (on the right is the rocky islet of Revigliano, with 
an old castle) ; and in 12 min. it reaches the Castellammare station 
at the N. end of the town. — The line then agains runs inland, 
reaching its terminus at (3 M.) Oragnano, a little community, well 
known for its excellent red wine, and containing numerous manu- 
factories of maccaroni. 

Castellammare. —Hotels. Hotel Royal, in the main street, near 
the station, R. 3, L. & A. I-IV2, B. I1/2, D. 5, pens. 11 fr.; Grand Hotel 
de Stabie, nearest the station and also on the quay, in the Italian style, 
well spoken of. Beautifully situated above the town, on the road to Quisi- 
sana , commanding a charming view of Vesuvius and the bay : 'Hotel 
Quisisana , on the left (steep ascent) in a shady situation , and Gran 
Brettagna, on the right. Pension at both. — "Pension Anglaise , Mme. 
Baker, Villa Belvedere, pens. 7-8 fr. per day, for a longer period 6 fr. 
per day; 'Pension Weiss , Villa Cotticelli, 5-7 fr. ; both with fine views. 
— Grand Hotel Margherita, in the Villa Quisisana (p. 154), open" in 
summer only. 

Caffe deW Europa and Trattoria Villa di Napoli, both in the Largo 

1 54 Route 9. CASTELLAMMARE. From Naples 

I'rincipe Vmberto, which (ipens towards the sea, and where a band plays 
in the evening 1-3 times a week according to the season. 

Carriages (comp. p. xviii). Drive in the town with one horse '/« f>% 
with two or three horses 1 fr. — Outside the town, not exceeding 2 kilo- 
metres (1V4 31.): first hour with one horse i'/2 fr., with two or three 
horses 2 1 /* fr. ; each additional half-hour 60 c. or 1 fr. — To Quisisana or 
Puzzano IV2 or 3 fr. ; there and back with halt of 2 hrs. 2'/2 or 5 fr. ; to 
Vico Equense l'A or 2'/2 fr. ; to Bleta 2'/2 or 4i/ 4 fr. ; to Sorrento 3 or 
(i fr. (after 3 p.m. 4 or 8fr.); to Torre Annunziata 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; to Pom- 
peii 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; to Naples (before 3 p.m.) 8 or 15 fr. — In all these last 
cases the traveller may keep the carriage about 3 hrs., after which the 
return-fare is the same as for the single journey. Bargaining, however, is 

Donkey*, very good, generally 1 fr. per hour, or 4-5 fr. per day. 

Boot to Capri in about 5 hours, 30 fr. 

Castellammare , a busy trading and fishing town with 33,000 
inhab., lies in the E. angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning 
of the peninsula of Sorrento, at the base and on the slope of a spur 
of Monte S. Angelo. It occupies the site of the ancient Stabiae, 
which was destroyed in A.D. 79, at the same time as Pompeii, and 
thence derives its official name of Castellammare di Stabia. It was 
here that the elder Pliny perished while observing the eruption 
(p. 121). Excavations of the ruins of Stabiae, which lay to the 
left, by the entrance to the town, towards the heights, have not 
been undertaken since 1745. 

The town extends along the coast for upwards of 1 M., consist- 
ing of one main street and a second running parallel with it. About 
'/ 3 M. from the station we reach the Largo Principe Vmberto, a 
small piazza embellished with flower-beds and trees , where the 
Caffe Europa is situated. Farther on we come to the animated 
Harbour, which is protected by a molo. Adjoining it is an Arsenal 
with a dockyard. — On the hill to the S. of the town are the ruins 
of the Castle to which the town owes its name. It was built in the 
13th cent, by Emp. Frederick II. and strengthened with towers 
and walls by Charles I. of Anjou. 

Castellammare is a favourite summer resort of the Neapolitans. 
The attractions are sea-baths , mineral waters (impregnated with 
sulphur and carbonic acid gas) , beautiful shady walks, and a cool 
northern aspect. 

Turning to the S. by the Largo Principe Umberto, and ascend- 
ing the Salita Caporiva (inclining to the right after 5 min.), we 
pass the Hotel Quisisana and reach a winding road, shaded by fine 
chestnut-trees higher up, which leads to the royal ■ — 

Villa Quisisana (1 M. ). The chateau (Casino), now fitted 
up as the Grand Hotel Margherita (p. 153), occupies the site of a 
house erected here by Charles II. of Anjou about 1300, which was 
occupied by King Ladislaus and his sister Johanna II. while the 
plague raged at Naples. In 1820 Ferdinand I. of Bourbon restored 
the building and gave it its present name ('one recovers health 
here'). Charming view from the terrace (gardener 1/2- 1 f r - )• 

The *Bosco di Quisisana, or park belonging to the villa, which 

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to Sorrento. VICO EQUENSE. . 9. Route. 155 

is open to the public, affords delightful walks. Ascending from the 
town, we pass through a gate to the right, opposite the entrance to 
the 'R. Villa di Quisisana', turn to the left at the first bifurcation 
(while the road in a straight direction goes to Puzzano, see below), 
and then pass behind the garden of the villa , from which there is 
another entrance to the park. — Above , to the left , rises the 
Monte Coppola , which may be ascended by beautiful wood-walks, 
winding upwards and crossing several ravines , and commanding 
admirable views of the bay and Vesuvius (there and back 1- 
V/% hrs. ; donkeys admitted to the park). — The traveller may 
return from Quisisana to Castellammare by the shady and pictur- 
esque route ('/2 nr - longer; beginning indicated above) by Puzzano, 
which passes the ruined castle of Frederick II. and the Anjou so- 
vereigns. The monastery of S. Maria a Puzzano, founded by Gon- 
salvo da Cordova, is now fitted up as a hotel (pension moderate). 

Excursions may also be made to ( 3 /4 hr.) Qragnano (railway station, 
p. 153) to the E. ; to Lettere ( 3 /4 hr. farther), beautifully situated on the 
slope of the mountains which were once named Monies Lactarii, with a 
ruined castle and magnificent prospect; to the mountain- village of Pi- 
monte, either in 1 hr. from Gragnano by the new Amain road (p. 179), 
or direct from Castellammare in D/2 hr. through the Bosco di Quisisana; 
to the (20 min. from Pimonte) suppressed Dominican monastery of Bel- 
vedere; or to the (^ hr. from Pimonte) top of Monte Pendolo (fine views). 
Lastly to the summit of the — 

* Monte Sant' Angelo, 5000 ft. above the sea-level, the highest point 
near the bay, which commands a noble prospect, embracing the bays 
of Gaeta, Naples, and Salerno, and stretching from Monte Circello to the 
Punta Licosa and to the Abruzzi. The mountain is clothed to the summit 
with wood, chiefly chestnut-trees , and offers various points of interest to 
botanists. Fragments of pumice-stone (rapilli) from eruptions of Vesuvius 
are observed almost all the way to the top. 

The ascent, which should not be attempted without a guide, requires 
4 hrs. (on donkey-hack 3 hrs. ; donkey and guide 5 fr. ; provisions advis- 
able). The guides should be expressly directed to conduct the traveller 
to the highest peak crowned by the ruined chapel of St. Michael , which 
commands an uninterrupted panorama. Otherwise they ascend another 
peak, with extensive deposits of snow, the view from which is partly in- 
tercepted by the higher summit. A very steep path, destitute of shade, as- 
cends directly from the park of Quisisana in 3 hrs. The more usual route 
leads by Pimonte (sea^ahove), where the ascent proper begins. The last 
'f 2 hr. must he accomplished on foot. Descent to Castellammare or Vico 
Equense (see below), in 2 hrs. The traveller should start early, so as 
to return to Castellammare before dusk. The excursion may also be made 
from Amalfi , from Vico Equense, or from Sorrento. From Amalfi it is 
more toilsome than from Castellammare. 

The **Road from Castellammare to Sorrento (10 M. ; on 
foot in Si/z-i hrs. ; by carriage in l 1 /^ hrs., tariff, p. 154) is one 
of the most beautiful excursions in this delightful district. We pass 
below the monastery of S. Maria a Puzzano (see above) to the Capo 
d'Orlando. The three rocks on the coast are called / Tre Fratelli. 
"We next reach (31/2 M.) Vico Equense [Pension Savarese, 5 l /2-7 
fr.), a town with 12,000 inhab. , situated on a rocky eminence, 
the ancient Vicus Mquensis. Vico was erected by Charles II. on the 
ruins of the ancient village , and was frequently visited by him. 

1 56 Route 9. META. From. Naples 

The Cathedral contains the tomb of the celebrated jurist Gaetano 
Filangieri (d. 1788). In the Villa Oiusso are several modern works 
of art. [A new road leading from Vico Equense over the mountains 
to the S., is almost completed as far as S. Maria a Castello (p. 161), 
above Positano.] 

Beyond Vico is a deep cutting, crossed by a bridge. On the 
right we next observe Marina di Seiano, a village with a hand- 
some campanile, beyond which the road ascends between vineyards 
and olive plantations on the slope of the Punta di Scutolo. After 
having rounded this promontory, the road descends towards Meta, 
and the view changes. Before us stretches the famous Piano di 
Sorrento, a plain sheltered by the surrounding mountains, and 
intersected by numerous ravines, remarkable for its salubrity and 
its luxuriant vegetation. Orange and olive groves, mulberry-trees, 
pomegranates, figs, and aloes are beautifully intermingled. This 
has been a favourite retreat of the noble and the wealthy from a 
very early period. Augustus, M. Agrippa, Antoninus Pius, and 
others frequently resided here, and at the present day visitors of 
all nationalities are met with. The space is limited, and the 
villages are neither large nor handsome, but the district generally 
is pervaded with an air of peaceful enjoyment. 

Meta {Hotel de Meta, with garden, new, first-class ; Trattoria 
delta Villa di Sorrento, tolerable) is a town of 8000 inhab., with 
two small harbours. The modern church of the Madonna del Lauro, 
on the high-road, occupies the site of a temple of Minerva. (Route 
to Camaldoli di Meta, see p. 160 ; a new road from Meta over the 
mountains to Positano is also being made.) 

The Ponte Maggiore leads across the deep ravine of Meta. We 
next reach Carotto, a large village, extending in nearly a straight 
line from the hills on the left to the Marina di on the 
right. Then Pozzopiano, surrounded by beautiful orange gardens, 
and lastly Sant' Agnello, t/ 4 M. from Sorrento (*Albergo delta Cocu- 
mella , on the quay, with beautiful view, quiet, pension 5-7 fr.). 
The road then passes the (1.) Villa Guarracino , now Hotel Belle- 
rue (see below), and (r. ) the Villa Bubinacci or Rotonda, traverses 
the long suburb, and soon reaches the Piazza of Sorrento. 

Sorrento. — Hotels. *La Sieena, 'Hotel Tramontano, ''Albekgo 
i>el Tasso , all three belonging to Siffnor Tramentano , situated between 
the small and the large Marina, on an abrupt rock rising froni the 
sea, and much frequented by English travellers; *Vittoria , charmingly 
situated above the small Marina , entered from the market-place ; high 
charges at all these during the season: D. 5 fr., pens. 12, for longer 
periods 10 fr. per day. A little more to the E. of the small Marina, *H6tel 
Kristol (formerly S. Severina), R. from 2'/2, pension 7-9 fr., belonging to 
the brothers Fioreiiliito, proprietors of the Hotel Vittoria, with several de- 
pendencies. — In the same situation, !! 'IIutel & Pension Lorelei (Villa 
Piccola Sirenn), pens. 7 fr. , for stay of more than two days fr. , well 
spoken of; 'Hotel d'Angleterre & Villa Nardi, D.4, pens. 7-1U fr.; Hotel 
Grande Hretaune, Mrs. Lawrence, in the Villo Maco, pens. 5-6 fr. All these 
hotels, situated in gardens, have private stairs descending to the sea and small 

to Sorrento. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 157 

bathing-establishments (also warm baths), and command magnificent views 
of the bay. Previous enquiry as to charges had better be made. A room 
towards the N. with a balcony and unimpeded view should be obtained if 
possible. — To the E. of the town, Alb. della Cocumella, see p. 156. — 
The locandas of the E. suburb are unpretending : "Villa Attakasio, mod- 
erate ; adjacent, Rosa Magra, R. IVz fr. (rooms only at these). — Whole 
villas and furnished apartments may also be procured for a prolonged stay. 
(Information at the larger hotels.) 

Trattoria delict Villa di Sorrento, in the E. suburb, on the road to Meta, 
unpretending. — Caffe Europa, in the Piazza. — In the Piazza is also the 
Circolo di Sorrento, a club with reading-room, etc., to which strangers are 
admitted gratis for a wee"k (tickets at the hotels), per month 5 fr. 

Sea-Baths on the Piccola Marina, 3 /4 M. distant, i/jj fr. — Physician, 
Dr. L. Galano (enquire at the Farrnacia Griffa, Corso Duomo). 

Boats, Carriages, and Donkeys may be hired at the hotels at fixed 
charges , but these rates may generally be reduced by treating directly 
with the boatmen and drivers. Fees extra. Boats (mostly at the Piccola 
Marina) 1-1 1/2 fr. per hour; to Capri with 2 rowers 6-8, 3-4 rowers 12, 5-8 
rowers 16 fr. ; to Castellammare about the same. Donkeys and carriages in 
the piazza : donkey generally 1 fr. per hour ; for excursions of 2-3 hrs. 
2-272 fr., and trifling fee to attendant; to Scaricatojo (p. 179) 2-3 fr. and 
fee. Carriage to Massa Lubrense and back, with one horse 2-3, with two 
horses 3-4 fr. ; to S. A gat a. via, Massa and back 5-6 or 7-8 fr. ; to Castell- 
ammare, with two horses, 6 fr. and fee of 1 fr. 

Banker. A. Falangola (wine and fruit dealer, branch in Naples). 

Silk Wares (in imitation of the Roman), Inlaid Wood ('tarsia'), and 
Wood Carving, are good and cheap at Sorrento. The tarsia work has 
lately become one of the staple products of the place, employing no fewer 
than 500 workmen. The quantity exported is valued at 150,000 fr. per 
annum. The chief depots of these articles, which are well adapted for 
souvenirs and presents , are kept by Luigi Gargiulo & Figlio (also silk 
wares), in the Corso Principe Umberto; Michel Grandville, Strada del 
Tasso; Gins. Gargiulo & Co., in the same street. The oldest firm of silk- 
mercers is Casola , in the Piazza ; other good houses are the Fratelli 
Miccio , Strada del Tasso, Maresca ('Aux deux Passages'), on the road to 
Massa, etc. 

Sorrento, the ancient Surrentum, a small town with. 7500 inhab., 
and the residence of a bishop , lies amid luxuriant lemon and 
orange-gardens on rocks rising precipitously from the sea, and is 
enclosed on the other sides by' deep ravines which popular super- 
stition has peopled with dwarfs (monacelli). The E. ravine, by 
which the traveller arriving from Meta crosses from the suburb to 
the Piazza, terminates in the Piccola Marina, or small harbour. 
The W. ravine opens into the Marina Grande, or large harbour, 
where there are numerous fishing-boats and a ship-building yard. 
During the middle ages Sorrento carried on a considerable trade. 
Its walls and towers have long since fallen to decay ; and nothing 
remains of the Roman Surrentum except a few fragments and sub- 
structures , which have been dignified with such names as the 
'Temple of Neptune', 'Amphitheatre', and 'Villa of Pollius Felix'. 
At the entrance to the cathedral (about 5 min. walk from the 
market-place, by a chapel on the left) are several ancient bas- 
reliefs and inscriptions. 

Torquato Tasso, the poet (b. 1544, d. at Rome 1595) was a 
native of Sorrento. A marble statue of the poet has been erected 
in the Piazza. The house in which he was born, together with 

158 Route 9. SORRENTO. Capo di Sorrento. 

the rock on which it stood, has been swallowed up by the encroach- 
ing sea ; its ruins are still visible beneath the clear azure flood 
below the Albergo del Tasso. The residence of his attached sister 
Cornelia, however, is still pointed out (Pal. Sersale , Strada S. 
Nicola) , where , after a glorious but chequered career, he was 
received by her, disguised as a shepherd, in 1592. 

The small Oiardino Pubblico, opposite the Hotel Tramontano, 
commands an unimpeded view of the sea. 

.Sorrento is admirably adapted for a summer residence on 
account of its cool northern aspect. It is chiefly frequented during 
the bathing -season. Visitors generally bathe in the morning, 
devote the hot part of the day to the 'dolce-far-niente', make 
short excursions in the beautiful environs late in the afternoon, and 
after sunset lounge in the Piazza. 

As most of the neighbouring roads run between high garden 
walls, and are very dusty in summer, there is a great lack of walks. 
The most popular is the *Massa Road (see below), which is frequent- 
ed in the evening by numerous carriages , riders , and walkers. 
The traveller is also recommended to visit some of the villas, most 
of which command beautiful views: thus, Villa Correale or La 
Hntn. Villa Ma jo, and Villa Massa, all on the coast, to the N.K. 
of the town. (Application is made to the porters, 1 / 2 fr.; many of 
the villas are to let. ) 

Excursions by Boat are very pleasant. Thus (there and back in 
l'/o-2 hrs., with one rower 2fr.) to Capo di Sorrento, at the W. end 
of the bay, opposite the Punta di Scutolo (p. 156) to the S.W., 
passing between cliffs where remains of Roman masonry, baths, 
and a so-called temple of Hercules are visible. The traveller should 
not omit to row into the large ancient piscina , now called Bagno 
della Reyina Oiovannu. A trip by boat to Meta (p. 156), where 
there are several fine grottoes in the lofty cliffs of the coast (il Pe- 
coriello , la Piccola Azzurra , etc.), may be made in the same 
time and at the same cost. 

The **Road to Massa (3'/ 4 M.J, like that from Castellammare, 
of which it is a continuation, commands a series of beautiful views. 
A few hundred yards beyond the last houses of Sorrento it crosses 
the ravine of La Conca by a bridge. To the left, 1 / 4 M. farther, 
the 'Strada Capodimonte' ascends to the left (to the Deserto , see 
p. 159j. The road skirts the base of the Capodimonte, which has 
for ages been a famous point of view, and commands retrospec- 
tively nearly the same prospect. It then ascends the Capo di Sor- 
rento, where the Villa Correale is situated (to let). About 2'/4 M. 
from Sorrento we reach Villazzano , a group of houses at the foot of 
the telegraph hill (p. 160), which the road makes a bend to avoid. 
A magnificent view towards Capri is now suddenly disclosed. <>n 
the right is the rocky islet of Lo Verrece. About 1 M. farther we 
n-.ifli thu town of Massa Lubrense (a catV at the entrance), with 

Massa Lubrense. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 159 

8500 inhab., overshadowed by the castle of S. Maria. On the coast 
are the remains of a Roman aqueduct and other antiquities. The 
church of S. Francesco is said to occupy the site of a temple of 
Juno. On 15th Aug. a festival which attracts the inhabitants of 
the whole neighbourhood is celebrated here tanually. 

From Massa we may proceed in 3 /4 nr - by <S. Maria to the village of 
Termini, to which a very beautiful road also leads from Sorrento past the 
suppressed monastery of S. Francesco di Paola (admirable views). Ter- 
mini lies at the foot of the Monte S. Costanzo, the highest point of the 
outer part of the peninsula* (a fine point of view ; ascent somewhat fatiguing ; 
a hermit at the top). Beyond Termini the road gradually descends to the 
Funta di Campanella, the extremity of the peninsula, l 3 /< hr. from Massa. 
This was the ancient Cape of Minerva , so named after a temple which 
is said to have been erected here by Ulysses in honour of that goddess. 
The promontory owes its modern name to the bells of one of the watch- 
towers erected along the coast by Charles V. as a protection against 
pirates. So lately as the beginning of the 19th cent, numerous inhabitants 
of the Italian coast were carried off as slaves by barbarian marauders. 
From this sequestered spot, which is crowned with a Lighthouse and 
overgrown with olives and myrtles, we enjoy a magnificent distant view 
of the sea , the coast , and the island of Capri , 3 M. distant. Beyond 
the lighthouse are considerable remains of a Roman villa. (Donkey 
from Massa to the Punta Campanella, the summit of the Mte. S. Costanzo, 
and back by Termini about 5 fr. — Those who make the excursion from 
Sorrento to the Punta Campanella should allow for it 7-8 hrs. in all.) 

From Termini the traveller may descend to the S. to Nerauo and the 
Marina del Cantone, whence the ruins of Crapolla, 2 M. to the E., may 
be visited by boat. On this trip we obtain a beautiful view of the three 
Islands of the Sirens, also called / Galli, fortified in the middle ages, 
but now deserted. At the landing-place of Crapolla we observe remains 
of a wall with a fountain in the centre, and traces of an aqueduct; higher 
up the hill are the ruins of the monastery and early-Romanesque basilica 
of S. Pietro, the eight marble and granite columns of which are probably 
derived from some ancient temple. The interior of the church shows 
traces of frescos. Good walkers may ascend from this point to S. Agata 
(p. 160) and return thence to Sorrento. 

In fine weather a boat may be taken from Massa to Capri (4 fr. ; two 

The Heights above Sorrento afford many fine points of view, 
the paths to which are generally steep, narrow, and viewless , and 
most conveniently reached on donkey-back. Walking is, however, 
not unpleasant in the cool season. 

A very favourite point is the Deserto , ly^-l 1 /^ hr. from the 
Piazza of Sorrento. The carriage-road leads by Massa Lubrense and 
S. Agata (p. 160; carriages, p. 157). Walkers and riders leave the 
Massa road, and ascend to the left by the Strada Capodimonte (p. 158). 
Beyond (3 min.) the second bend we take the Strada Priora to the 
left. Farther on (10 min.) we avoid the Crocevia road to the left and 
go straight on between garden-walls. In 1 / i hr. we turn to the left 
to Priora, which we reach after an ascent of 5-10 min. ; we now pass 
through a gateway, cross the Largo Priora, the small piazza in front 
of the church, to the left, turn to the right opposite the Campanile 
(and again to the right), and follow the paved path. The red build- 
ing on the hill before us is the Deserto, Y2 nr - f rom Priora. — The 
*Deserto is a suppressed monastery, in which an establishment for 

160 Route 9. SORRENTO. Telegrafo. 

destitute children has recently been fitted up by monks. In return 
for the refreshments offered to visitors, a contribution to the funds 
of the institution is expected. The roof of the building commands 
a charming prospect of both bays, and the island of Capri; in 
front of the latter rises the hill of S. Costanzo (p. 159), to the left 
of which is the solitary little church of S. Muria della Neve. — 
From the Deserto we proceed to the E. to the neighbouring vil- 
lage of S. Agata, the cathedral of which contains a high-altar of 
inlaid marble. An important festival is celebrated here on Au- 
gust 15th. A new carriage-road, commanding fine views, leads 
from S. Agata to Massa Lubrense (p. 158). The descent thence to 
Sorrento through the beautiful chestnut wood of La Tigliana is very 

Another interesting excursion is to the Telegrafo, an optic 
telegraph on a somewhat steep hill, communicating with Capri, 
2'/ 2 M. to the W., and commanding an admirable view. The route 
to it is the same as to the Deserto as far as where the road to 
Priora diverges to the left (30 min.). From that point we proceed 
in a straight direction to (10 min.) a guard-house of the Uffizio 
Daziario of Massa Lubrense, about 30 paces beyond which we enter 
the second gate on the right leading through the yard of a cottage 
(2-3 soldi). In 6 min. more the path leads in a straight direction 
to the telegraph. — At the foot of the hill lies the *Valle delle 
Pigne, which derives its name from a number of handsome pines. 
The view of Capri hence is justly celebrated. Quails are captured 
here and in other parts of the peninsula of Sorrento, and in the 
island of Capri , in large numbers in May, June, September, and 
October, affording considerable profit to the inhabitants. 

An admirable survey of the Piano di Sorrento is afforded by the 
*Piccolo S. Angelo, i 1 /^ hr. to the S.E. of Sorrento. The Toute 
ascends from the Piazza of Sorrento along the E. margin of the E. 
ravine, passing Cesarano and Buranica. At the top is a deserted 
cottage. From this point over the hill of the Tore di Sorrento to S. 
Agata (see above) l-l'/-2 ^ r - 

The Conti delle Fontanelle, a chain of hills l 1 /^ hr. to the E. of Sor- 
rento, the path to which diverges to the right from the Meta road by the 
white summer-house of the Villa Cacace between the villages of Pozzo- 
piano and Carotto, command a survey of the hays of Naples and Salerno. 
Having reached the top of the hill, we proceed to the left by a footpath 
leading in '/j hr. to the Area Naltirale, a natural rocky archway on the 
S. coast, which was partly destroyed in 1841. We may now ascend hence 
to the "Telegrafo di Marecoccola, the hill to the W., and an admirable 
point of view. 

Above Meta (p. loGj lies the suppressed monastery of *' Camaldoli di 
Meta , now a country-seat of the Conte Giusso, commanding an excellent 
view. It is reached in 2 l /i hrs. from Sorrento: dusty road to 31eta 3'/j 51.; 
ascend to the right to Arbore or Albert, l /'t hr. ; turn to the right beyond 
the village, and in 20 min. more the yellow building is readied. As the 
view is linest towards sunset, the excursion should not be made at too 
early an Injur (gardener l j'>-\ fr.) 

A fatiguing, bul ititereyting excursion is the ascenl of I lie Vico Alvano 

Steamboats. CAPRI. 9. Route. 161 

(1600 ft.), the path to which also diverges from the Met.a road by the 
above-mentioned Villa Cacaee. Is then crosses the heights of the Conti 
di Geremenna. (From Sorrento, there and back, 6-7 hrs., with guide.) 

We may also walk in 2 hrs. by Meta, Arbore (see p. 160), Fornacelle, 
and Preazzano to the village of S. Maria a Castello , where from a pro- 
jecting rock a view is obtained of Positano , 2000 ft. below , to which a 
path descends in steps. On 15th Aug., the occasion of a great festival at 
Positano (eomp. p. 178) , many visitors ascend from Sorrento to S. Maria 
for the sake of seeing the illumination below; after which, however, 
they have to return in the dark by a bad road. 


Comp. Map, p. 154. 

From Naples to Capri. Steamboats (via. Sorrento) of the Socieia 
Napolelana di Navigazione (office , Marina Nuova 14) ply to Capri daily, 
leaving the steps of S. Lucia (p. 35 ; PI. E , 6) at 8 or 9 a.m. In bad 
weather the boats do not sail at all. — After touching at Sorrento (l'/« 
hr.), the steamer proceeds direct to the Blue Grotto. After visiting the 
latter, the passengers are then conveyed to the Marina of Capri, arriving 
about 12 or 12.30. The vessel starts again about 3 p.m. and reaches Naples 
about 6 p.m. Fare to Capri (1886), 6 fr. ; return - ticket , available for 
three months, 10 fr. Bmbarcation and landing at Naples and at Capri 
30 c. each person (50 c. usually demanded); boat into the Blue Grotto 
1V4 fr. , paid on board the steamer on returning. — Unless the tra- 
veller is much pressed for time, this is a most unsatisfactory mode of 
visiting beautiful Capri, as, in addition to the Blue Grotto, he will barely 
have time to visit the Villa of Tiberius. The view from the latter, more- 
over, is far less attractive in the middle of the day than by evening light. 
One whole day at least should be devoted to the island, as there are many 
other beautiful points besides the two just mentioned. 

As the trips of the steamer are neither very regular nor punctual 
(the weather, number of passengers, etc., often deciding the question), 
enquiry on this subject should be made at the hotels, or, better still, at 
the offices mentioned above. It should also be observed that when 
the wind is in the E. or N. the Blue Grotto is not accessible — a fact, 
however, which the captain of the steamer is careful not to mention. On 
such days, moreover, the roughness of the water is apt to occasion sea- 

A small Local Steamek (CmYiere di Capri) also plies daily between 
Naples and Capri when the weather allows, leaving Capri on Mon. and 
Frid. at 8 a.m. and Naples (Immacolatella ; PI. 24; F, 5) on Tues. and 
Sat. at 2 or 3 p.m. (single fares 3, 2, or l l /2 fr. ; first-class return, available 
for a week, 5 fr.). A Market Boat also plies between Naples and Capri, 
starting in summer on Mon., Wed., and Frid., returning the same day; in 
winter leaving Naples on Mon. and Frid., returning on the following days. 
The length of the passage depends of course on the weather (3-4 hrs. ; fare 
1 fr.). It generally starts from the Porta di Massa, by the Molo Piccolo 
(PI. F, 5) at Naples, at noon. As , however, the sailing of this boat is 
very irregular, intending passengers should make enquiry at the agent's, 
Giiis. Morgana, Porta di Massa 4. 

From Sorrento to Capri. Steamboat (see above) , starting from the 
Piccola Marina. — By Small Boat the passage takes 2-2'/2 hrs. (fares, see 
p. 157). A four-oared boat for the excursion to Capri and Amalfi costs 
30-40 fr., the night being spent at Capri. Fine weather is indispensable, 
but a perfect calm is neither necessary nor desirable. — The cheapest way of 
reaching Capri from Sorrento is by the Barca Postale (rowing-boat) of Salvatore 
Ruocco startiog from Capri ever) 7 morning at 4 o'clock, and returning from 
the Piccola Marina at Sorrento at 10.30 (fare, with luggage, 2 fr.). 

Order is now well maintained at the landing-place at Capri, and the 
begging nuisance has greatly abated. One soldo is sufficient paymsnt 
for assistance rendered to passengers on landing. 

BAEDEB"" Tt»l„ TTT Hit T3-JI*;— ^ 

Hi2 Route l). CAPRI. Hotels. 

Disposition of Time. For steamboat-passengers, sec p. 161. Travellers 
who make the excursion from Sorrento by small boat and desire to return on 
tlie same day (which, however, is not advisable) had better first visit the 
l'.lue Grotto, then order dinner at one of the inns on the Marina, ascend 
lo Capri and go direct to the Punta Tragara, or the Villa di Tiberio if 
time and energy permit, and finally return direct to the beach. — Those 
who spend the night on the island can of course accomplish all this with 
greater leisure. On the following morning they should then descend (20 
inin.) to the Pieeoltt Marina on Wie S. side of the island, and take a boat 
to the Green Grotto (l'/ 2 fr. ; l'/n hr. there and back) ; or, still better, 
perform the Giro of the whole island by boat (3-4 hrs.). — If a longer 
stay he made, Anacapri may also be visited, and Monte Solaro ascended. 
The advice in the visitors' book at Pagano's hotel should in any case bo 
taken to heart: 'Ae quittez pas la Grotte oVAzuv sans voir Capri! 1 . 

Hotels in Capri. At the Marina: -Hotel du Louvre (Stanford), ad- 
mirably situated on a height a little to the W. of the landing-place, with 
baths; "Hotel i>e la Grotte Bleue, adjacent, with a terrace command- 
ing a beautiful view, pens. 6 fr., less for a prolonged stay; Gran Bret- 
tagna, D. 3V2-4, lunch 3, K, 2'/2, B. s/i, L - 1 h, &■■ i h, pension 6-7 ft-.; 
Hotel and Restaur. Succuesale 1'agano, both close to the landing place. 
-- In the Village of Capri: "Albergo Quisisana (omnibus at the station), 
on the way to the Certosa (see p. 163), an excellent house, pension 7-9 fr.; 
"Hotel d'Angleterre , on the road from the Marina, just outside the 
village of Capri, line views, pens. 6-8 fr. ; 'Albergo Pagano ( Vitloria), 
on the road to Quisisana, pension 6 fr. ; the garden contains a handsome 
palm-tree. — Hotel de France, to the left of the Piazza, higher up, at 
the foot of the castle to the E. , with small garden and dependency, lino 
view, unpretending, moderate, pension 6 fr. and less; Hotel -Pension 
Fakaglioni , in the same road, nearer the Piazza, mediocre. — Wine, 
Kkei:, etr,: Cafe' Hidigeigi (Pompeiano), next the Pagano, good and mode- 
rate; Cafe al Vermouth di Torino, in the Piazza, a favourite resort; Cafe 1 
des Deux Golfes, with view-terrace. — Physician: Dr. Hildebrandt, Villa 
uiardini, near the Piazza. 

Carriages. From the Marina: to the village of Capri with one horse 
2 fr., there and back, with stay of 1 hr. , 3 fr. ; with two horses, 3 and 
5 fr. ; to Anacapri, with one horse, 4 fr., there and hack, 5 fr., with two 
hordes, 6 and 8 fr. From the village of Capri to Anacapri, with one horse, 
2 fr., there and back, 'A fr., with two horses, 5 fr. 

Donkey from the Marina to the village of Capri l l /4, Horse l'/2 fr., 
in the reverse direction 3J* or 1 fr. ; to the Villa di Tiberio and back 
2 ','•_■ or 3 fr.; to Anacapri IV2 and 2 fr., back >| 2 and 1 fr. extra; from the 
village to Anacapri and back, l 1 ^ and 2 fr. — Guides are quite unneces- 
sary unless time is very limited. A boy to show the way may be engag- 
ed for several hours for Vj-1 fr. 

Boats (bargaining necessary) about H/2 fr. per hour; trip to the Blue 
Grotto, see p. 168 ; 'giro', or tour of the island (p. 166), 6-8 fr. To Sorrento, 
see p. lf)7; the hotels Quisisana and Pagano possess in common a very 
comfortable boat for 8 pers., which is hired for the trip to Sorrento with 
six rowers for 14 fr. ; boats with four rowers for smaller parties are also 
provided (8 fr.). — The Piccola Marina on the S. side of the island, where 
the Green Grotto is situated, is reached in 2(1 min. (starting from the Piazza 
at Capri we diverge after 7 min. to the right from the road to Anacapri 
by a white house, and immediately turn to the left and pass under the 
road). Boat hence to the Green Grotto and round the E. end of the 
island to the Marina about 4 fr. 

Capri, the ancient Capreae ( 'island of goats'), is a small, moun- 
tainous island of oblong form. Its picturesque outline forms one 
of the most charming points in the view of the Bay of Naples. The 
highest point is the Monte Solaro on the W. side, 1980 ft. above 
the sea-level; towards the K. huge cliffs, about 900 ft. in height, 
rise abruptly from the sea. Boats can land safely at two places only. 

Punta Tragara. CAPRI. 'J. Route. 163 

The island contains about 4500 inhab. and two important villages 
only, those of Capri and Anacapri. The inhabitants, who support 
themselves chiefly by agriculture and Ashing, still retain some old 
peculiarities of habits and costume. One of their chief pursuits is 
coral-fishing, in which many of them are engaged in summer on 
the African coast. The island yields fruit, oil, and excellent red 
and white wines in abundance. The indigenous flora comprises 
800 species. 

The island first came into notice under Augustus, who showed a great 
partiality for it, and founded palaces, baths, and aqueducts here. Tiberius 
erected twelve villas, in honour of the twelve gods, in the principal parts 
of the island, the largest of which was the Villa Jovis (Tacit. Ann. iv. 
67), after he had surrendered the reins of government to Sejanus and 
retired hither (A.D. 27). He remained here almost uninterruptedly till 
his death in 37, even after the fall of Sejanus in 31. Exaggerated accounts 
are given of the cruelty and profligacy of the emperor, even towards the 
close of his career. The tranquillity and inaccessibility of the island, as 
well as the geniality of the climate, were the attractions which induced 
him to spend so many years in it. Considerable remains of the buildings 
of Tiberius are still extant. 

In 1803 , during the Napoleonic wars , Capri was captured by the 
English under Sir Sidney Smith, fortified, and converted into a miniature 
Gibraltar. Sir Hudson Lowe was afterwards the commandant. In Oct. 
1808, however, the island was recaptured by the French under Lamarque 
by a brilliant coup-de-main. 

The Marina Orande , or principal landing-place , where the 
steamers and most of the small boats land their passengers, is on 
the N. side of the island, where there are several hotels (p. 162), 
and a number of fishermen's cottages. Two routes ascend hence to 
the village of Capri. The new carriage-road leads to the right (W.) 
and ascends past the hotels and the old church of S. Costanzo 
in windings (^ hr.). The shorter, but steeper path to the left (E.) 
ascends in steps. Both are destitute of shade and are far from 
pleasant in the middle of the day. 

Capri (460 ft.), the capital of the island, with 2500 inhab., 
lies on the saddle which connects the E. heights of the island (Lo 
Capo) with the western (Mte. Solaro), and is commanded by two 
lower hills (S. Michele and Castiglione) crowned with dilapidated 
castles. Nearly in the centre of the village is the small Piazza. To 
the S. of it (5 min.) is the Certosa, founded in 1371, now a barrack. 

Leaving the Piazza by a vaulted passage to the left ot the flight 
of steps opposite the campanile, then turning to the right and 
passing the hotels of Pagano and Quisisana, and turning to the left 
again (the path straight on leads to the Certosa), we are led by 
a path which ascends slightly the greater part of the way to the 
(20 min.) *Punta Tragara, the S.E. promontory. This point com- 
mands a picturesque view of Capri and the S. coast, with three 
precipitous cliffs called the Faraglioni. On the summit of the one 
nearest the land are remains of a Roman tomb, and near the Punta 
are the remains of a Roman house, exhumed in 1885. 

The E. promontory, called Lo Capo, is supposed to have 


164 Route i). CAPRI. Villa di Tiberin 

been the site of the Villa Jovis, to which Tiberius retired tor 
nine months after the fall of Sejanus. This is a beautiful point 
of view ( 3 / 4 hr. from the village of Capri). The path cannot 
be mistaken. From the Piazza we pass to the left through 
the archway bearing the sign of the Hotel de France and fol- 
low the paved track, which soon ascends a little. It then becomes 
level, and at length skirts the slope to the right. On the right, 
a few minutes before reaching the last hill, we pass a clean tav- 
ern called 'Salto of Tiberio', after the rock (745 ft. above the sea) 
from which, according to a purely mythical story, the tyrant pre- 
cipitated his victims. A projecting platform with a railing affords 
a view of the sea below. A good idea of the height of these rocks 
may be gained by dropping a stone over the railing and noting the 
time it takes to fall into the sea. — To the right are the remains of 
an ancient Lighthouse (*View). 

After a slight ascent we reach the *Villa di Tiberio (pronounc- 
ed Timberio by the natives), part of the extensive ruins of which 
are now used as a cow-house. They consist of a number of vault- 
ed chambers and corridors , the uses of which cannot now be as- 
certained. On the highest point is the small chapel of 8. Maria 
del Soccorso (1050 ft.), with the cell of a hermit, who offers 
wine and for a trifling donation allows the visitor to inscribe his 
'testimonium prsesentias'. This point commands a noble prospect 
of the island and the blue sea, of the barren Punta di Campanella 
opposite, and the two bays ; even Paestum and the Ponza Islands 
(to the N.W.) are visible in clear weather. 

In returning we take the path which diverges to the left by an un- 
occupied house on the road-side opposite a church and a little on this side 
of the Hotel de France, 7-i hr. from the Salto of Tiberio ; we then cross 
gardens and fields in the same direction. In '/« hr. we reach the so-called 
Val di Mitromania, sometimes called Matrimonio by the islanders, a valley 
descending eastwards to the sea at the base of the Tuoro Grande or Tele- 
yrafo. To the left in this valley, 8 min. farther, and reached by a path 
which is rather rough towards the end, rises the 'Arco Naturale, a mag- 
nificent natural archway in the rock, where we obtain a striking view of 
the imposing and rugged cliffs. A visit to the Orotta di Mitromania to 
which 130 stops descend, may be combined with this excursion. This 
grotto contained a shrine of Mithras, the 'uneonquered god of the sun', 
whose cult was introduced to Rome from the Hast, and in the time of 
the later emperors spread through all the provinces of the empire. Roman 
remains may be seen in the cave. 

The ruins on the Tuoro Grande are supposed to belong to the second 
villa of Tiberius. On the coast are numerous ruins under water; among 
others, to the S. of Capri, by the Camerelle, is a long series of arches, 
perhaps belonging to an ancient road. 

From Capiu to Axacapki (2'/ 4 M.). A road in long windings 
hewn in the rock, constructed in 1874, now supersedes the steep 
and fatiguing flight of 535 steps (to the foot of which 249 more 
ascended from the Marina) which used to form the chief approach 
to the higher parts of the island. This road commands beautiful 
views. Above it rise the ruins of the mediaeval CusteUo di Bar- 
bnrossn, named after the pirate who destroyed it in the 16th cen- 

Monte Solaro. CAPRI. 9. Route. 165 

tuiy. At the entrance to Anacapri is the Albergo di Barbarossa 
(see below). The road to the right leads into the village ; that to 
the left to the Monte Solaro. 

Anacapri (880 ft.; Albergo di Barbarossa, pension 5 fr., 
moderate and quiet , but small and not over comfortable ; Hdtel 
Bella Vista, on the road, to the right, the residence of Dr. Cuomo : 
rooms and -wine at the -wine-dealer MolVs), the second village in 
the island, with 1800inhab., is scattered over the lofty plain which 
slopes towards the "W* On the left side of the street, before the 
church is reached, is the small Cafe Barbarossa. The tower of the 
church commands a fine view. There are Roman ruins in this 
neighbourhood also , particularly at the village of Damecuta , on 
the N.W. side, where a villa of Tiberius once stood. — Adjoining 
Anacapri is the pleasant village of Caprile. 

The *Ascbnt of Monte Solako (1 hr.) is recommended to toler- 
able walkers, as the mountain commands two beautiful and entirely 
different views, viz. that from the hermitage, and the panorama 
from the summit. The route, recently much improved and now 
practicable for riders, is easily found. By the above-named 
Albergo di Barbarossa at the beginning of Anacapri we follow 
the paved path to the left, and after 60 paces the footpath to the 
right , which passes the cypress-shaded cemetery. Beyond the 
cemetery we take the second path diverging to the left, which 
immediately afterwards turns to the right; 70 paces farther (10 
min. from the Albergo) we turn to the left and ascend through 
a hollow. On the crest of the hill (i/ 2 hr.) which connects the 
summits of La Crocella and Monte Solaro we pass through a gate- 
way, and then follow the bridle-path to the right of the wayside 
shrine to the white wall of the *Hermitage (1624ft; wine, for 
which Pater Anselmo, the herjnit, expects a trifling fee), where 
a projecting platform commands a most picturesque view of 
the village of Capri and the whole of the beautiful island. 
After a fatiguing ascent of 15-20 min. more over debris we reach 
the summit of the *Monte Solaro (1980 ft.), which rises abruptly 
from the sea, on the S. side of the island, and is crowned by a 
ruined fort. The path to the right at the above-mentioned wayside 
shrine leads direct to the top. The view is superb, embracing 
Naples with the whole of its bay, as well as that of Salerno as far 
as the ruins of Psestum. Towards the N. the Bay of Gaeta is 
visible, and towards the W. the group of the Ponza Islands. The 
spectator also obtains a survey of the chain of the Apennines, 
bounding the Campanian plain in a wide curve from Terracina, 
the Abruzzi, the Matese Mts., and extending S. (p. 10) to the hills 
of Calabria. Capri itself and the peninsula of Sorrento lie in promi- 
nent relief at the spectator's feet. 

106 Route 9. CAPRI. Blue Grotto. 

Blue Grotto. — A visit to the Blue Grotto from the Marina at 
Capri, where suitable light boats will be found, occupies i^ji-1 hrs. The 
best light is between 10 and 12 o'clock. The authorised fare for the trip 
(there and back) is V/t fr. for each person, but almost no boatman will 
undertake it without an additional fee of 1-2 fr. The skiffs are not allowed 
to take more than three passengers. If the wind blows strongly from 
the E. or X. access to the grotto is impossible. 

The Blue Grotto is situated on the N. side of the island, about 
l l /i M. from the landing-place of Capri. The row along the base 
of the precipitous rocky shore is exceedingly beautiful. The sea 
swarms with gaily coloured sea-stars and jelly-fish, many of which 
float on the surface of the water. In 1 /4 nr - we reach the ruins ot 
the Baths of Tiberius, where a fragment of an ancient wall and 
part of a column in the water are to be seen, and in ^2 nr - niore 
we arrive at the entrance of the **Blue Grotto (Qrotta Azzurra), 
which is scarcely 3 ft. in height. Visitors must lie down in the 
boat on entering. In the interior the roof rises to a height of 41 ft. ; 
the water is 8 fathoms deep. Length of the grotto 175 ft., great- 
est width 100 ft. The effect of the blue refraction of the light on 
every object is indescribable, and at first completely dazzles the 
eye. Objects in the water assume a beautiful silvery appearance. 
One of the boatmen usually offers to bathe in order to show this 
effect, and is sufficiently rewarded with 1 fr., although he generally 
makes the exorbitant demand of 2-3 fr. Near the middle of the 
grotto, to the right, is a kind of landing-place, leading to a passage 
with broken steps, but closed at the upper end, once probably an 
approach from the land to the grotto, which was perhaps connected 
with the villa of Tiberius at Damecuta. The grotto, which was 
known to the ancients, fell into oblivion in the middle ages, but 
since 11S22, when it was re-disoovered by fishermen, it has justly 
been a favourite attraction. 

Anacapri is reached by a tolerable path, beginning near the Blue 
Grotto, which before the construction of the new road formed one of 
the chief routes between that village and the Marina of Capri. 

The Blue Grotto is the most celebrated of the caverns with 
which the rocky shores of Capri abound, but some of the others 
are also well worth visiting. The Giro, or *Voyagb round the 
Island, occupies 3-4 hrs. (boats, see p. 102). Steering from the 
Marina towards the E., we first reach the (Irotta delle Stalattite, 
with its stalactite formations. We then round the promontory of 
Lo Capo, and visit the Grotta Bianca, named like the others from 
its predominating colour. The most striking part of the trip is at. 
the Faruylioni (p. 163), which rise majestically from the water. 
The central cliff is undermined by an imposing archway, through 
which the boat passes, but not visible from the land. We next 
pass the Piccola .Marina (p. 102) and in 2fi min. more reach the 
(h-'lta Virile, at the base of the Monte Solaro, a cavern of a beauti- 
ful emerald-green colour, and the most interesting after the lilue 
(irotlo (best light, about noonj. The voyage hence round Ana- 

NOCERA. 10. Route. 167 

oapri to the Blue Giotto is less attractive, but this cavern may 
now be visited as an appropriate termination to the excursion 
(in which case a skiff for the grotto should be previously ordered 
to meet the traveller). Lastly we pass the lighthouse and sev- 
eral fortifications dating from the English occupation of 1808. 

10. From Naples to Salerno, Paestum, and Amain. 

Comp. Map, p. 170. 

The Bay of Salerno cannot indeed compete with the Bay of Naples ; 
towards the S. its shores are flat and monotonous ; but the N. side, where 
the mountains of the Sorrentine peninsula rise abruptly some thousands 
of feet from the sea, is replete with beauty and grandeur. Here are sit- 
uated the towns of Salerno and Amalfi , conspicuous in the pages of 
mediaeval history, and still containing a few monuments of their former 
greatness. Farther S., in a barren, desolate situation, are the temples of 
Paestum, usually the extreme point of the Italian peninsula visited by 
northern travellers. All these recall the golden period of Greek history 
and art more forcibly than any other localities in Italy. 

This route may conveniently be combined with the preceding (p. 153} 
as follows : First Day : La Cava and Salerno. Second Day : Paestum. 
Third Day: Amalfi. Fourth Day: By boat to Positano or Scaricatojo, 
and across the hills to Sorrento (or, better, by boat direct to Capri, and 
next day to Sorrento). Fifth Day : By the Barca Postale at noon to Capri. 
Sixth Day: Back to Naples by steamer. The passage across the moun- 
tains to Sorrento, as well as the excursion to Paestum, were formerly 
not unattended with danger from brigands, but these routes are now con- 
sidered safe. 

Railway from Naples to Salerno, 34 M., in l'/i-S 1 /" hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 15, 
4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 45 c. (Vietri is the station for Amalfi) ; to Eboli, 50 M., in 
2 3 A-3 3 /4 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 5, 6 fr. 35, 3 fr. 65 c. 

From Naples to Pompeii, 15 M., see R. 6. The train, after 
quitting the Bay of Naples, traverses the fertile plain of the 
Sarno. Cotton and tobacco are extensively cultivated here. 17 M. 
Scafati. The festival of the Madonna del Bagno takes place here 
on Ascension Day (see p. 29): 

19^2 M. Angri, near which Teias, the last king of the Goths, was 
defeated by Narses in 523, after having descended from Lettere on 
Monte Sant' Angelo to the plain. The district gradually becomes 
more mountainous, and the scenery is picturesque the whole way. 

21 M. Pagani, with 13,000 inhabitants. In the church of 
S. Michele, under the altar of a chapel to the left of the choir, 
are preserved under glass the relics of Alphonso de' Liguori, born 
at Naples in 1696, bishop of S. Agata in 1762, and founder of 
the order of the Redemptorists , who died at Pagani in 1787, 
and was canonised by Gregory XVI. in 1839. The place contains 
nothing else to detain us. From Pagani to Amalfi, see p. 174. 

22'/2 M . Nocera de' Pagani , a town of some importance but 
no great interest , near the ancient Nuceria Alfaterna , where 
Hugo de' Pagani, founder of the order of the Templars, and the 
painter Francesco Solimena were born, and where Paulus Jovius, 
the historian, was bishop. To the left of the line, above the exten- 

168 Route 10. LA CAVA. From Naples 

sive Capuchin monastery, rise the ruins of the ancient Castello in 
Parco, the scene of the death of kSibylla, widow of King Manfred, 
after the battle of Benevento (1266). At the close of the 14th cent, 
the castle was one of the principal strongholds of the house of 
Anjou. Fine view from the summit. Mater Domini, a pilgrimage- 
resort near Nocera, is the scene of an important festival on 15th 
August. ■ — Nocera is connected with Codola (p. 180) by a branch 
railway (3 M. in about */4 nr -> fares 60, 40 and 30 c). 

On the right, shortly before the train reaches the small village 
of (2f) M.) S. Clemente, we observe the ancient baptismal church of 
*S. Maria Maggiore, similar to S. Stefano in Rome. The basin in 
the centre is surrounded by eight granite columns, enclosed by 
a circular passage with sixteen pairs of handsome columns of pavo- 
nazzetto with rich capitals, all antique. The walls are decorated 
with frescos of the 14th century. 

Beyond S. Clemente the line ascends considerably. On emerg- 
ing from a cutting the train reaches — 

28M. La Cava (*Albergo di Londra , well-managed and often 
crowded in summer, though rather inconveniently situated, R. 3, 
B. I1/2, D. 5, pens. 10-12fr. ; * Hot. Vittoria, prettily situated; 
*Pension Suisse, 5 fr. per day ; Hot. Royal des Etrangers , depen- 
dance of the Hot. "Vittoria in Salerno, pens. 5 fr. ; good furnished 
lodging's), officially called Cava dei Tirreni, situated in a charming- 
valley, a favourite summer and autumn resort of the Neapolitans, 
and a good centre for excursions to Amalfl, Paestum, Pompeii, etc. 
(oarr. according to tariff). It is, however, very hot and dusty in 
summer. The town consists of a long street with arcades, leading 
from the station to the Piazza, where a church and a large fountain 
are situated. Pop. of the 'commune' 21,000. 

"Excursion to Cobpo di Cava, f/4 hr. to the S.W., situated on a 
wooded height, very pleasant, especially on a summer afternoon (donkey 
l'/ 2 -2 fr., there and "back 2-3 fr.; carriages may also be hired). Leaving 
the Piazza we ascend the road to the left hy the church. After 5 niin., 
when the road turns to the right round the public garden, we ascend by 
the shorter path to the left by a church, and farther on between walls, past 
the red-painted tobacco manufactory, to <S. Giuseppe, a church with a few 
houses. Here we again quit the road, which goes to the right, and follow the 
path to the left. It descends, crosses a ravine (beyond the bridge a small 
church to the left), and again gradually ascends, commanding a view of the 
village to the right. For a time the path is enclosed by walls, but a view is 
soon obtained of the valley of La Cava to the left, and, higher up, of the Hay 
of .Salerno. In l /'2 hr. (from S. Giuseppe) we arrive at the church of Pielra 
tianla (so called from a rock in front of the high-altar, on which the pope 
sat in 1816), whence a fine view is obtained of the mountain slopes of Cava, 
studded with numerous white houses , and the Hay of Salerno to the 
right. In the narrow valley about twenty mills are propelled by the 
brook. The slender round towers on the hills about Cava are erected for 
the capture of wild pigeons in October. Iicyond Pietra Santa we skirt the 
wood for 8 min. and reach the high-road, which soon afterwards crosses 
the viaduct to Corpo di Cava. Here the road divides, leading to the village 
to tin- right, and to the monastery in 5 min. towards the left. 

The village of Corpo di Cava ( ' Michele Hntpolatidlo and Ffrdiimntlo Adi- 
tiol/i , both rustic) stands on the rock against which the monastery is built, 

to Salerno. SALERNO. 10. Route. 1 69 

above a beautiful narrow valley with several mills. The air is pure and the 
situation beautiful, so that travellers often make a prolonged stay here. 

The famous Benedictine abbey of "La Trinita della Cava , founded in 
1025 by Waimar III. , a Lombard prince of Salerno , is now condemned 
to dissolution, but still contains a few monks. The Church (with two 
ancient sarcophagi at the entrance) contains the tombs of S. Alferius, the 
first abbot, of Queen Sibylla, wife of Roger, who died at Salerno, and 
of several anti-popes, among whom was Gregory VIII. The organ is one 
of the best in Italy. — The Archives of the monastery (shown in the 
forenoon only) are of great value , and contain a number of important 
documents on parchment in uninterrupted succession ; the catalogue com- 
prises 8 vols. Among tHe valuable MSS. are the Codex Legum Longo- 
bardorum of 1004, a prayer-book with miniatures of the school of Fra 
Angelico da Fiesole, the Latin Biblia Vulgata of the 7th cent., etc. The 
small Pinacoteca, or picture-gallery, contains two fine altar-pieces of the 
early Umbrian school (Resurrection and Adoration of the Magi), revealing 
the influence of Raphael. — We may return by the Bonea, a grotto con- 
taining a small waterfall. 

The train now traverses a beautiful district, and soon affords a 
view of the Bay of Salerno ; in 10 min. it reaches — 

30 ! /2 M. Vietri, charmingly situated, with several villas. Pop. 
9000. Above the town a promenade, commanding beautiful views, 
has lately been constructed. 

Passengers may alight here and take a carriage (drive of , fa hr.) down 
to Salerno (2 fr. , single seat '/2 fr.). The road descends, commanding a 
view of the sea, and aftords a pleasant walk. High above, along the rocks 
of Monte Liberatore to the left, runs the railway. Carriage to Amalfi 
(p. 175) less expensive here than at Salerno (a drive of 2-272 hrs. ; with 
one horse 4, with two 6, with three 9-10 fr., and fee of 1 fr. ; one-horse 
carr. to Amalfi and thence to Salerno 6 fr. and fee of 1 fr.). 

The railway, supported by galleries, and passing through four 
tunnels, the last of which penetrates the castle-hill, descends ra- 
pidly hence to Salerno. 

34 M. Salerno. — The Railway Station lies at the E. end of the 
town, a considerable way from the principal hotels. 

Hotels. Hotel Vittokia, 1/2 M. to the W. of the town, on the road 
to Vietri, the farthest from the station, R. 3, B. 2, D. 5, L. and A. 2 fr. ; 
Hotel d'Angleterre, on the Marina, R., L., & A. 3'/2, D. 3'|2, B. 11(4 fr., 
well spoken of. — Albekgo Americano and Albergo di Pacella, also on 
the Marina, unpretending (charges according to bargain). 

Cafes. Several on the quay, now the Corso Garibaldi. "Trattoria Roma, 
unpretending and moderate, good red wine. 

Sea-Baths near the Marina, similar to those at Naples (p. 25). 

Carriages. From the railway to the town with one horse 50 c, with 
two horses 1 fr. ; at night 70 c. or l>/2 fr. ; one hour 1 or 2 fr., at night 
l'/a or 2'/2 fr. — For drives in the neighbourhood a previous agreement 
should always be made , gratuity included , although even in this case 
1-2 fr. above the fare is always expected. To Amalfi with one horse 6-8, 
with two horses 8-10 fr. — Single travellers may avail themselves of one 
of the swift but uncomfortable corricoli (two-wheeled, rustic vehicles ; driver 
stands behind the passenger), but a stipulation should be made that no 
second passenger be taken up by the way; to Amalfi (tutto compreso), 
according to circumstances 2V2-4 fr. 

Rowing or Sailing Boat (according to bargain) 1-1 '/2fr. per hour. Boat 
to Psestum 20-25, to Amalfi 8-10 fr., according to the number of rowers. 

Popular Festival on the eve and day of St. Matthew, 20th-21st Sept., 
with fireworks and illumination, which are best seen from a boat (4-5 fr.). 

Salerno , the ancient Salernum , delightfully situated at the 
N. extremity of the bay, and bounded on the E. by fertile 

170 Route 10. SALERNO. From Naples 

plains, is the seat of the local government and of an archbishop, 
and the chief residence of the numerous local aristocracy. Pop. 
20,000, of the commune 31,200. The old town, rising on the 
slope of the so-called Apennine, with narrow and irregular streets, 
recalls the 9th and 10th centuries, when the Lombards occupied 
it, the 11th cent, when it belonged to the Normans, and lastly 
the period when the houses of Hohenstaufen and Anjou were 
masters of the place, and when Salerno enjoyed the reputation 
of being the greatest medical school in Europe. 

The Marina, or quay, 1 '/ 2 M. in length, called the *Corso Gari- 
baldi, affords a beautiful walk, especially on summer evenings The 
once excellent harbour is now choked -with sand. At the W. end 
of the town is a large new Theatre, with some flower-beds adjacent. 
Nearer the E. end of the Marina are the post-office and the monu- 
ment of Carlo Pisacana, Duke of S. Giovanni, 'precursore di Gari- 
baldi', a Genoese, who participated in the attempts to revolutionise 
Italy in 1857, landed in Calabria, and perished while attempting 
to escape. The large building between the two sentry-boxes, about 
100 paces farther, is the Prefeitura, past which a narrow street to 
the left leads to the — 

*Cattedrale S. Mattbo, erected in 1084 by Robert Guiscard, 
and adorned with works of art from Pacstum. The restoration of 
1768 has deprived the edifice of much of its simple grandeur, 
but it still merits a visit. The steps ascend to an atrium, sur- 
rounded by twenty-eight antique columns. In the centre formerly 
stood a granite basin which is now in the Villa Nazionale at 
Naples (p. 85). Along the walls are ranged fourteen ancient Sar- 
cophagi, which were used by the Normans and their successors as 
Christian burying-places. The bronze doors, executed at Constan- 
tinople, were presented by Landolfo Butromile in 1099. 

The Nave contains two ambos or reading-desks, and an archiepis copal 
throne, richly decorated with mosaic by Givranni of Procida, the foe of 
Charles of Anjou. In the N. aisle is the "Tomb of Margaret of Anjou, wife 
of Charles of Durazzo and mother of Ladislaus and Johanna II., by Baboccio 
tin J'ijit'rino, with the painting almost intact. Opposite is the tomb of 
Bishop Nic. Piscicelli (d. 1471). The Cappella del Sacramento, at the end 
of this aisle-contains a Piefii by Andrea da Salerno, the composition of 
which is open to criticism. On a large table in the Sacrist!/ (in the 
X. transept): 'Scenes from the Old and New Testament, on numerous carv- 
ed ivory tablets, dating from 1200. The Choir contains a pavement and 
balustrade of ancient mosaic and two columns of verde antico. In the 
South Aisle, at the end, is the tomb of Hildebrand afterwards Pope 
Gnijvnj VII., who died here on 25th May, 1035, after he 'had been banished 
from Konic by Henry I\ . The monument was restored in 1578 by Arch- 
bishop Colonna; the statue and the frescos are modern and the mosaic 
in the dome has been restored. To the left is the monument of Arch- 
bishop Caraffa, adorned with a relief from 1'a'stnm : Rape of Proserpine. 
Farther on in the same aisle are tombs of a bishop and a. knight antique 
sarcophagi with liacchanalian representations. Here, beside an' 'ancient 
relief representing a ship discharging its cargo, steps descend lo the 
liihlv decorated f'rti/if , which is said to contain the renriins of flip 
Kvaiigelist St. .Matliiew. brought, from the Kast in!),'jn. In 'front of a 

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Scale iLel 1 '■ 100.000 


Abbreviazioni: C.-Casa,, MtMmt*., P.Plmta , TVRilzo, 
S:S<mtw, T?-Tom,T.-Va7lojie. 

jeogtaph-^iLstalt vonTfag^rx-rebeB.LQipKie;. 

t'.^op-aph.AnslaJt Ton 

Tracer *• Debes .letprig 

to Pcestum. EBOLI. 10. Route. 171 

side-altar is the stump of a column, on which three saints are said to 
have been beheaded. 

In S. Lorenzo some frescos recently discovered under the 
whitewash are also ascribed to Andrea (Sdbbatini) of Salerno, 
the most eminent Renaissance painter in S. Italy. Authentic 
works by this master, whose style reflects the influence of Raphael, 
may be seen in the churches of S. Giorgio (Madonna with saints 
and donors, dated 1523 ; 2nd altar on the right) and <S. Agostino 
(Madonna with two saints, 2nd altar to the left; the SS. Augustine 
and Paul at the sides of the high-altar are school-pieces) . Both 
these churches are situated between the Prefettura and the 

On the hill (900 ft.) lie the ruins of the ancient Castle of the 
Lombard princes, which, was taken by Robert Guiscard after a siege 
of eight months. The view repays the ascent. (A little beyond the 
cathedral we turn to the right; farther up, the path becomes steep; 
at the top, 3 / 4 hr., is a cottage; fee of a few soldi.) 

The train as it proceeds affords a charming view of the bay and 
Capri to the right, and of the mountains to the left. 39 M. Ponte- 
cagnano ; 44 M. Montecorvino ,■ 45 J /2 M. Battipaglia, junction of 
the railway to Pactum and Agropoli, see p. 172. 

49 l /2 M. Eboli {Albergo del Vozzo, on the road, about 200 paces 
from the town, R. 2, pens. 7fr., tolerable, bargaining necessary), 
a town with 9000 inhab. , situated on the hill-side, with an old 
chateau of the Prince of Angri, enjoys a fine view of the sea, the 
oak-forest of Persano, the towns at the foot of Monte Alburno, the 
temples of Psestum, and the valley of the Sele, the ancient Silarus. 
The sacristy of S. Francesco contains a large Madonna by Andrea 
da Salerno. 

Continuation of the railway, see R. 19. 


An excursion toJPaestum is most conveniently made from Salerno, 
where the previous night should he spent, though since the opening of 
the railway, it can now be accomplished from Naples in one day. Re- 
freshments should be taken from Salerno, as nothing but eggs, sausages, 
and wine can be^procured at the poor osterie in Psestum. Eeturn tickets 
are issued only as far as Battipaglia. 

From Salerno to Battipaglia (see above), by rail in 3 / 4 hr. , from 
Naples, 3 3 / 4 hrs. — From Battipaglia to Paestum we take the 
coast - railway (13 M., in about 1 hr. ; fares, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 70, 
1 fr. 10 c), which at first traverses marshy plains, enlivened only 
by a few herds of buffaloes and other cattle. Agriculture, however, 
has been making some progress here of late years, and the malaria 
is diminishing in consequence. 3'^ M. S. Niccola Varco. The 
railway crosses the impetuous river Sele, the ancient Silarus. Before 
the railway was built, this used to be considered the most dangerous 
part of the road in 1860-70, when the neighbourhood was haunted 

172 Route 10. P/ESTUM. Town Walls. 

by the daring brigand Manzi. — S'/ 2 M. Albanella ; 11 M. Capaeeio. 

— Shortly before reaching (13 M.) Paestum (Ital. Pesto~), we catch 
sight of the corner of the old town wall and of the temples behind. 

— The railway continues to (16 M.) Ogliastro, the village of which 
name lies at a considerable distance to the left on the hill, and 
(IS'/q M.) Agropoli, the present terminus (coinp. p. 226). 

Peestum, according to Strabo, was founded by Greeks from Sybaris 
about the year P..O. 600, and its ancient name of Poseidonia (city of 
Neptune) sufficiently indicates its Greek origin. In the 4th cent, the 
town was in possession of the Lucanians who oppressed the inhabit- 
ants ; ami at that period the citizens used to celebrate a festival an- 
nually in memory of their Greek origin and their former prosperity. 
After the defeat of Pyrrhus , Poseidonia fell into the hands of the 
Romans, who in B.C. 273 founded the colony of Paestum here. Tn 
the war against Hannibal the town remained faithful to Rome. At 
a later period it gradually fell to decay, and as early as the reign of 
Augustus was notorious for its malarious air. Christianity took root 
here at an early period. When the Saracens devastated Paestum in 
the 9th cent., the inhabitants fled with their bishop to the neigh- 
bouring heights, and there founded Capaeeio Vecchio. In the 11th 
cent, the deserted town was despoiled by Robert Guiscard of its 
monuments and sculptures, and remained in this desolate condition 
for many centuries , till in modern times attention was again 
directed to the antiquities still remaining. Those who appreciate 
the simple majesty of Greek architecture should endeavour , if 
possible, before quitting Naples, to pay a visit to Ptestum. 

The railway - station is situated immediately to the E. of the 
ancient town. In the neighbourhood are the remains of an aqueduct 
and fragments of ancient paving. We enter ,'the town, which was 
surrounded by massive walls, through the Porta della Sirena, so 
called from the small relief of a siren on the outer keystone of the 
archway. On the inner keystone is a scarcely recognizable relief of 
a dolphin. The ancient Town Walls, forming an irregular hexagon, 
about 3 M. in circumference, constructed of blocks of travertine, 
are preserved almost entire. 

Proceeding straight on from the Porta della Sirena we reach the 
high road in 8 min., which traverses the ancient town from N. to 
S. Here to the left are the temple of Neptune and the so-called 
Basilica, and to the right the temple of Ceres. Visit to the three 
temples, on week-days 1 fr., on Sun. free. The custodian's house 
is beside the temple of Ceres, near which is a humble osteria. 

The Temples at l'a'stum, built in the ancient Greek style, are, 
with the single exception of those at Athens, the finest existing 
monuments of the kind. They are three in number. The largest 
and most beautiful is that in the centre, the so-called **Temple 
of Neptune, 03 yds. in length, and 2H yds. in width. At each end 
are six niasshr. (luted Doric columns. 2K ft. in height; on each 

Temple of Ceres. VMSTVM. 10. Route. 173 

side twelve, in all thirty-six columns of 7^2 it. in diameter, all 
well-preserved. In the interior of the Cella are two series of seven 
columns each (about 6 ft. in diameter), with a second row of 
smaller columns above, which supported the roof. On the S. side 
5, and on the N. side 3 columns are still standing. The stone is a 
kind of travertine, to which age has imparted a mellow tone. It con- 
tains fossil reeds and aquatic plants. The whole was once covered 
with stucco, in order to conceal the imperfections of the stone. The 
temple was a hypsethrorf, i. e., the cella, where the image stood, 
was uncovered. The proportions of the symmetrically tapering co- 
lumns, whether viewed from the vicinity or from a distance, are 
perfect. This temple, as its whole character betokens, is one of the 
most ancient specimens of Greek art. Photographs and models of it 
are frequently seen (comp. Introd., p. xxviii). A stone basis in 
front of the E. facade probably belonged to a large sacrificial altar. 

A little to the S. rises the second temple, the so-called *Basi- 
lica (a misnomer), of more recent origin, but also of great an- 
tiquity. It is 60 yds. in length, and26y 2 yds. in width, and its 
fifty columns are each 61/2 ft- in diameter , but its proportions and 
colouring are less imposing than those of the temple of Neptune. 
At each end are nine columns , and on each side sixteen, all of 
travertine stone. The shafts of the columns taper upwards in a 
curve; the capitals are of a peculiar form not elsewhere met with. 
A series of columns in the centre, by a singular arrangement, di- 
vided the temple into two halves, so that it contained two 'cellae'. 

In front of these temples probably extended the Forum of 
the ancient town , basements for altars or statues being still 
distinguishable here. 

Farther N., near the entrance from Salerno, stands the small 
* Temple of Ceres , or of Vesjta according to others , with a 
peristyle of thirty-four columns, six at each end, and eleven on 
each side. Length 35 yds., width 15 yds. ; columns 5ft. in diameter, 
tapering upwards in straight lines. The columns of the vestibule 
are distinguished from those of the principal part of the structure 
by the difference of the fluting. This temple is another fine ex- 
ample of the simple and majestic Greek style. 

The temples are adorned with a luxuriant growth of ferns and- 
acanthus, enlivened solely by the chirping grasshopper, the rustling 
lizard, and the gliding snake. 

Between the Temple of Ceres and that of Neptune a few frag- 
ments of Roman building have been discovered, a Theatre and 
Amphitheatre, it is believed. The latter is intersected by the 
road. A Roman Temple was also discovered here in 1830. 
Concealed among the underwood near it are two metopse, adorned 
with high reliefs. These remains, however, are insignificant 
compared with the ruins above mentioned. — Of the 'rose-gardens' 
of Paestum, so much extolled by Roman poets, no traces now exist. 

171 Route 10. CETARA. From Naples 

Without the N. gate, the so-called Porta Aurea, was a Street 
of Tombs. Several of those which have been opened contained 
Greek weapons ; and in one of them, examined in 1854, were found 
line mural paintings, representing warriors taking leave of their 
friends. Most of the objects discovered in the course of the ex- 
cavations, which are still continued, are preserved in the Museum 
at Naples (p. 63). 

A walk on the town-wall, perhaps from the N. gate round the 
E. side to the S. gate, towards Salerno, will enable the traveller, 
better than a close inspection , to form an idea of the imposing 
grandeur of these venerable ruins. The finest general *View of 
the temples is obtained from the terrace of the tlrst tower to the 
E. of the road, on the S. side of the town-wall. 


Comp. Map, p. 110. 

Between Naples and Amiilfi service is maintained by the steamer of 
the Florio-Itubattino Company plying once a week from Naples to Messina 
(leaving the Immacolatella at Naples on Wed. at 5 p.m., reaching Amalli 
at 9 p.m. ; leaving Ainalfi on the return voyage on Tnes- at 10.30 p.m., 
and reaching Naples on Wed. at 3.30 a.m.). — From Sorrento to Amalli, 
see p. ITS. From Castellammare to Amalli bv the Little S. Angelo, sec 
p. 170. 

From I'aoani (p. 167) a bridle-path ascends the W. slope of Monte di 
Chiiuizo. Xear Torre di Clnunzo., an ancient fortress erected by Raimondo 
Ih-sini, the path divides: that to the left leads through the Yal Tramonti 
by Fi'jliiw and Paterno to Maiori (p. 175) ; that to the right by Capiti y 
Crstirano, and Scala to Atrani (p. 175). Each of these routes is a walk of 
5-6 hrs., but neither is mucli used by tourists. A few years ago they were 
considered unsafe. 

The "'High Road fkom Salekno to Amalfi, 12'/: M., is the finest route 
of all (by carriage in 2-3 hrs.; see p. 169). This magnificent road, com- 
pleted in 1S52, is still more attractive than that from Castellammare to 
Sorrento (p. 155). It is nearly the whole way hewn in the cliffs of the 
coast, and frequently supported by galleries and vast viaducts 100-500 ft. 
above the sea-level, and skirts the coast, passing through thriving villages, 
and allording a succession of charming landscapes. The slopes are gene- 
rally somewhat bare, but are in many places laid out in terraces, and plan- 
ted with vines, olives, lemons, and fruit-trees. The promontories of the 
coast arc occupied by massive square watch-towers, erected under Charles V. 
as a protection against pirates, now converted into dwellings. — A pro- 
longation of the road along the coast to Positano (p. 161), and thence across 
the hills to Meta is in course of construction (comp. p. 156). 

From Salerno the road ascends, and near Vietri (p. 169) crosses 
the valley by a stone bridge. To the left in the sea rise two 
conical rocks, / Due Frutelli. On the hill to the right is Ratto. 
The next place is the picturesquely situated fishing-village of 
Cttiirii. extending along the bottom of a narrow ravine; it is 
frequently mentioned in the history of the invasions of the Sara- 
cens, ami was the first place where they settled. The road now 
ascends to the <'<ipo Tumolo, whence a beautiful prospect of the 
coast on both sides is enjoyed, and descends thence by the Capo 
d'Orxo, where the fleet of Charles V. was defeated by Filippino 
Doria, to the small town of — 

to Amalfi. AMALFI. 1U. Route. 175 

Maiori (*H6tel Torre, same landlord as the Hotel Quisisana at 
Castellammare ; pens. 8 fr.), at the mouth of the Val Tramonti 
(see above), with terraced lemon-plantations, at the base of the 
ruined monastery of Camaldoli delV Avvocata (founded in 1485"). 
Still higher lies the ancient ruined castle of S. Nicola, of which the 
Piccolomini were the last proprietors. The road ascends slightly 
to the next village of Minori, nearly adjoining which are Atrani 
and Amalfl. 

Minori, a clean little village, with lemon-gardens, most beau- 
tifully situated, once the arsenal of Amalfl, lies at the mouth of 
the sometimes turbulent Reginolo. 

Atrani lies at the entrance to a ravine, on each side of which 
the houses rise picturesquely. The church of S. Salvatore di 
Biretto contains handsome bronze doors , of Byzantine work- 
manship of the 11th cent., monuments of the Doges of Amalfl, 
and others of the Saracenic period. Above Atrani is the village 
of Pontone; farther on, to the left, lies Ravello (p. 177). 

Near Pontone is the house where Masaniello (i. e. Tommaso Aniello, 
son of Cecco d' Amalfi and Antonia Gargano) is said to have been born in 
1620. On 7th July, 1647, he headed a formidable insurrection at Naples 
against the Spaniards, but, after a short period of success, fell into a 
kind of insanity, and on 17th July was shot in the pulpit of a church 
by one of his former adherents. These events have been utilised by Scribe 
in his text for Auber's opera, 'La Muette de Portici'. 

A lofty rocky eminence , bearing the extensive ruins of the 
castle of Pontone, separates Atrani from Amalfi. 

Amalfl. — Hotels. *Albergo dei Cappuccini, on the Marina, with a 
dependance in the old Capuchin monastery, E. 3, B. l'/ 2 , lunch 3'/2, D. 4-5, 

A. 3 /t fr. A quieter house is the * Albekgo della Luna , formerly a 
monastery, charmingly situated between Atrani and Amalfi, about 74 M. 
from the Marina, E. 272-3, B. 1, lunch 3, D. 4, A. 1, L. s/i, pens, for 
a prolonged stay 8 1 /* fr., bargaining desirable. *Alb. d Italia, Piazza del 
Duomo, unpretending, but clean and highly spoken of, E., L.,&A. l'/afr., 

B. 60 c, lunch, incl. wine, 2, D. 2'ft, pens. 5 fr. 

Boats I72- 1 3 A fr. per hour; to Positano, with 4 rowers, 5 fr. ; to 
Scaricatojo (p. 179) with 2 rowers 7-8 fr., with 4 rowers 10, with 6 rowers 
12-15 fr. ; to Capri in about 6 hrs. with 4-6 rowers 20-25 fr. ; to Sorrento 
with 4-6 rowers 30-35 fr. (preferable in fine weather to the land-route 
over the hills and via, Sorrento, comp. p. 179) ; to Salerno with 2 rowers 
6-8 fr. — A market-boat also starts for Salerno every afternoon. 

Donkey per hour l-174fr. ; to Castellammare by the Little S. Angelo 5-6 fr. 

Guide among the tortuous lanes, with their frequent flights of steps, 
necessary only when time is very limited; for a visit to the cathedral, 
mill-valley, and Capuchin monastery 172-2, whole day 5 fr. 

Amalfi, a small but lively town with 7000 inhab., whose chief 
occupations are the manufacture of paper, soap, and maccaroni, is 
situated at the entrance of a deep ravine, surrounded by imposing 
mountains and rocks of the most picturesque forms. In the early 
part of the middle ages , it was a prosperous seaport , rivalling 
Pisa and Genoa, and numbered 50,000 inhabitants. 

Amalfi is mentioned for the first time in the6thcent., when it enjoyed the 
protection of the Eastern emperors ; it afterwards became an independent 
state, under the presidency of a 'doge'. The town was continually at 
variance with the neighbouring princes of Salerno, and even defied the 

176 Route 10. AMALFI. 

Norman sovereigns of Naples, till King Roger reduced the place in 1131, 
United with the royal forces, Amalfi carried on a war with the 1'isans; 
and it was during this struggle that the celebrated M.S. of the Pandects of 
Justinian, now one of the principal treasures of the Laurentian library at 
Florence, fell into the hands of the Pisans. The place then became subject 
to the kings of the houses of Anjou and Arra.gon. In the 12th cent, the 
sea began gradually to undermine the lower part of the town, and a ter- 
rible inundation in 1343 proved still more disastrous. After that period 
Amalfi steadily declined. The town boasts of having given birth to 
Flavio Gioja, who is said to have invented the compass here in 1302. 
— The Cavaliere t'amcro possesses rich collections illustrating the history 
of Amalfi, and also an admirable cabinet of coins, which he very oblig- 
ingly shows to interested visitors. 

From the Marina a short street leads past the Albergo dei 
Cappuccini to the small Piazza, on the right side of which rises the 
cathedral. The entrance adjoining the crypt (see below) may also 
be reached by the steps to the right of the fountain on the Marina. 

The *Cattkdhale S. Andrea, approached from the Piazza by 
a broad flight of steps, is still, in spite of modern alterations, 
an interesting structure of the 11th cent., in the Lombard Nor- 
man style. The portal , built of alternate courses of black and 
white stone, and resting on seven antique columns from P.estum 
and several buttresses , having become insecure , was removed 
in lSti"), but has been re-erected. The ancient columns are now in 
the cloisters. The campanile dates from 1276. 

The Bronze Doors, executed by Byzantine masters in the llth cent., 
bear two inscriptions in silver letters, one of which runs thus: 'Hoc 
opus fieri jussit pro redemptione anima? suse Pantaleo Alius Mauri de 
Pantaleone de .Mauro de Maurone Comite\ 

The '"iNTKiiior. consists of a nave and two aisles, with a series of 
chapels on each side. Behind the chapels on the N. side is a third aisle, 
connected with the N. aisle by several entrances. In the first chapel to 
the left is an ancient vase of porphyry, formerly used as a font. Near this, 
to the left, in the first passage to the outer aisle, are two ancient sarco- 
phagi with sculptures, unfortunately damaged, supposed to represent the 
I'.ape of Proserpine, and the Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis (according to 
others, the marriage of Theseus and Ariadne) ; a third bears the inscription : 
'Hie intus homo verus certus optumus recumbo Publius Octavius R.ufus 
decurio'. — The choir contains ancient columns decorated with mosaic 
from Paestum. — From the S. aisle a flight of steps descends to the Cbtpt 
(verger 20 c), where the body of the apostle St. Andrew is said to have 
reposed since the 13th cent, when it was brought hither from Constan- 
tinople. The relics, from which an oily matter (manna di S. Andrea) of 
miraculous power is said to exude , attract numerous devotees. The 
colossal statue of the saint by Michael Angela Maccarino was presented by 
Philip III. of Spain. The altar was executed from a design by Domenico 
Foiitaiia. — The cloisters contain an ancient Christian relief of the Twelve 
Apostles, and a Madonna of more recent date. 

From the Piazza, opposite the cathedral, the Supportico Ferrari 
leads us to a small piazza, in the left corner of which we ascend 
the steps under the house to the right. After 43 steps we turn 
to the left and ascend the covered flight of steps, at the top of 
which , high above the sea , our route is level for a little way. 
After another ascent we at length reach C/4 hr.fthe ^Capuchin 
Mmanltry, which was founded in 1212 by Cardinal Pietro Ca- 
puano for the < '.isteroians . but came into possession of the Ca- 

RAVELLO. 10. Route. 177 

puchins in 1583, and is now fitted up as a de'pendanoe of the All), 
dei Cappuocini. The building stands in the hollow of a rock which 
rises abruptly from the sea to a height of 230 ft. It contains fine 
cloisters, a charming verandah, and magnificent points of view. A 
large grotto to the left , formerly used as a Calvary, or series of 
devotional stations, commands a prospect towards the E. (fee 25 c). 

A oool and pleasant Walk may be taken in the narrow Valle 
de' Molini, or mill- valley, at the back of Amalfi, which contains 1(5 
paper-mills driven by" the brook. (From the Piazza we follow the 
main street, which ends in 4 min.; we then go straight on through 
the Porta dell' Ospedale, a covered passage opposite the fountain.) 
On the right rise lofty cliffs, crowned by the ruins of the Castello 
Pontone. The solitary round tower dates from the time of Queen 
Johanna. — To Amalfi belong the villages of Pogerola, Pastina, 
Lene, Vettica Minore, and Tovere , all situated to the W. of the 
town in a district yielding wine, oil, and fruit in abundance. The 
coast is overgrown with the aloe and cactus opuntia. — A pleasant 
excursion may also be made via Pastina and Vettica Minore to the 
old fort of 8. Lazzaro, with a splendid view of the entire coast. 

From Amalfi to Ravello, an ascent of 1-1 i /i hr. (donkey 2 fr. ; 
guide 2-3 fr., desirable), a most attractive excursion, affording 
beautiful views , and interesting also to the student of art , partic- 
ularly if as yet unacquainted with Moorish architecture. 

We return to Atrani; beyond the viaduct and the projecting rock 
round which the road leads we ascend a broad flight of steps to the left; 
cross the small Largo Maddalena in front of the church of that name; 
turn to the right and go on in the same direction, passing through several 
covered lanes, ascending steps, and sometimes descending. Farther on, 
we skirt the right (E.) slope of the valley, ascend in windings, and at 
length pass through a gateway to the piazza in front of the cathedral of 

Ravello (*H6tel-Pension Palumbo , English landlady), a cele- 
brated old town in a lofty situation , when in the zenith of its 
prosperity possessed thirteen churches, four monasteries, numerous 
palaces, and 36,000 inhabitants (now 2000 only). 

The * Cathedral, founded in the 11th cent., is almost entirely 
modernised. The bronze doors, with numerous figures of saints, 
date from 1179. The magnificent *Ambo, in marble, embellished 
with mosaics, was presented in 1272 ; it rests on six columns sup- 
ported by lions ; inscription, 'Nicolaus de Fogia marmorarius hoc 
opus fecit'. Opposite to it is the pulpit, in a simpler style, 
with a representation of Jonah being swallowed by the whale. 
In the choir is the episcopal throne, adorned with mosaics. The 
Cappella di S. Pantaleone (left) contains the blood of the saint. 
In the Sacristy are a beautiful but sadly damaged Madonna, a St. 
Sebastian, and an Assumption, said to be by Andrea da Salerno. 

Turning ta the left on leaving the cathedral , passing the foun- 
tain , and walking for 100 paces between garden-walls , we reach 
the entrance to the *Palazzo Rufalo (visitors ring a bell on the 

178 Route 10. POSITANO. 

right), now the property of a Mr. Reid. This edifice, built in the 
Saracenic style and dating from the 12th cent., was once occupied 
by Pope Adrian IV., King Charles II., and Robert the Wise. In 
the centre is a small, fantastic court with a colonnade. One of the 
gateways has a Saracenic dome. A verandah in the garden (1115 ft. 
above the sea-level) commands a delightful *View (gardener 1/2 fr.). 

Returning to the piazza and ascending a lane to the left of the 
cathedral, we come in 5 min. to the church of 8. Giovanni, a mod- 
ernised basilica borne by columns , and containing a fine old 
pulpit. The adjacent garden (1220 ft. above the sea), formerly 
the property of the dAfflitto family, affords a fine *View of the 
valley of Minori , of the small town of that name at its mouth, 
and of the more distant Maiori and the Capo Tumolo beyond it 
(fee of a few soldi; refreshments to be had). — S. Murta Jmma- 
colata is a picturesque little church. — Another point command- 
ing a very extensive view is the Belvedere Cembrone. Passing in 
front of the cathedral, we go straight through a gateway, turn to 
the left after 8 min., pass the portal of the church of 8. Vliinrn, 
reach a door on the left, and walk straight through the garden. 

The excursion to Amalfi may be pleasantly extended by 2-3 brs. by 
visiting Scala, a village witli an episcopal church and the ruined castle uf 
fSealetla, and Ponlone, and descending thence to the mill-valley. This is 
an interesting, but fatiguing walk. A donkey should not be taken farther 
than Ravello, as riding is scarcely practicable beyond it. A curious bird's- 
eye view of Atrani and Amalfi may be obtained from a hill-top, reached 
from Pontone in 3 |i-l hr., above the round tower, mentioned at p. 177. 

Excursions by sea, when the weather is fine, are no less pleasant 
from Amalfi than from Sorrento or Capri. An interesting grotto beneath 
Majori (p. 175), resembling the Blue Grotto of Capri, may be reached by boat 
in 1 hr. from Amalfi. There is another grotto, only 10 min. from the Marina. 

From Amalfi to Sokkento. The route across the hills is on the whole 
rather tedious, as the ascent is very steep and the view at the top limited. 
It is preferable to go by water as far as Positano, or better still to Scarica- 
toju (2-2'/z hrs.), and thence on foot or donkey-back across the hills (from 
Positano 4-4'/^, from Scaricatojo 3 hrs.). 

The voyage (boats, see p. 175) along the picturesque coast (costierci 
nccidentale) , passing the Capo di Cvnca, the precipitous cliffs of Furore, 
the village of Praiano with its luxuriant vines and olives, and Vettiea 
Maggiore in the vicinity, is very beautiful. In about 2 hrs. we reach — 

Positano , picturesquely situated on the mountain-slopes , with 31)00 
inhab. , an important harbour under the Anjou dynasty. Many of the 
natives of this place (like those of Secondigliano and Muntemurro) leave 
their homes and travel through the ex-kingdom of Naples as hawkers. 
They assemble at their native places annually to celebrate their principal 
church-festival , and finally return thither in later life to spend their 
declining years. With the exception of a few boatmen , the population 
therefore consists chiefly of old men, women, and children. 

|Fi'om Positano to Sorrento 4-4'/:j hrs. (guide advisable, 2-3 fr.). The 
route ascends for nearly Vf-i hr., and at the top of the hill inclines to the 
left. It then leads through (40 min.) P/rxiano , (20 min.) I'mazztmo , and 
Fur nacelle, and passes to the right of the hill on which the yellow build- 
ing of C.nnaldoli di 31 eta (p. 160) lies. The next places are Arbore and 
(I lir.) Mi la (p. 150), whence Sorrento is 2 W. distant by the high-road. 
A t-arriage-roail is bring constructed, see p. lo(i.| 

'the voyage to Tjo Xrariralnjo only takes V* hr. more than the passage 
to Positano, although si hinted much farther to the W. . and the route 
thriirc to Sorrento is much shoiicr ilian that jusl described from Positano. 

NOLA. 11. Route. 179 

The landing at Scaricatojo is not very easy, especially if the sea is at all 
rough , in which case the boatmen generally propose to go to Positano 
instead. From Scaricatojo to Sorrento 2 hrs. (guide desirable). The new 
road is also to lead by Scaricatojo. 

From Amalfi to Castellammare a road is bein^ constructed, comp. 
p. 156. The old mountain route (7 hrs.; mule see p. 175) by S. Lazzaro (p. 
177), Agerola, and the pass of S. Angelo a Onida (comp. Map, p. 154) is 
arduous, and uninteresting after the first stage. 

11. From Maples to Nola and Avellino. 

From Cancello, a station on the Naples and Rome railway, a branch- 
line runs to Nola, and skirts the Apennines to AvelJino. From Naples to 
Nola in l-iy 2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 95 c, 1 fr.) ; to Avellino in 3Vir* 
hrs. (fares Sfr. 60, 5 fr. 40, 2 fr. 70 c). — Railway from Naples to Baiano 
via Nola, see p. 180. 

From Naples to Cancello, 13 M., see p. 10. 

20 1 /2 M. Nola, with 12,000 inhab., an ancient Campanian city, 
was almost the only one which successfully resisted the attacks of 
Hannibal after the battle of Cannae , B.C. 216; and the following 
year its inhabitants under the command of the brave M. Marcellus 
succeeded in repulsing the invader. The Emperor Augustus died 
here on 19th Aug. A.D. 14, in his 76th year, in the same house 
and apartment where his father Octavius had breathed his last. In 
ancient times Nola was not less important than Pompeii. It is now 
an insignificant place and devoid of interest. In the 5th cent., 
St. Paulinus, an accomplished poet and Bishop of Nola (b. at Bor- 
deaux in 354, d. 431), is said to have invented church-bells at this 
Campanian town , whence the word 'campana' is derived. On 
26th July a festival , accompanied by processions and games, is 
celebrated in his honour. The free-thinker Giordano Bruno, who 
on 17th Feb. 1600, terminated his eventful career at the stake in 
Rome, was born at Nola. Giovanni Merliano, the sculptor of Naples, 
known as Giovanni di Nola, was also born here in 1488. 

Nola is celebrated as an ancient cradle of the plastic art. The 
magnificent vases with shining black glazing and skilfully drawn 
red figures, which form the principal ornaments of the museums 
of Naples and of other places, were made here. Numerous coins 
of Nola with Greek inscriptions have also been found. Scanty 
remains of an amphitheatre still exist. 

About i/j M. to the N.E. of the town is situated the Seminary, where 
several Latin inscriptions and the so-called Oippus Abellanus, a remarkable 
inscription in the Oscan language found near Abella, are preserved. Above 
the seminary (5 min.) is the Franciscan monastery of 3. Angelo, command- 
ing a view of the fertile and luxuriant plain ; to the left is Monte Somma, 
behind which Vesuvius is concealed; to the right rise the mountains of 
Maddaloni. A little to the E. is a Capuchin monastery, above which the 
ruined castle of Cicala picturesquely crowns an eminence. 

Nola is connected with Naples by a Local Railway as well as bv the 
main-line, 16'/ 2 M., in l-li/ 4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 55, 80 c.). The train 
starts at Naples from the Nola-Baiano Station (PI. I, G. 3; p. 54). The 
line traverses Campania, offering numerous picturesque views. Stations: 
1 3 A M. Poggioreale ; 6 M. Casalnnovo; 8 M. tPAreo; 10 M. Castello 
diastema; IOV2M. lirusciano; 11 M. ifariglianella; iJ'/jM. Marigliuno; 13 


180 Route U. AVELL1NO. 

M. S.VHaliano-Casaferro; 13V2 M. Sciseiano; 15' /2M. Saviano; lGy-jM. Nola. 
— Beyond Nola the railway continues to: 171/2 M. Cimitile, I8V2M. Campo- 
«<»<>, 19 M. Cicciano, 20 J /2 M. Roccarainola, 23 M. Avella-Sperone, and 23'/2 
M. Baiano. — Avella is the classic Abella, near which there are extensive 
plantations of hazel-nut, the 'nuces Avellanse' of antiquity. The aqueduct 
of the new Neapolitan water-works passes in the vicinity. 

25 M. Falma, picturesquely situated on the slopes of the 
Apennines opposite Ottaiano , with 7500 inhab. and an ancient 
chateau, is commanded by an extensive ruined castle on a height. 
30 M. Sarno, a town with 16,500 inhab., lies on the Sarno, 
which flows hence towards Scafati and Pompeii. Above it towers a 
ruined stronghold of Count Francesco Coppola, who took an im- 
portant part in the conspiracy against Ferdinand of Arragon (1485). 
The view now becomes more limited. Tunnel. 35 M. Codola ; 
37 M. Castel San Giorgio. 40 M. San Severino (poor inn), on the 
road from Avellino to Salerno. The principal church contains the 
tombs of Tommaso da San Severino, high-constable of the kingdom 
of Naples in 1353, and of several princes of Salerno. A road leads 
from S. Severino to Salerno (about 10 M.) via Baronisi, the scene 
of the capture of Fra Diavolo. — The line now turns to the north. 
43 M. Montoro; 51 1/ 2 M - Solofra; 54 M. Serino. 

59M. Avellino (Albergo Centrale , well spoken of, obliging- 
landlord , who provides guides for Mte. Vergine ; Albergo delle 
Puglie), with 23,000 inhab., the capital of a province, situated on 
the old post-road from Naples to Foggia. The name is derived from 
the ancient Abellinum, the ruins of which are 2'/ 2 M. distant, near 
the village of Atripalda. Another road leads hence to (14 M.) 
Montesarchio and Benevento (p. 199). 

From Avellino we may visit Monte Vergine, a famous resort of 
pilgrims (donkey 4-5 fr. and fee; provisions should be brought 
from Avellino). A good road, tolerably well shaded, leads to (4 M.) 
Mercogliano, where also donkeys may be hired (l'/'i '*•)• Thence a 
steep mountain -path leads in V/. 2 hr. to the convent of Monte 
Vergine, founded. in 1119 on the ruins of a temple of Cybele. 

The Ciiukch contains a miraculous picture of the Virgin, and the 
tombs of Catherine of Valois, who caused the picture to he brought 
hither, and of her son Louis of Taranto, second husband of Johanna I. 
Their effigies repose on a ltoman sarcophagus. On the left side of the 
high altar is the chapel erected for himself by King Manfred, which, 
when that monarch fell at Benevento, was given by Charles of Anjou to 
one of his French attendants. 

We may ascend hence to the (1/2 nr -) top of the mountain (4292 
ft.), commanding a magnificent survey of the bays and the ex- 
tensive mountainous district. The abbot and the older monks occupy 
the I.orcto, or I'Ospizio, a large octagonal structure near Mercogliano, 
erected from a design by Vanvitelli. Great festivals, attended by 
numerous pilgrims in their gayest costumes, are celebrated here at 
Whitsuntide (see p. 29). 

A railway from Avellino lo Bcnevciilo I p. 19!)) is under construction. 
II is ..pen as far as I't-uhi I'i-iiIoUi . !')'/■; i\I. in '18 min.. lares 1 fr 5 c. 
i."i ,-.. On .-. ' 


These parts of Italy have, until recently, been beyond the reach of the 
ordinary traveller. The W. coast is, moreover, by far the richer and more 
picturesque , as well as more replete with historical interest. The E. 
districts can boast of no such names as those of Florence , Rome, and 
Naples, but they are not devoid of attraction, and have been endowed by 
nature with a considerable share of the gifts she has so bounteously 
lavished on other parts of Italy. 

The Apennines , rising at a short distance from the coast, send forth 
a series of parallel ramifications, forming a corresponding number of par- 
allel valleys, whose communication with the external world is maintained 
by means of the coast to which they descend. To the S. of Ancona, from 
about the 43rd to the 42nd degree of N. latitude, stretch the Central 
Apennines, embracing the three provinces of the Abruzzi (Chieti, Teramo, 
and Aquila) , the ancient Samnium. They culminate in the Montagna 
delta Sibilla (8123 ft.), the Gran Sasso a" Italia (9816 ft.), and the Maiella 
(9121 ft.), groups which are connected by continuous ranges, and which 
are clad with snow down to the month of July. These mountains abound 
in fine scenery (RR. 13-15) , but until recently they have been well-nigh 
inaccessible owing to the defectiveness of the means of communication 
and the badness of the inns. The mountains to the S. of 42° N. lat., 
receding gradually from the sea, are called the Neapolitan Apennines. The 
last spur which projects into the sea is the Mte. Gargano (5118 ft.), which, 
however, is separated from the chief range by a considerable plain. Beyond 
this stretches the Apulian plain, an extensive tract of pasture and arable 
land, bounded by an undulating district on the S. About the 41st degree of 
N. latitude the Apennines divide; the main chain, extending towards the S., 
forms the peninsula of Calabria ; the lower chain, to the E., that of Apulia. 

The Coast (Provinces of Ancona, the Abruzzi, Capitanata, Terra di 
Sari, and Terra d'Ob-anto) is flat and monotonous, and destitute of good 
harbours. The estuaries of the small rivers afford but scanty protection 
to the vessels of the coasting trade. Even at Ancona the prominent 
M. Conero (1880 ft.) alone renders the anchorage tolerable. The villages 
and towns, in which local peculiarities often prevail in a marked degree, 
are generally situated on the heights, and conspicuous at a great distance. 
Farther to the S., however, in the ancient Apulia and Calabria (p. 197), 
the coast scenery improves, and there are three important harbours, those 
of Sari, Brindisi, and Otranto. Since the construction of the railway the 
most direct route between Western and Central Europe and the East has 
passed this way, and this district is gradually attracting more attention 
from travellers. As yet, however, it is only the larger towns which boast 
of tolerable inns. 

In the S. and S.W. districts , the former province of Basilicata, the 
ancient Lucania (less interesting than most other parts of Italy), and in 
Calabria, civilisation has made extremely slow progress, and the inns in 
particular are grievously behind the requirements of the age. In these 
respects Calabria , a district replete with striking scenery , is specially 
unfortunate. The shores of the Gulf of Taranto , whose waters bound 
both of these provinces, were once studded with numerous flourishing 
Greek colonies, and the whole district bore the name of Magna Graecia ; 
but the traces of that prosperous epoch are now scanty. The period of 

1S2 Route 1 -J. KIETI. From Temi 

decline liegan with the Human supremacy. The art and culture of the 
middle ages never penetrated to these remote regions. The fields once 
extolled by Sophocles for their richness and fertility are now sought for 
in vain, and the malaria exercises its dismal sway throughout the whole 
of this neglected district. The soil belongs to the nobility , who let 
it to a miserably pour and ignorant class of farmers. The custom of 
carrying weapons is universally prevalent here (comp., however, p. xiv), and 
brigandage was carried on until the year 1870. The villages are generally 
wretched and filthy beyond description. No one should therefore attempt to 
explore the remoter parts of this country unless provided with letters of 
introduction to some of the principal inhabitants. It is, however, expected 
that the condition of the country will speedily improve when the railway- 
system is more developed, and the dormant capabilities of the soil >.re thus 
called into action. 

12. From Temi to Castellammare Adriatico through 
the Abruzzi. 

142>|2 M. Railway in lO'Ml'^i hrs.; fares, 26 fr., 18 fr. 20, 11 fr.70c. 

Temi, and thence by (072 M.) Stroncone and (10 M.) Marmore, 
the station for the line waterfall of the Velino, to (11 M.)Piediluco, 
sec Baedeker's Central Italy. 

Beyond Piediluco the line follows the course of the Velino, 
crossing the winding stream several times. I6Y2M. Greccia; 20'/2 
M. Contigliano. 

25^2 M. Rieti (Campana), on the right hank of the Velino 
(16,800 inhab.), the ancient Reate, was once the capital of the 
Samnites, but no traces of the ancient city remain save a few in- 
scriptions preserved in the town-hall. The cathedral, dating from 
1456, contains a S. Barbara by Bernini, and the monument of 
Isabella Alfani by Thorvaldsen ; fine view in front of the edifice. 

Excursions may be made from Rieti to the picturesque mountain scenery 
of the Central Apennines, though not unattended by difficulties on account 
of the indifferent character of the inns and roads. Thus to Leonessa, 19 M. 
distant, erected in a lofty mountain ravine about the year 1252; thence to 
(9'/2 31.) Gascia, said to be the ancient seat of the Casci, or aborigines of 
the district ; 7 M. farther to Norcia, the ancient JVursia, nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1857, with walls of great antiquity, birthplace of 
Vespasia Pollia, mother of the emperor Vespasian, whose family monu- 
ments were situated at Vespasia, 7 M. distant. St. Benedict and his sister 
Scholastica were also natives of Nursia. 

From Rieti the line proceeds through a picturesque district in 
the valley of the Velino. The mountains are clothed with forest, 
and their lower slopes with vineyards and olives. 31 M. Citta- 
ducale, founded in 1308 by Robert, Duke of Calabria, was formerly 
the frontier -town of the Neapolitan dominions. 36^2 M. Castel 
S. Angela. About 1 M. to the W. are the Sulphur Baths of Pa- 
terno, the ancient Aquae Cutiliae, which were regularly frequented 
by Vespasian, and where he died in A.D. 79. The Pozzo di La- 
tignano, the ancient Lacus Cutiliae, was regarded by Varro as the 
central point ('umbilicus') of Italy. 

-iO'/.jM. Antrodoco-Boryo-Velino. Antrodoco, the Lat. Intero- 
'•ren, beautifully situated on the Velino, at a little distance from 

to Castellammare. AQUILA. I '2. Route. 183 

the station, is commanded on the N. E. by the lofty Monte Calvo; 
on the hill is the ruined castle of the Vitelli. — 45>/ 2 M. Bocca 
di Fondi. — We next reach the watershed between the Tyrrhenian 
Sea and the Adriatic. The railway then descends into the valley of 
the Aterno. 49 M. Rocca di Corno ; 52y2 M. Sella di Corno ; 55 M. 
Vigliano; bd 1 /^ M. Sassa-Tornimparte , on the site of the ancient 

62 M. Aquila. — The Station (Rail. Restaur., well spoken of) lies 
at some distance from tne town; omnibus up to the town 60 c, down 
to the station 50 c. 

Hotels. Italia; Sole, R. l-l l /2fr. — Caffe del Municipio. 

Aquila, called degli Abruzzi, founded by Emp. Frederick II. 
about 1240 as a check on papal encroachments, destroyed by Man- 
fred in 1259, and rebuilt by Charles I., maintained itself as an 
almost entirely independent republic , supported by the free pea- 
santry of the district, until it was finally subdued by the Spaniards 
in 1521. In point of constitutional history, industry, and art it oc- 
cupied a unique position. It is now the capital of the province of 
the same name, with 18,500 inhab., spacious streets, handsome 
palaces, and churches with interesting facades. It enjoys a pure 
and healthy atmosphere owing to its lofty situation (2360 ft.). To 
the N.E. is the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 184), which rises abruptly 
on this side. 

From the Piazza del Palazzo, on the left side of which is the 
post-office, the Strada del Princ. Umberto to the right leads to the 
Corso, which we follow in a straight direction to the church of S. 
Bernardino di Siena. The *Facade was executed with great artistic 
taste in 1525-42 by Cola dell' Amatriee. In the interior, on the 
right, is the *Monument of the saint, decorated with arabesques 
and sculpture, executed by Silvestro da Arsicola in 1505. A fine 
marble tomb near the high-altar- is by the same artist. The inter- 
esting wooden statue of Pompeo dell' Aquila dates from the 16th 
century. The 1st Chapel on the right contains a Coronation of the 
"Virgin and a Resurrection by della Robbia. 

From S. Bernardino we descend a flight of steps , cross the 
piazza towards the left , and enter a nairow street containing a 
church with a graceful Romanesque facade. "We then pass through 
the Porta di Collemaggio and reach the monastery of S. Maria di 
Collemaggio (in the popular dialect Collemezzo). The Romanesque 
*Facade, inlaid with coloured marble, consists of three portals and 
three corresponding rose-windows. Contiguous to the church is an 
ancient and remarkably small clock-tower. Interior gaudily modern- 
ised. To the left is the Chapel of Celestine V. (keys at the Muni- 
cipio), containing his tomb (d. 1296), a work in the Renaissance 
style. His life and acts are represented in a series of fantastic 
pictures by the Celestinian monk Ruter, a pupil of Rubens. — We 
now return through the new street, which leads from the church 
straight to the S.W. end of the Corso. 

IS1 Route 1 :'. AQUILA. From Temi 

The handsome *Town Hall in the Corso Vittorio Enianuele 
contains, in the passage and on the walls of the staircase , a 
valuable collection of Roman inscriptions ; also portraits of natives 
of the place who acted a prominent part in the history of Italy 
in the 16th and 17th centuries. Several pictures of the old Aquilan 
school, most of them restored, will interest the connoisseur. 

The * Palazzo Torres , below the Piazza Grande , contains a 
picture-gallery with an admirable *Portrait of Cardinal Torres by 
Domenichino; Stoning of St. Stephen by the same master, on 
copper; Eucharist, by Titian, on marble. The Palazzo Dragonetti 
also oontains pictures, the best by Pompeo d'Aquila, of the 16th cent. 

Ascending the Corso, a gate on the right leads us to the Citadel, 
a massive square edifice with low round towers, constructed by the 
Spaniards in 1543 under Charles V., surrounded by a moat. This 
point affords the best view of the Gran Sasso, the town, and the 
mountainous environs. (Application for admission must be made 
to an officer.) 

Outside the gate is the interesting burial church of the Ma- 
donna del Soccorso, containing some flue works by Silvestro. 

Near Aquila, Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone, the dreaded rival 
of Sforza, was defeated by the united armies of Queen Johanna II. 
of Naples, Pope Martin V. and the Duke of Milan, commanded by 
Jacopo Caldora, on 2nd June, 1424. 

About 3 31. to the N.W., on the road to Teramo (p. 193), is the village 
of »S'. Vittorino on the Aterno, occupying the site of the celebrated ancient 
Sabine town of Amiternum, where the historian Sallust was born. On an 
eminence which was once crowned by the ancient Arx , or citadel, stands 
an old tower with inscriptions and sculptures built into the walls. At 
the foot of the hill are remains of a theatre, an amphitheatre, and other 
buildings of the imperial epoch, where antiquities are frequently found. 

The Ascent of the Gkan Sasso d'Itama, l'/2 day there and back, 
is most conveniently undertaken from Aquila. (Letters of introduction from 
members of the Italian Alpine Club desirable.) Provisions should be 
taken from Aquila. We drive via Pacjanica and Cainarda (where the sin- 
daco keeps the key of the Kifugio on the Campo Pericoli) in 2 hrs. to As- 
sergi (2936ft. ; Locanda della Peppina, fair; Giovanni Acitelli and hisjbrother, 
and Franco Nicola may be recommended as guides; about 10 fr.), where 
the night is spent, and next morning walk or ride thence (mule 4-5 fr.) in 
about 4 hrs. by a miserable path to the Passo della Portella (7400 ft.), 
whence we survey the N. slopes of the Apennines as far as Ascoli. Thence 
we descend in l'/a hr. to the Campo Pericoli, inhabited by shepherds, 
where a well-equipped refuge-hut (7218 ft.) was built by the Italian Al- 
pine Club in 1886. An ascent of about 3 hrs. more, on foot, brings us to 
the summit. The Gran Sasso d'ltalia, or Monto Corno (9816ft.), is the 
highest peak of the Apennines. In formation it resembles the limestone 
Alps of the Tyrol. The view is strikingly grand, embracing the Tyrr- 
henian Sea , the Adriatic , the rocky Dalmatian coast , and the whole of 
Central Italy. The other chief summits of the Gran Sasso group are the 
Pizzo <f Inter m esole (8680 ft.), the Corno Piccolo (8650 ft.), the Pizzo C'efa- 
lone (8307 ft.), and the Monte della Portella (7834 ft.). 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso from Teramo (p. 193) is not so conven- 
ient. We drive by the Aquila road via Montorio to (3>|2 hrs,) a point 
shortly before Fano Adriano (p. 193), where we turn to the left, and ascend 
to (1 hr.) Pielracamela. The sindaco here also has a key of the Rifugio on 
the Campo Pericoli (see above). We ascend to the latter in 5-6 hrs. 

to Cnstellammare. SOLMONA. VJ. Route. 185 

A small handbook for visitors to the Gran Sasso is about to be pub- 
lished by Dr. Enrico Abbate. 

As the train proceeds we obtain a pretty retrospective view of 
Aquila. The scenery of the valley is very striking ; to the N. the 
Gran Sasso d'ltalia. 69 M. Paganica, 272 M. from the village of 
that name (see p. 184); 74 M. S. Demetrio de Vestini ; 77 1/ 2 M. Fag- 
nano-Campana; 8O72 M. Fontecchio, the village of which is perched 
high up on the rocks. The valley of the Aterno, which the railway de- 
scends, contracts. — ;84 M. Beffi, with a large castle to the left. — 
The train now descends a steep gradient. — 87!/ 2 M. Acciano ; 
90 M. Molina. Then three long tunnels; part of the line lies high 
above the river. — 9672 M. Baiano. Here the railway leaves the 
Aterno, which flows to the N.E. to Popoli, and begins to ascend 
the luxuriant valley of Solmona, watered by the Oizio, a tributary 
of the Aterno. To the E. is the Maiella chain, and to the W. the 
hills enclosing the Lago di Fucino. 

101 M. Solmona. — The station is about 25 min. drive from the 
town ; omnibus 40 c. — Hotels. Albekgo Monzu , at the gate, near the 
railway-station, R. 1 fr., well spoken of. — Caffb & Trattoria delta Forchetta, 
in the main street. 

Solmona (1568 ft.), with 17,700 inhab., the ancient Sulmo of 
the Paeligni, the birthplace of Ovid, who was much attached to this 
his 'cool home, abounding in water', as he calls it, is picturesquely 
situated, being commanded on two sides by mountains, and con- 
tains several mediaeval buildings of architectural interest. The *Town 
Hall, of the 16th cent., is a handsome Renaissance edifice with a 
strong leaning to the late-Gothic style ; the facade is adorned with 
statues of popes. The palace of Baron Tabassi, in a side-street, and 
numerous others deserve examination. The church of S. Maria 
Annunziata , and the Gothic facades of the churches of 8. Fran- 
cesco d'Assisi and S. Maria delta Tomba, though all more or less in- 
jured by the earthquake of 1803, are also interesting. The church 
of S. Francesco was built on the site of an older church, a Roman- 
esque portal of which , opposite the above-mentioned hotel , is 
still preserved, and serves as an entrance to the meat -market. 
Many of the buildings destroyed by the earthquake of 1706 still 
lie in ruins. At the door of the grammar-school is a wooden statue 
of Ovid, dating from the 15th cent.; the name of the poet still 
lingers in the songs of the district as that of a famous sorcerer. The 
strong fermented wine of Solmona has some reputation. 

About 3 M. to the N.'of Solmona and l'fe M. from the station, lies the 
Badia di S. Spirito, the church of which contains some paintings by Ra- 
phael Mengs. Adjacent are extensive remains of the foundations of a Ro- 
man building known as the 'Villa di Ovidio'. On the rock above the 
ruins, picturesquely situated, is the Hermitage of Celestine V. (comp. p. 183). 

About 16 M. to the S. of Solmona lies Scanno, reached on a mule 
in about 6 hrs. (walking not recommended). The picturesque route passes 
several villages, and then ascends the wild and rocky ravine of the Sagit- 
tario. The latter part of it skirts the lake of Scanno. Scanno (no inn, 
private introductions desirable) is perhaps the finest point in the Abruzzi. 
The women of Scanno wear a peculiar costume. 

J 86 Route 12. CHIETI. 

The Monte Amaro (9170 ft.), the highest summit, of the Maiella Mis., 
may he ascended from Solmona. Riding is practicable to the Campo di 
(Hove, 34 hrs.; thence to the top 5 hrs. 

The railway now bends sharply to the N., towards the valley 
of the Aterno. — 104 M. Pratola-Peliyna. 

107 M. Pentima. A short distance hence is the Cathedral of 
*S. Pelino (keys kept by the canon at the village), an edifice of the 
13th century. The architecture is very interesting, but the interior 
has unfortunately been modernised. Old pulpit. Chapel of St. 
Alexander of the 16th century. 

On the lofty surrounding plain lie the ruins of the extensive ancient 
city of Corfinium, once the capital of the Pteligni. In B.C. 90 it was consti- 
tuted the federal capital of the Italians during their struggle against the 
Romans for independence, and called Italica, but a few years later it had 
to succumb to the Romans. The arches of an aqueduct are the most con- 
spicuous of the ruins. The discoveries made in the course of the recent 
excavations at the necropolis and other points are exhibited in the small 
Museum here, the key of which may be obtained from the attentive In- 
spettore Cav. de Nino at Solmona. 

110 M. Fopoli (Locanda dell' America, moderate ; Posta), a town 
with 7000 inhab., situated at the junction of the roads fromPescara, 
Aquila, Avezzano, and Solmona, and commanded by the ruined 
castle of the Cantelmi, who were once masters of the place. A little 
above the town the Gizio and Aterno unite to form the Pescara, 
along which the railway descends till it approaches the sea. 

112 M. Bussi. The valley is enclosed on both sides by abrupt 
cliffs. Tunnel. — 119 M. Torre de* Passeri, picturesquely situated. 
Connoisseurs of early Christian architecture should visit the ab- 
bey of S. Clemente di Casauria , 25 min. from Torre de' Passeri, 
a basilica of the 12th cent., with ancient sculptures. This was the 
site of the ancient Interpromium, relics from which are still pre- 
served in the church. 

1231/2M. S. Valentino; 1257 2 M. Alanno; 128 M. Manoppello. 

133V2M. Chieti. — The Station is about 3 M. from the town, which 
lies on the heights to the E. (omnibus 90 c, in the reverse direction 
GO c.) ; about halfway the road passes a ruined baptistery. 

Hotels in the town: "Albebgo del Sole, R. ii/ 2 fr., good trattoria; 
Albergo Ndovo; Palomba d 1 Oeo. 

Chieti, the ancient Teate Marrucinorum, capital of a province, 
with 22,000 inhab., is a clean and busy town. From the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele a promenade leads round the town, affording 
magnificent * Views of the Maiella group, the course of the Pescara, 
and the hill country extending to the sea (the finest from the 
drilling-ground on the S.). The order of the Theatines , founded 
in 155"i by Paul IV., who had been Archbishop of Chieti, derives 
its name from this town. 

The valley of thePescara gradually expands. Beyond(141i/ 2 M.) 
Pescnra (p. 194) the line crosses the river. — 14272 M. Castellam- 
tnare Adriatico, see p. 194. 


13. From Aquila to Avezzano and Roccasecca 


From Aquila to Avezzano, about 35 M. ; diligence daily in 7 hrs. (in 
the reverse direction 8 hrs.)- — Feom Avezzano to Roccasecca, about 
42'/2 M. ; diligence twice daily in 9 hrs. to Arce; from Arce to Roccasecca 
railway. These diligences correspond with the trains of the Rome and 
Naples railway. 

Aquila, see p. 183. — The road descends into the valley of the 
Aterno, crosses the *ailway, and ascends gradually through vine- 
yards. Beyond Ocre it passes through a grove of oaks. Looking hack, 
we obtain a beautiful view of Aquila and the Gran Sasso ; farther 
on we observe the Maiella to the S.E. Numerous villages lie scat- 
tered over the surrounding slopes. We at length reach the lofty 
plain, and then (16 M.) Rocca di Mezzo, a miserable village, where 
horses are changed. The road crosses the summit of the pass (3'/2 M. 
from Rocca), not far from Ovindoli , a village picturesquely com- 
manded by a ruined castle. It then descends rapidly in windings, 
commanding an admirable *View of the plain of the Lago di Fu- 
cino. The castle of Celano next comes in sight, and then the town 
itself, which we reach in 8/4 hr. more. 

Celano, a town with 7000 inhab., is beautifully situated on a 
hill, and from it the Lago di Fucino is sometimes called Lago di 
Celano. The Castle (*View), erected in 1450, was once occupied by 
the unfortunate Countess Oovella, who was taken prisoner by her 
son Rugierotto. She was soon restored to liberty, but in 1463 her 
domains were bestowed by Ferdinand of Arragon upon his son-in- 
law Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfl, and nephew of Pius II. 
Celano was the birthplace of Thomas of Celano (d. 1253), the 
supposed author of the celebrated requiem, 'Dies iree, dies ilia'. 

The now drained Lago di Fucino (2181 ft.), the ancient Lacus 
Fucinus , was once 37 M. in circumference and 65 ft. in depth. 
Owing to the want of an outlet, the level of the lake was subject 
to great variations which were frequently fraught with disastrous 
results to the inhabitants of the banks. Attempts were therefore 
made to drain the lake in ancient times , but it was only very re- 
cently (in 1875) that this object was finally accomplished. 

The earliest sufferers from the inundations were the ancient Marsi, in 
consequence of whose complaints Csesar formed the project of affording a 
permanent remedy for the evil , but the work was not begun till the 
reign of the Emp. Claudius. The bottom of the lake lies about 80 ft. 
above the level of the Liris at Capistrello, and the plan was to con- 
struct a tunnel, or emissarius, through the intervening Monte Salviano. 
No fewer than 30,000 men were employed in the execution of the work 
during eleven years. This was the most gigantic undertaking of the 
kind ever known before the construction of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The 
length of the passage was upwards of 3 l /2 M., and for about l 3 /« M. of that 
distance it was hewn in the solid rock. The transverse measurement of 
the tunnel varied from 4 to 16 sq. yds., and in other respects also the 
work was entirely destitute of uniformity. The greatest depth of the 
tunnel below the surface of the earth was 298 ft., and 33 shafts were 
eonstructed for the admission of air and the removal of rubbish. With 

188 Route 13. AVEZZANO. From Aquila 

a view to inaugurate the completion of the work, A. P. 52, Claudius 
arranged a sanguinary gladiatorial naval contest, which was attended by 
a vast concourse of spectators, but it was found necessary to deepen the 
tunnel, and it was again opened with renewed festivities, as Tacitus re- 
cords (Ann. xii. 57). Ancient writers stigmatise the work as an entire 
failure, but their strictures are not altogether well founded, for it was 
obviously never intended to drain the whole lake, but merely to reduce 
it to one-third of its original size. Serious errors had, however, been 
committed in the construction of the tunnel, and especially in that of the 
channel which conducted the water to the emissarius. Claudius died in 
54, and nothing farther was done in the matter. Trajan and Hadrian 
partially remedied the defects, but the channel and the emissarius itself 
afterwards became choked up. Frederick II. attempted to re-open the 
tunnel, but the task was far beyond the reach of medi8eval skill. After 
the year 1783 the lake rose steadily, and by 1810 it had risen upwards 
of 30 ft. Efforts were now made under the superintendence of Rivera to 
restore the Roman emissarius, but under the Bourbon regime there seemed 
little prospect that the task would ever be completed. In 1852 the govern- 
ment was accordingly induced to make a grant of the. lake to a company 
on condition that they would undertake to drain it, and the sole privilege was 
soon afterwards purchased from them by Prince Torlonia of Rome (d. 1886). 
II. de Montricher, a Swiss, the constructor of the aqueduct of Marseilles (d. 
at Naples in 1858), and his pupil Bermont (d. 1870), and subsequently 
M. Brisse conducted the works. The difficulties encountered were pro- 
digious, and the natives were frequently heard to indulge in the jest, 'o 
Torlonia secca il Fucino, o il Fucino secca Torlonia'. In 1862, however, 
the emissarius was at length re-opened. It is an extension of the 
Roman work, but longer and wider, and constructed with the utmost 
care. It is nearly 4 M. long, and a transverse section measures about 21 sq. 
yds. The beginning of it is marked by a huge lock, erected in a massive 
style. This is the outlet of the channel which is intended to keep the 
lowest portions of the basin drained. A broad road, about 35 M. in length, 
runs round the reclaimed land (36,000 acres in extent) , which is con- 
verted into a vast model farm , colonised by families from the prince's 
different estates. 

The road traverses the old bed of the lake and next reaches 
Avezzano, a drive of 1 hr. from Celano. 

Avezzauo (*Locanda d' Italia, no sign; *Loc. del Vetraio, un- 
pretending) , with 7400 inhab. , possesses a chateau built by the 
Oolonnas and now belonging to the Barberini, and a few inscrip- 
tions at the Tribunale. It is a good starting-point for a number of 
excursions , and particularly for a visit to the reclaimed Lago di 

An excursion to Luco, about 6M.Jfrom Avezzano, will afford the traveller 
a good opportunity of inspecting the drainage operations. He should drive 
to the entrance of the new outlet, and get the custodian to conduct him 
thence to the ancient emissarius. — Luco, now an uninteresting place, 
was the Lucus Angitiae of the ancients, and was called after a temple of 
the goddess of that name. The site of the temple is now occupied by the 
venerable Benedictine Church of S. Maria di Luco, situated on the N. 
side of the village, and dating from the 6th or 7th cent. Extensive remains 
of walls in the polygonal style mark the boundary of the Temenos , or 
sacred precincts of the temple. Fine view hence, as well as from all the 
hills around the lake. 

On the E. bank of the lake lies the village of San Benedello, on the 
site of Mfimwimn, the ancient capital of the Marsi , extensive remains of 
which are still to be seen. 

To the N. of Avezzano, rising abruptly from the plain, is situated the 
double-peaked Monte Vcliiw (8159 ft.), visible from Rome. At its base, 
1 JI. from Avezzano, lies the village of Albe , the ancient Alba FucensU. 

to Avezzano. SORA. 13. Route. 189 

It lay on the confines of the territories of the Vestini, Marsi, and iEqui, 
and having received a Roman colony of 6000 souls, B.C. 303, it became 
the most powerful Roman stronghold in the interior of Italy. It occupied 
three contiguous groups of hills. On the W. side a triple wall in the 
polygonal style is still extant, while in the plain rose a vast tumulus, 
now hardly recognizable. Remains of the Via Valeria , which led from 
Tivoli to Corfinium by Alba, of an amphitheatre, etc., are also traceable. 
The most important monument of antiquity, however, is the 'Temple, 
which has been converted into a church of S. Pietro, with eight Corin- 
thian columns of marble in the interior. Fine view of the valley. 

Fbom Avezzano to Tagliacozzo, 10 l /2 M., diligence once daily. (A 
railway in the direction of Tivoli and Rome is under construction, already 
opened between Mandela and Tivoli; see Baedeker's Central Italy.) The 
road passes Scurcola (fine view from above the old castle) and the Garnpi 
Palentini, where, on 26th Aug. 1268, the young Conradin of Hohenstaufen, 
the last scion of that illustrious imperial house, was defeated, after a most 
gallant resistance, by Charles I. of Anjou, who on the advice of the aged 
Chevalier Alard de St. Valery had placed part of his army in an am- 
buscade. Charles afterwards caused the beautiful, but now ruined church 
of S. Maria delta Vitloria 0/* M. from Scurcola, to the right of the road) 
to be erected on the spot by Niccolo Pisano, a Madonna from which is still 
preserved in the church of S. Maria at Scurcola. 

Tagliacozzo (Trattoria by the gate, on the left) lies on the margin of 
a deep ravine from which the Imele emerges. The sources of the Liris 
near Cappadocia may be visited hence on foot in l'/a hr. 

From Tagliacozzo a horse or mule (6-7 fr.) may be taken to (1 hr.) 
Rocca di Cerro and (Qf/2 hrs.) Garsoli (Locanda Stella) , the ancient Car- 
seoli, with an old castle. Those who pass the night at Carsoli may walk 
next day via (2 hrs.) Riofreddo to (3 hrs.) Vicovaro and take the train 
thence to ('/a hr.) Tivoli. 

The drive from Avezzano to Roccasecca (railway under construc- 
tion) through the valley of the Liris (to Sora in 5 hrs.) is one of 
the most attractive in Italy. The road traverses the Monte Salvi- 
ano, and reaches (J 1 /^ M.) Capistrello, where the emissarius of the 
Lago di Fucino issues from the mountain. It then follows the left 
bank of the Liris. On a height on the right bank lies (4 M.) Civi- 
tella Roveto, the capital of the Val di Roveto, as the upper part of 
the valley of the Liris, as faf as Sora, is called. Then, to the left, 
Civita d'Antino , the Antinum of the Marsi , with several relics of 
antiquity. To the right of the river lies Morino, whence the fine 
waterfall of Lo Schioppo, 5 M. distant, may be visited. Beautiful 
oak and chestnut woods. 

A charming mountainous district is now traversed. We pass 
(I21/2 M.) Balsorano, and after 5 hrs'. drive from Avezzano (in all 
31 M.) reach the town of — 

Sora (Hdtel di Roma, good cuisine), with 13,200 inhab., si- 
tuated in the plain, on the right bank of the Liris, which flows in 
the form of a semicircle round the crowded houses of the town. 
The Romans wrested the place from the Volsci, and founded a 
powerful colony here, B. C. 303. The cathedral stands on ancient 
substructures. On the precipitous rock above the town are remains 
of polygonal walls, and also traces of medijeval castles. The town 
was the native place «f several celebrated men, and the residence 
of others (the Decii, Attilius Kegulus, the orator Q. Valerius, L. 

190 Route 13. ISOLA. 

Mummius, etc.). The learned Cardinal Caesar Laronius (1538-1607) 
was born at Sora, and died at Rome as librarian of the Vatican. 
Sora forms, as it were, the key of the Abruzzi. 

The road from Sora to Isola, 3y 2 M., traverses the well culti- 
vated valley, following the left bank of the river. The abundance 
of water here imparts a freshness and charm to the scenery which 
are rarely met with in warm climates. To the left the Fibrenus 
falls into the Liris. 

In the former stream, near its mouth, lies the Isola S. Paolo, on 
which a monastery was founded by the Benedictine S. Domenico Ahhate, 
a native ofFoligno. Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII., was once 
a monk here. The island is also supposed to be the Insula Arpinas, the 
birthplace of Cicero, the scene of his dialogue 'de legibus'. The dilapi- 
dated abbey-church is said to have been constructed on the ruins of the 
illustrious orator's villa. The latter was erected by his grandfather, and 
embellished by his father, who devoted his leisure to the study of science 
here, and it was therefore a favourite retreat of Cicero himself, and is 
described by him in his treatise Be Leg. 2, 3. In the reign of Domitian 
the villa belonged to the poet Silius Italicus. The Liris was crossed by an 
ancient bridge above the island, the 'Ponle di Cicerone", one of the three 
arches of which is still standing. 

In the neighbourhood are several manufactories, chiefly of paper 
(cartiera), surrounded by well-kept gardens. The most important 
of these is the Cartiera del Fibreno, founded by M. Lefevre, a 
Frenchman, now Count of Balzorano. The gardens connected with 
it contain the picturesque waterfalls (Le Cascatelle) of the Liris 
and the Fibrenus. The cool water of the latter is praised by Ci- 
cero. From this point the road descends to — 

Isola (good Inn at the cross-roads), or Isola del Liri, a small 
town with 6000 inhab., which, as its name indicates, stands on an 
island in the Liris. The two arms of the river here form two magni- 
ficent waterfalls, 80 ft. in height. That on the E. side, a view 
of which is obtained from the bridge as the town is entered, is a 
perpendicular fall, while the other and more picturesque cascade 
descends over an inclined plane about 160 yds. in length. 

A busy road passing the paper-mills above Isola winds upwards to (2V2M.) 
Arpino (Loeanda della Pace, near the Piazza, small, but clean), a finely 
situated town with 12,000 inhab., the ancient Volscian mountain-town of 
Arpitmm, and celebrated as the native place of Marius and Cicero. The 
houses in which they were born are still pointed out to the credulous. 
The Town Hall in the Piazza is embellished with busts of Marius, Cicero, 
and Agrippa. A bombastic inscription here runs thus : 'Arpinum a 
Saturno conditum, Volscorum civitatem, Romanorum municipiuin, Marci 
Tullii Ciceronis eloquentise Principis et Cai Marii septies Consulis 
patriam ingredere viator: hinc ad imperium triumphalis aquila egrcssa 
urbi totum orbein subjecit : ejus dignitatem agnoscas et sospes esto 1 . The 
fountain to the right of the town-hall bears the cognisance of Arpino, 
consisting of two towers over which the Roman eagle hovers. Weavers 
and fullers are frequently mentioned in old inscriptions found here, and, 
according to Dion Cassius, Cicero's father belonged to the latter handicraft. 
Arpino was the native place of the well-known painter Giuseppe Cesari 
(loOO- ItiiO) , more commonly known as the Cacnlicrc d' Arpino, whose 
huuse is still pointed out. 

The town consists of four quarters. The western quarter ('civitas'l 
lies on an abrupt eminence, coniici t< <l with the town by a narrow isthmus. 

ISERNIA. 14. Route. 191 

This was the site of the most ancient town. On the summit stands a small 
octagonal church, which commands a beautiful view. The town itself rises 
on the Siope of a still higher hill. The greater part of the ancient wall, 
consisting of large irregular blocks of stone, broken at intervals by mediaeval 
round towers, is still preserved, and may be traced throughout its whole 
extent. The ascent should be made on the N. side. On the hill lies the 
Oivitit Vecchia, or old town. In the wall here is the Porta deW Arco, a 
remarkable gateway with a pointed arch. 

From Arpino to Arce, diligence in \}\i hr. 

From Isola to Arce, 8 M. The road follows the left bank of the 
river. To the right is the loftily situated town of Monte San Gio- 
vanni ; to the left lies Fontana. Then Arce, and Bocca d'Arce, the 
ancient Arx Volseorum, in a strikingly picturesque situation, con- 
nected with Roecasecca by a branch railway (6 M., in 22 min. ; 
fares, 1 fr. 15, 80, 55 c), see pp. 3 seq. 

14. From Solmona to Caianello (Naples). 

80 M. Diligence once daily in 10 hrs., starting from Solmona in the 
evening , from Caianello in the morning. At Caianello it corresponds 
with the quick train to Naples. — From Solmona to Castel di Sangro, 
25 M., two-horse carr. 12 fr. 

The road traverses the plain as far as (6 M.) Pettorano, and then 
ascends in long windings to Rocca Pia or Rocca Valloscura, a vil- 
lage situated in a rocky ravine. Beautiful retrospects of the valley 
of Solmona. After a farther ascent we reach the culminating point 
(4200 ft.) of the road, the Piano di Cinquemiglia, a table-land 
enclosed by mountains, and of the extent indicated by the name. 
In winter it is frequently rendered impassable by snow for several 
months, and in summer the temperature is generally low. Beyond 
this plain Rivisondoli becomes visible. The road then leads to the 
right past Roccarasa, 2^2 M. beyond which it descends by long 
windings to the valley of the Sangro, the ancient Sagrus. The 
village to the left is Rocca Cinquemiglia. "We now cross the river 
to — 

Castel di Sangro (Hotel du Commerce, in the Piazza), on the 
right bank of the broad and turbulent Sangro, picturesquely situated 
at the foot of lofty mountains. Except the old church of S. Nicola 
by the bridge, and the ruins of a castle, the place contains nothing 

From Castel di Sangro to Isernia, I8V2 M. (diligence in 5 hrs., 
fare 6 fr.). The road ascends the heights which separate the valley 
of the Sangro from that of the Vandra, a tributary of the Volturno. 
Picturesque view from the summit ; to the left, below, the town of 
Forli is visible. The road then descends by the villages of Rionera 
and Vandria, crosses the valley, and ascends a second chain of hills. 
The summit commands a survey of the extensive valley of the 
Volturno and of Isernia. 

Isernia (Locanda di Petlorossi), the ancient JEsemia of the 
Samnites, formerly important on account of its secure position 

192 Route 15. FERMO. 

on an isolated eminence, is now a closely built , dirty town , con- 
sisting of one long main street. A few Roman antiquities are seen 
near S. Pietro and elsewhere ; and there are fragments of the an- 
cient walls in the polygonal style. 

Archaeologists may from this point visit the ruins of the ancient 
Samnite Bovianum (a theatre and temple), near Pietrabbondante. Road to 
Pescolanciano 9 M., corricolo 6 fr. ; thence a bridle-path in 2 hrs. 

From Isernia diligence daily to Campobasso (p. 195) by Boicnio, the an- 
cient Bovianvm Undeciiiianorvm. One-horse carr. 1'rom Isernia to Venafro Gfr. 

From Isernia to the railway-station of Oaianello, 31 M. The 
road at first traverses a hilly district , passing Macchia on the 
right, and then enters the valley of the Volturno, which it crosses. 
It traverses the broad valley on the right bank, and (15 M.) reaches 
Venafro, the ancient Venafrum, a small town rising on a hill, 
famous for its oil in the days of Horace (Od. ii. 6) ; it is command- 
ed by a ruined castle. The road continues to skirt the mountains ; 
the Volturno at length turns to the S., and we soon reach the small 
village of Caianello (poor inn , not suitable for spending the night), 
a station on the railway from Rome to Naples. 

From Caianello to Naples, see R. 1. 

15. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi). 

•201 M. Railway in T^a-12 hrs.; fares 36 fr. 50, 25 fr. 55, 14 fr. GO c. 
(3rd class by express 18 fr. 25 c). — Ancona is 347 M. distant from Brin- 
disi, lo which an express train runs daily in lb 1 /* hrs. in correspondence 
with the quick trains from Milan and Bologna (fares G2 fr. 90 c, 44 fr. 5, 
31 fr. 45 c); also once weekly (Sun.) in ll 3 /4 hrs. (from Bologna to 
Brindisi 15 3 /4 hrs.), in connection with the English mail to India, carrying 
passengers to Brindisi only. The local trains stop for the night at Poscara 
or Foggia. 

The line skirts the coast, affording a sea view to the left, and an in- 
land view to the right. The towns, generally situated on the heights, at. 
some distance from the railway, communicate regularly with their stations 
by diligence; but these vehicles have little pretension to comfort. 

From Ancona via (37-2 M.) Varona, (10 AT.) Osimo, (15 M.) 
Loreto, (17i/ 2 M.) Ree.anati, and (23 M.) Potenza Picena to (26'/a M .) 
Porto Chntanova, see Baedeker' s Central Italy. — Porto Civitanova. 
at the mouth of the Chienti, is the station for the town of Ciritunnva, 
which lies l'/4 M. inland. A railway, not yet completed, runs hence 
to Fabriano via Macerata. 

The railway to Foggia and P.rindisi crosses the Chienti. 31 M. 
N. Elpidio a Mare. The village of S. Elpklio lies several miles 
inland. — The Tenna is next crossed. 

30 1 /., M. Porto 8. Uioryio, with an imposing "fort. 

On the hill, 3 M. inland, is situated Fermo ( Lnraiula deW Ai/iiila; 
seat, in a carriage 50 c), the ancient /'iriiiinn I'ireinim, with 18,000 inliab., 
and tliu seat of an archbishop. It became a Roman colony after the begin- 
ning of the First Punic War, and has continued since that period to be a 
town of some importance. At the I'min »S'. Fruitci'seo, by which the town 
is entered , arc seen remnants of the ancient wall, constructed at a very 
remote period. The streets ascend somewhat, precipitously to the height 
on which the handsome Piazza is situated; the Tnnut /Fall here contains 

ASCOLI. 15. Route. 193 

some inscriptions and antiquities. Outside the town we obtain fine views 
of the fertile district, the Apennines, and the sea. 

The train next crosses the brooks Lete Vivo and Aso. 43 M. 
Pedaso, 48 M. Cupra Marittima (Marano). Near the latter once 
lay the ancient town of that name , with a celebrated temple 
dedicated to the Sabine goddess Cupra, and restored by Hadrian 
(in A.D. 127). 50 M. Grottammare. On the hill, about 41/2 M. 
inland, is Ripatransone (6000 inhab.). The inhabitants of these 
districts greatly resemble their Neapolitan neighbours in manners 
and appearance. 

53 M. S. Benedetto (inn at the station), a village on the coast. 

Fkom S.Benedetto to Ascoli Piceno, 2OV2M., railwayin l'/2hr.; fares, 
3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 70 c. The train ascends the valley of the Tronto, 
passing Porto d'Ascoli, Monteprandone, Montesampolo, Spinetoli- Colli, Offida- 
Castel Lama, and Marino. — Ascoli Piceno ("Locanda deW Aquila, moderate.), 
the ancient Asculum Picenum, with 23,300 inhab., the seat of a bishop and 
capital of a province, is situated on the S. bank of the Tronto. The valley 
is here contracted and enclosed by lofty mountains. To the N. rises the 
jagged M. delta Ascensione (3608 ft.), to the W. the Sibilla, and more to 
the S. the Pizzo di Sevo. Ascoli, an ancient town in a commanding situation, 
the capital of the tribe of Picentines, took a prominent part in the Social 
War against Rome, and was captured and destroyed by Pompey. Interesting 
remains of the ancient walls, a bridge, and a 'Gate at the W. end of the 
town. The town-hall contains a few inscriptions, and other relics are 
encountered in other parts of the town , e. g. insignificant vestiges of a 
theatre and amphitheatre. The architecture of the churches and palaces 
dates chiefly from a period anterior to the Renaissance, materially en- 
hancing the interest of the town , which is indeed the most attractive on 
the E. coast. The "Cathedral is said to have been founded by Constan- 
tine on the site of a temple of Hercules. The original substructures are 
still traceable. A chapel on the right in the interior contains good pictures 
by Crivelli. — Mountain roads lead hence by Norcia to Spoleto, and others 
through the valleys of the Velino and Aterno to Aquila (p. 183). 

Beyond (56 M.) Porto d'Ascoli the train crosses the Tronto, the 
ancient Truentus, formerly the boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 62 M. Tortoreto. 68 M. Giu- 
lianova, a dirty village with a few fine villas on the hill, l l / t M. 
from the coast, built in the 15th cent, by the inhabitants of the an- 
cient Castrum Novum on the Tordino, and then named <S. Flaviano. 

From Giulianova to Teeamo, 16 M., railway in 1 hr.; fares, 2 fr. 95, 2 fr. 
10, 1 fr. 35 c. The train ascends the valley of the Tordino, passing Mosciano, 
Notareseo, Bellante-Ripatlone , CasUllalto-i'anzano. — Teramo, the ancient 
Interamna, is the capital of a province and seat of a bishop, with 20,400 
inhab. The Gothic cathedral is now modernised. The town contains several 
inns, the best in the Piazza, where the Cafi d'ltalia is also situated. — 
A road ascends the valley of the Vomano from Teramo, passing Mon- 
torio and Fano Adriano, ascending between the Monte Piano (5643 ft.) and 
the Monte Cardito, leaving Monte <S Franco (7000 ft.) to the S., and then 
descending in many curves past <S. Vittorino (p. 184), where several roads 
meet, to Aquila (p. 183). Ascent of the Gran Sasso dTtalia, see p. 184. 

The train crosses the Tordino, the ancient Batinus, and then 
the Vomano (Vomanus). To the right a fine view is obtained of 
the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 184), which is here visible from base to 
summit. 79 l / 2 M. Atri-Mutignano. 

Atri (1391 ft.; "Albergo di Vine. Marcone), 6 M. inland (diligence daily, 
1 fr. 25 c, other conveyances rarely obtainable), the ancient Hatria, an epis- 

Baeuekek. ItalY_UL 9th Edition. 13 

194 Route 15. PESCARA. From Ancona 

copal residence, with 10,000 inhab., is a tnwn (if great antiquity, and was 
once celebrated for its copper coins. Numerous ruins bear testimony to 
its ancient importance. The Gothic cathedral with its frescos merits a 
visit. It rests on extensive foundations of ancient origin, perhaps those of a 
temple. Several large grottoes near the town are also of very remote date. 

The train now crosses the Piomba, the ancient Matrimis, 5 M. 
inland from which is situated Citta Santangelo (7000 inhab.). 
84 M. Sitoi ; 87 M. Montesilvano. 

Penne, 16 M. inland, the capital of the district, with 10,000 inhab., was 
the Pinna of the ancients, and chief town of the Vestini, of which period 
various relics still exist. 

90 M. Castellammare Adriatico, junction for the line to Terni, 
Aquila, and Solmona, see R. 12. — The train next crosses the 
Peseara river. 

92 M. Peseara (Leone d'Oro; Railway Restaurant, dear and 
indifferent), a fortified town with 5500 inhab., is situated in an 
unhealthy plain. The mountain-group of the Maiella, culminating 
in Monte Amaro (9160 ft.), now becomes visible on the right. 

The train crosses the Alento. 96 M. Francavilla, a village on the 
hill to the right. Beyond it a mountain-spur projects into the sea. 
Four short tunnels. Beyond the third the fort of Ortona becomes 
visible on the left. 

105 M. Ortona. The town (Caprera; Cafe in the Piazza), '/j M - 
from the station, the ancient Ortona , capital of the Frentani , is 
now a tolerably clean and well-built place (12,000 inhab.), situated 
on a lofty promontory , with a small quay on the shore below. 
Beautiful views towards the S. as far as the Punta di Penna (see 
below), especially of the ancient and dilapidated fort. The archi- 
tecture of the cathedral should be inspected. 

Beyond Ortona the train passes through another tunnel and 
crosses two brooks. 109 1 /o M. S. Vito Lanciano is the station for 
Lanciano, 6 M. inland, with 18,000 inhab., the ancient Anxanum. 
Between S. Vito and the next station (52 M.) Fossacesia are three 
tunnels, beyond which we obtain a pleasing survey of the peninsula, 
terminating in the Punta di Penna. 

Near (116 M.) Torino di Sangro the train crosses the Sangro, 
Lat. Sagrus. 122 M. Casalbordino. Three tunnels, beyond which 
Vasto becomes visible, on an olive-clad hill on the right. 131 M. 
Stat. Vasto. The town lies on the hill, l 1 ^ M. from the station. 

Vasto d'Aimone (Locanda del Pesce ; the others dirty ; Cafe 
.Xazionale), the ancient Histonium , with 14,000 inhab., lies high, 
and commands fine views as far as the 'fremiti islands and Monte 
Gargano. The small cathedral with a Gothic facade bears a memorial 
tablet to General 'Carlo Antonio Manhes, distruttore de' briganti, 
primo cittadino del Vasto', date 1810. A small museum in the 
town-hall contains inscriptions and other relics found here. In the 
environs are extensive olive plantations. 

The train crosses the Trigno , Lat. Trinius. 147'/2 M. Termoli 
( Venezin . in the suburb), a fortress close to the sea, with mediae- 

to Foggia. FOGGIA. 15. Route. 195 

val walls, excessively dirty. Charming survey of the Maiella and 
Ahruzzi, with the Tremiti Islands (the Insulae Diomedeae of my- 
thology, still serving, as in antiquity, as a place of confinement) 
and Monte Gargano in the distance. The cathedral, with a Gothic 
facade, contains a number of quaintly decorated saints. 

Fkom Teemoli to Benevento , 107 M. , railway in 9'/4 hrs. ; fares, 
19 fr. 45, 13 fr. 65, 8 fr. 65 c. The journey on the whole is monotonous. 
5'/2 M. Guglionesi- Portocannone; 10 M. 8. Martina in Pentilis; 17'/2 M. 
Ururi Rotello. — 23 M. Larino, near the ruins of the ancient Larinum. — 
31 M. Casacalenda; 33ViM. Bonefro; 36 ] /2 M. Ripabottoni-S. Elia; 4H/2 M. 
Campolieto-Monacilione;\l M. Malvice-Montagano; 51!/2 M. Ripalimosano. — 
54' J2 M. Campobasso, the capital of a province , and a place of some im- 
portance , with 14,900 inhab. , is noted for its steel wares. — 59V2 M. 
Baranello; 62 31. Vinchiaturo. — The railway here begins to descend the 
valley of the Tanaro. 69 M. S. Giuliano del Sannio. — 71'/2 M. Sepino; 
in the neighbourhood are the extensive ruins of the ancient Saepinum, now 
AUilia. — 75 l /2 31. 8. Croce del Sannio; 80 M. Morcone; 85 31. Pontelan- 
dolfo; 86'/2 M . Campolattaro ; 90 M. Fragneto Monforte ; 92 M. Pescolamazza; 
IO41/2 M. Pietra Elcina. — 107 M. Benevento, see p. 199. 

Beyond Termoli, where the cactus first makes its appearance, 
the scenery is less attractive. The train crosses the Biferno, Lat. 
Tifemus. 152 M. Campomarino , 158 M. Chieuti, once Albanian 
colonies. We next cross the Fortore, the ancient Frento. 

165 M. Bipalta. 

Near Bipalta, on 15th June, 1503, the Normans defeated and captured 
Pope Leo IX., and then, falling on their knees, implored his blessing. 
Leo, relenting, imparted it, and subsequently conferred Apulia, Calabria, 
and Sicily on the brothers Humfred and Robert Guiscard, a grant which 
was ultimately fraught with consequences so important to Rome and the 
papal throne, as well as to the Normans. 

To the N.E. is the Lago di Lesina, which communicates with 
the sea. The train now proceeds inland, in order to avoid the 
promontory of M. Gargano (p. 196), a buttress of the Apennines 
projecting into the sea, with several peaks nearly 5000 ft. in height. 
174!/4 M. Poggio Imperiale ; 177 M. Apricena ; 184 M. San Severo, 
a dirty town with 17,500 inhab., which, after a gallant resistance, 
was taken and almost entirely destroyed by the French in 1799. 
The cholera committed fearful ravages here in 1865. 191 M. Motta. 

201M. Foggia. — Restaurant, with several good rooms, at the station 
The town is '/» 31. distant; cab '/s fr- — I n tne Town: Albekgo di Milano; 
Locanda & Ristokatoke Roma, in the main street, very mediocre. 

Foggia, the capital of a province formerly called the Capitanata, 
and the junction of the coast-railway and the line to Benevento and 
Naples (R. 16), is a clean, thriving town, with 40,300 inhabi- 
tants. It is well situated in a commercial point of view, and forms 
the central point of the great Apulian plain. The name is probably 
derived from the pits or cellars (Lat. foveae , now called fosse di 
grand), in which the inhabitants store their grain. On the left, 
opposite the first houses of the town, Y4 M. from the station, is a 
portico forming the entrance to the Oiardino Pubblico, which is 
adorned with several busts. Beyond these public grounds is a bo- 
tanic garden. The main street which we follow now takes the name 


196 Route 15. MANFRED0N1A. From Ancona 

of Corso Vittorio Emanuele. To the left in the piazza planted with 
trees rises a monument to Vincenzo Lanza (1784-1860), a physician 
and patriot, who was born at Foggia. After 5 min. we cross the Corso 
del Teatro and reach the Piazza Federico II. , adorned with a foun- 
tain (Pozzo dell' Imperatore), situated in the older part of the town. 
The name is a reminiscence of the Emperor Frederick II . , who fre- 
quently resided at Foggia. The side-street immediately to the right 
also contains a gateway belonging to the old palace of the emperor, 
bearing an inscription of the year 1223 relative to the foundation. 
Leaving the Piazza Federico II. and turning to the left, we soon 
reach the Cathedral, which was originally erected by the Normans, 
partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1731, and afterwards re-erect- 
ed in a modern style. Part of the old facade only now exists. 

A great part of the spacious , treeless plain around Foggia is used as 
a sheep-pasture (Tavoliere delta Puglia). During the summer the flocks 
graze on the mountains, and in October return to the plain by three great 
routes (Tratturi delle Pecore). These migrations, during which hundreds 
of flocks may be encountered in one day , date from the Roman period. 
Alphonso I. , who introduced the merino sheep , converted the pastures 
into a royal domain in 1445. The number of sheep supported by these 
pastures amounted to 4'/a million at the close of the 16th cent., but owing 
to the progress of agriculture, is now reduced to less than half a million. 
About 3 M. to the N. of Foggia are the scanty remains of the ancient 
town of Arpi , said to have been founded by Diomedes , and afterwards 
replaced by Foggia. 

From Foggia to Manfbehonia , 22'/2 M., railway in 1 hr. 10 min., 
fares, 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 1 fr. 85 c. — 10 M. Ainandola; 15 II. Fontanarosa. 
— 22V2 M. Manfredonia, a quiet town with 8500 inhabitants, was founded 
by King Manfred about 1263, and destroyed by the Turks in 1620. It now 
contains no buildings of importance , but part of the mediseval fortifica- 
tions is still well preserved. Owing to the sheltered situation of the town, 
to the S. of Monte Gargano, the vegetation is very luxuriant, resembling that 
of Sicily in character. — About 2 M. to the W. of Manfredonia, on the road 
to Foggia, is the ' Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore di Siponto, a fine example of 
the Romanesque style, with a crypt. The tastelessly restored interior con- 
tains a 'miracle-working' Madonna and numerous votive tablets. This church 
is part of the scanty remains of the old Sipontmn, which was a Roman 
colony in B. O. 194. Other interesting remains of the old town have 
come to light in recent excavations. The road also passes S. Leonardo, 
converted into a commandery of the Teutonic Order in the time of Her- 
mann von Salza, with two fine portals, now used as a 'Masseria 1 , or farm- 
house, and very dilapidated. 

A road, at first traversing olive-plantations, and then ascending in 
windings, leads hence to (lO'/a M.) Monte Santangelo (2657 ft.), with a pic- 
turesque castle, and a famous old sanctuary of S. Micltele, where a great 
festival is celebrated on 8th May. The chapel consists of a grotto to 
which 55 steps descend, and where, as the legend runs, St. Michael appear- 
ed to St. Laurentius , Archbishop of Sipontum, in 491. In the 11th cent. 
the warlike Normans undertook pilgrimages to this sacred spot before they 
became masters of the country. The bronze doors, with scenes from Script- 
ure, bear the inscription : 'Hoc opus completum est in regia urbe Constan- 
nopoli adjuvante Dno Pantaleone qui fieri jussit anno ab incarnatione Dni 
-Millesimo Septuagesimo Sexto 1 (comp. p. 176). — From this point M. Calvo, 
the culminating point of Monte Gargano 15118 ft.), is most easily ascended. 
Between Monte S. Angelo and Yico lies the extensive and beautiful beech- 
forest called Bosco delV Umbrn, which stretches towards the sea. Farther 
ti) the "N. is Jsdtilella; towards the E., on the coast, is Viesli. The roads 
are bad, and suitable for riding and walking only. 

Fiujm Foggia to Luueka, 10'/i> M. , diligence twice daily in l'/j hr. 

toFoggia. MELFI. 15. Route. 197 

(fare l'/s fr-)i carriage there and back about 10 fr. (railway under con- 
struction). — The road, which is enlivened with busy traffic, ascends grad- 
ually through arable land. 

Lucera (Albergo dVtalia), a town with 14,500 inhab., the ancient Lu- 
ceria , was regarded as the key of Apulia, owing to its situation. It is first 
heard of during the Samnite wars , and in B. C. 314 it became a Roman 
colony. It continued to be an important and prosperous town down to the 
7th cent, after Christ, but was destroyed in 663. It was at length restored 
by Frederick II. , who in 1223 transplanted a colony of Saracens hither 
from Sicily , bestowing on them entire religious freedom. They were in 
consequence staunch adherents of the Hohenstaufen family, and accorded 
an asylum to the wife and children of Manfred after the battle of Bene- 
vento. They were, however, subdued by Charles of Anjou in 1269, and 
in 1300, after an attempt to throw off the yoke of Charles II., were com- 
pelled to embrace Christianity. 

The town lies on a lofty plain, which slopes imperceptibly towards 
the S. and E., and abruptly towards the N. and W. On the W. side the 
plateau projects , forming a kind of peninsula , on which stands the ad- 
mirably preserved 'Castle (keys at the Municipio), erected by Frederick, 
but dating in its present form from the reign of Charles I. It is an in- 
teresting example of a mediaeval stronghold, and occupies the site of the 
ancient arx. The ''View embraces the plain bounded by the Apennines 
and Monte Gargano; to the N. lies the town of S. Severo, and to the E. 
stretches the sea. The isolated mountain to the S. is the Monte Vulture 
near Melfi, the summit of which commands a survey of the whole of Apu- 
lia. — The old Cathedral, which had fallen into ruin in the time of Fre- 
derick II., was restored in the Gothic style after the conversion of the 
Saracens by the Anjous. The pilasters of the nave are in verde antico. 
The right transept contains a beautiful figure of the Madonna in marble, 
on a monument of 1605. Below the choir is a crypt. — A few inscriptions 
dating from the ancient municipium, which far exceeded the modern town 
in extent, are preserved in the library of the municipio, or town-hall. 
There are slight traces of an amphitheatre on the E. side of the town. 

On the road to S. Severo, 6 M. from Lucera, lay the Castel Fiorentino, 
where Frederick II., after a reign of 38 years as a German king, died in 
1250, in his 56th year. 

From Foggia to Rocchetta S. Antonio, 31 M., railway in l 3 / 4 
hr.; fares, 5 fr. 65, 4 fr., 2 fr. 65 c. — Stat. (57 2 M.) Cervaro, see 
p. 199; (11 M.) Ordona, the ancient Herdonia, with an ancient 
bridge, amphitheatre, tombs, etc. ; (19'/2 M".) Ascoli Satriano (Al- 
bergo di Roma, clean), l'^M. from the station (cab ^feti."), charm- 
ingly situated , the ancient Ausculum Apulum, famed for the 
victory gained here by Pyrrhus over the Romans, B. C. 279; 
(24 1 / 2 M.) Candela. — 31 M. Rocchetta S. Antonio. 
From Rocchetta diligence daily in 3 l /. 2 hrs. to — 
Melfi (2067 ft.), with 12,700 inhab., picturesquely situated on 
the slope of Monte Vulture. It possesses an old castle of the Nor- 
man sovereigns, who often resided here, now restored by Prince 
Doria as a chateau. The upper portion of the town was totally 
destroyed by the earthquake; a great part of the remainder has 
been re-erected. Here, in 1059, Pope Nicholas II. invested Robert 
Guiscard with the duchies of Apulia and Calabria. The magni- 
ficent Cathedral of 1155, almost entirely destroyed by an earth- 
quake in 1851, has since been modernised. The town-hall con- 
tains a fine Roman sarcophagus. 

198 Route 15. VENOSA. 

From this point the conspicuous Monte Vulture (4363 ft.), an extinct vol- 
cano, may be visited. Horace mentions it as the 'ApulianVultur''; at that 
period it formed the boundary between Lucania and Apulia. Calabria 
extended hence in a S.E. direction to the Iapygian or Salentinian pro- 
montory, the modern Capo di Leuca (p. 210); and S.W. lay the land of 
the Bruttii, as far as the Sicilian straits. Since the middle ages, however, 
the latter district has been named Calabria, while the ancient Calabria is 
now the Terra d'Otranto. 

The former crater of M. Vulture is densely overgrown with oaks and 
beeches, among which two small and deep lakes are situated. By one of 
these are the Capuchin monastery of S. Michele , most picturesquely 
situated, and the ruined church of S. Ilario. On the farther side of the 
principal crater rises the summit of the mountain , II Pizzuto di Melfi 
(4359 ft.). The circumference of the whole mountain is about 37 M. 

A road leads from Melfi to the E. to (15V2 M. ; or by a bridle-path, a 
pleasant , sequestered route , 7'/2 ^- onlv ) Venosa (poor inn), the ancient 
Venusia, colonised by Rome after the Samnite war, now a small town 
with 7500inhab., picturesquely situated on the slope of Monte Vulture, not 
far from the Fiumara, the 'pauper aquae Daunus' of Horace (Carin. iii, 
30, 11) , and near the more considerable O/anto, Lat. Aufidus. The Caslle 
was erected by Pino del Balzo in the 15th cent. The abbey and church 
(if <S. Trinita, consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. in 1058, contain the tombs 
of the founder Robert Guiscard and his first wife Aberarda, mother of 
Boemund. Frescos of the 13th and 14th cent, have recently been discovered 
in the church. The three principal chapels are still distinctly recognised. 
The nave is 76 paces in breadth. The handsome court contains numerous 
inscriptions , columns , and other relics of an amphitheatre, which lay in 
the neighbourhood. The church has recently undergone restoration in 
questionable taste. 

Near Venosa , on the road to the Fiumara , Jewish Catacombs, with 
inscriptions in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, were discovered in 1853. History 
records that Jews were numerous here in the 4th and 5th centuries. 

An ancient structure of 'opus reticulatum 1 here is called the C'asa di 
Orazio, but without the slightest authority. Horace, the son of a freedman, 
was born atVenusia, on 8th Dec. B.C. 65, and there received his elementary 
education, after which his father took him to Rome in order to procure 
him better instruction. He frequently mentions the 'far resounding Aufidus -1 
in his poems, as well as the villages in the vicinity (Carm. iii. 4, 14), such as 
the lofty Acheronlia, now Acerenza (p. 215), 9 M. to the S.E., the woods of 
Bantia, N. of the latter, now Abbadia de 1 Banzi, near Genzano, and the 
fertile meadows of the low-lying Ferentum (probably Forenza). Near Palazzo, 
6 31. to the E. of Venosa, to the right of the road to Spinazzola, rises an 
abundant spring, now called Fontana Grande, believed to be identical with 
the Fons Bandusiae so highly praised by Horace (Carm. iii. 13). 

On the wooded heights between Venusia and Bantia, in B.C. 208, 
M. Claud. Marcellus, the gallant conqueror of Syracuse, and the first gen- 
eral who succeeded in arresting the tide of Hannibal's success (at Nola, 
215), fell into an' ambuscade and perished. 

Lavello, where King Conrad died in 1254, lies 9>/2 M. to the N. of 
Venosa, beyond the wooded slopes of the Monte Vulture. The traveller 
may proceed thence by (19 M.) Canosa (p. 203) to the railway. 

16. From (Ancona) Foggia to Naples. 

Railway. Shortest route from Germany and from N. and E. Italy to 
Naples. From liologna to Naples 19'/.j hrs. — From Ancona to Foggia 
(201 3!.), see R. 15. From Foggia to Naples (124 M.) by ordinary train 
in S-S'/j, by express in 5^3 his. ; fares 22 fr. 40, 15 fr. 70, 8 fr. 95 c. — The 
-low trains an- always behind thin'. 

Tlw train (llni-st views to the left) t.r;i verses the Tun, Here <li 

BENEVENTO. 10. Route. 199 

Puglia (p. 196). From (5i/ 2 M.) Cervaro diverges the branch-line 
to Rocchetta S. Antonio mentioned at p. 197. 

17 M. Giardinetto is the station for Troja , 7 M. to the N. 
(diligence li/ 2 fr.), a colony founded in 1017 by the Greek prefect 
Bugianus (p. 203) ; to the eleventh cent, belongs also the interest- 
ing cathedral with its ancient bronze doors. At Ponte di Bovino the 
train crosses the Cervaro. 

21 M. Bovino, the^ ancient Vibinum, lies on the hill to the left. 

The train follows the left bank of the Cervaro. Three tunnels. 
29'/2 M. Montaguto-Panni. Montaguto lies on the left bank of 
the Cervaro ; Panni lies high up among the hills to the left. 
33 M. Savignano-Greci, two villages loftily situated on opposite 
sides of the Valle di Bovino, or ravine of the Cervaro. Then 
a long tunnel. 39y 2 M. Ariano; the town is not visible from 
the line. Five tunnels, one of which is more than iy 2 M. long. 
We then cross the watershed between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the 
Adriatic. 46 M. Montecalvo ; the village is on the hill to the right. 
50 M. Buonalbergo. Near (55 M.) Apice the train enters the 
narrow valley of the Colore and follows its uninteresting N. bank 
to (59i/ 2 M.) Ponte Valentino. It then crosses the Tamaro, a 
tributary of the Calore. 

64 M. Benevento. — The Station (Rail. Restaurant, fair) lies 3 U M. 
to the N. of the town; one-horse cah 50 c, two horse 1 fr., after dusk 
60 c. or 1 fr. 30 c. ; one-horse cab per hour 70 c. — Inns. Locanda di 
Benevento, in the Largo S. Antonio, small, but clean; di Gaeta, in the 
Piazza, dirty. — Gaffe del Commercio, in the street leading to the station ; 
Caffe Nazionale, opposite the prefecture and near the cathedral. * Trattoria 
in the street leading from the station to the town, last house on the right. 

The sights of the town may be visited in 3 hrs., or less if a cab is 

Benevento, a town with 21,700 inhab., situated on a hill bound- 
ed by the two rivers Sabato and Calore , was formerly the capital 
of a papal province of the same name. The narrow and dirty streets 
are gradually undergoing improvement. 

Beneventum, founded according to tradition by Diomedes, or by the son 
of Ulysses and Circe, was originally called Maleventum, but the name 
was changed when it became a Roman colony, B.C. 268. It lay on the Via 
Appia, and became one of the most important places in S. Italy. In the 6th 
cent, after Christ Beneventum became the seat of a powerful Lombard 
duchy. In the ilth cent. Emp. Henry III. ceded the principality of Bene- 
vento to Pope Leo IX., after which it belonged to Rome. In 1241 the town 
was partly destroyed by Frederick II. From 1806 to 1815 Benevento was 
capital of the short-lived principality of that name, which Napoleon I. 
granted to Talleyrand. 

*Trajan's Triumphal Arch, or the Porta Aurea, on the E. side 
of the town, dating from A. D. 114, is one of the finest and 
best preserved Roman structures in S. Italy. It was dedicated 
to the emperor by the Roman senate and people, in recognition 
of his having completed a new road to Brnndisium , and some- 
what resembles the arch of Titus at Rome. It is constructed of 
Greek marble, and is 50 ft. in height, the passage being 27 ft. 

200 Route 16. BENEVENTO. From Foggia 

high. A quadriga with a statue of Trajan once crowned the 
summit. The reliefs relate to the history of the emperor. 

Outside. Over the arch are two rivers , the Danube and Euphrates 
for Rhine). The frieze represents the triumph of Trajan over the Ger- 
manic tribes. Above, on the left, assembly of the gods, resolving on the 
adoption of Trajan by Nerva ; on the right, conquest of Dacia, King Dece- 
balus at the emperor's feet. On the left Trajan triumphing over Dacia ; on 
the right the marriage of Hadrian and Sabina; 1. Armenia constituted a 
Roman province ; right an Oriental ambassador in Trajan's presence. — 
Passage: 1. Trajan sacrificing to Jupiter; r. Trajan bestowing a 'congiarium 1 
or largess on the people after his triumph. On the ceiling Trajan crowned 
by Victory. — Inner Side. On the frieze a Dacian triumph. Reliefs : 
Trajan sacrificing, Procession to the Capitol, Adoption of Trajan, Entry 
into Rome, Trajan administering justice, Trajan in the Basilica Ulpia. 

Following- the Town Walls , which , as well as the town itself, 
contain many relics of antiquity, we proceed towards the S. to the 
Castle, erected in the 14th cent., now partly used as a prison. 
The promenade in front of it , which is embellished with a hand- 
some obelisk , commands an excellent survey of the valley of the 
Sabato and of the mountains. 

From this point we follow the main street to the Piazza Papi- 
niana. Another obelisk, re-erected here in 1872, is a memorial of 
the Egyptian worship of Isis, which was very prevalent here towards 
the end of the pagan period. — On the right is a suppressed Bene- 
dictine monastery with the church of Santa Sofia, a circular edifice 
of the Lombard period, erected about 732-74. It is now partly 
modernised. The vaulting of the dome is borne by six ancient 
Corinthian columns. Handsome cloisters. 

We next pass the Episcopal Palace, where there is another obe- 
lisk, and reach the piazza in front of the cathedral. 

The *Cathedral, dating from the 12th cent., is a beautiful 
edifice in the Lombard-Saracenic style. In the wall of the clock- 
tower is a relief in marble, representing a wild boar, the cogni- 
sance of Benevento. The principal door of the cathedral is of 
bronze, adorned with basreliefs of New Testament subjects. It is 
said to have been executed at Constantinople in 1150. The interior 
is in the form of a basilica, with double aisles borne by ancient 
columns. Ambos and candelabra of 1311. Valuable treasury. 

Descending to the right of the church, we reach the Prefecture. 
Continuing to descend to the right, we pass through an old gate- 
way to the site of the ancient Theatre, now concealed by other 
buildings. — Returning to the cathedral and going straight past 
it , and passing the street leading to the station , we come to a 
piazza embellished with an Apis, another relic of the ancient worship 
of Isis , which the local savants have pronounced to be an emblem 
of the Samnite League. The traveller may now continue his route 
along the bank of the Sabato, planted with poplars, to the ancient 
l'"nte Lebroso, by which the Via Appia once led to the town. It 
is now the site of a mill. Near it, to the W., lie the ruins of 
Kaiili Quinnntii, an extensive structure of brick with a 'crypto- 

to Naples. PONTI DELLA VALUE. 16. Route. 201 

porticus' and colonnades, once probably belonging to a bath- 

The road to the station crosses the Calore by a handsome bridge. 

Near this, according to tradition , was the temporary grave of the 
young King Manfred, who on 26th Feb., 1266, in a battle with Charles I. 
of Anjou on the neighbouring plains , had lost his throne and his life 
through the treachery of the Barons of Apulia and the Counts of Caserta 
and Acerra. Shortly afterwards, however, the body of the ill-fated prince 
was exhumed by order of Bartolommeo Pignatelli, Archbishop of Cosenza, 
conveyed beyond the limits of the kingdom, and exposed unburied on the 
bank of the Rio Verde." Dante records this in his Purgatorio (iii. 134). 

From Benevento to Termoli, see p. 195. 

The Railway follows the right bank of the Calore, and passes 
through a tunnel. 36 M. Vitulano; another tunnel. The valley 
expands ; to the left on the hill lies Torrecuso. 73 M. Casal- 
duni - Ponte , where the high-road to Benevento crosses the Ca- 
lore by an iron bridge. Another tunnel. 76 M. S. Lorenzo Mag- 
giore, on the hill to the right. 80^2 M. Solopaca; the small town 
(5000 inhab.) is pleasantly situated at the foot of Monte Taburno 
(4095 ft.), I1/2 M. to the left. Before reaching (84 M.) stat. Te- 
lese , we observe on the left the Lago di Telese , a malarious 
marsh which poisons the neighbourhood. Telese, a poor village 
on the hills to the right , is visited in summer for its mineral 
springs by the inhabitants of the district. Near it are a few re- 
mains of the ancient Telesia , a Samnite town , once occupied 
by Hannibal, but taken and destroyed by the Romans. It was 
afterwards colonised by Augustus. In the 9th cent, the town 
suffered severely from an earthquake, and was at length entirely 
destroyed by the Saracens. 

Near (86 M.) Amorosi the train enters the broad and fertile 
valley of the Volturno, which is first crossed above, then below 
the influx of the Calore. 90i/2 M. Dugenta, 2i/ 2 M. above which, 
on the Isclero, is situated S. Agata de' Ooti, on the site of the 
ancient Saticola. The defile between S. Agata and Mojano is sup- 
posed by some to be the Caudine Forks, as the locality corresponds 
better with Livy's description than the pass near Arpaia (p. 11). 

941/2 M. Valle. The train ascends , and passes under the 
*Ponti delta Valle, an imposing aqueduct in three stories, about 
210 ft. in height, and 25 M. in length. It was constructed by Van- 
vitelli by order of Charles III. and his son , for the purpose of 
supplying the gardens of Caserta with water from Monte Taburno. 
The towers connected with it are seen on the hill to the right. 

The train now descends to (97^2 M.) Maddaloni; the town 
lies below the line; to the left a view of the Campanian plain. 
Two tunnels. 

1021/2 M. Caserta, see p. 9. 

Beyond Caserta the train traverses the most fertile and highly 
cultivated part of the Terra di Lavoro (p. 7), a vast plain covered 
with vineyards, poplars, and various crops. l08 1 / 2 M. Marcianixe. 

202 Route 17. BARLETTA. From Foggia. 

112 M. Aversa, a town with 21,000 inhab., probably occupies 
the site of the ancient Atella, where the Fabula Atellana, or 
early Roman comedy, first originated. In 1029 it was the first 
settlement of the Normans , who afterwards became so powerful. 
On 18th Sept. 1345 King Andreas of Hungary, husband of Queen 
Johanna I. of Naples, was assassinated by Niccolo Acciajuoli in the 
palace of Aversa. The light and rather acid wine of Aversa, call- 
ed Asprino, is frequently drunk at Naples. 

1141/2 S. Antimo, 115i/ 2 M. Fratta-Orumo, 118 M. Oasoria, 
connected with Naples by a steam-tramway (p. 24). Glimpses of 
Vesuvius to the left. The train passes through a tunnel, and de- 
scribes a curve round the city towards the S.W. 

124 M. Naples, see p. 20. 

17. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian 

Railway to Brindisi, 146 M. , in 41/4-7 lirs. ; fares 26 fr. 40, 18 fr. 50, 
10 fr. 65 c. (3rd cl. express 13 fr. 20; comp. p. 192). — From Brindisi to 
Otranto, 54 M., in 3 hrs.; fares 9 fr. 75, 6 fr. 85, 3 fr. 90 c. (3rd cl. express 
4 fr. 90 c); only two througli-trains daily. — Excursions in tlie country 
are usually made here in two-wheeled Sciarraba's (a corruption of the 
French 'char-a-bancs 1 ), resembling the Neapolitan corricolo's. The average 
charge per day is 6-7 fr., fee included, and the average journey 30-35 M. 

Foggia, see p. 195. On the right lies an extensive plain, the 
Tavoliere di Puglia. Beyond it, to the S., rises Mte. Vulture near 
Melfl (p. 198). 

12i/ 2 M. Ortanova. 22 M. Cerignola, with 26,000 inhab., un- 
interesting. Route to (IO1/2 M.) Canosa , see p. 202. The sur- 
rounding plain is richly cultivated, but entirely destitute of trees, 
which generally form an important feature in Italian fields and 
enhance the beauty of the landscape. Cotton-plantations begin 
here. 32'/ 2 M. Trinitapoli. The train then crosses the Ofanto, the 
ancient Aufidus, the last river of the E. coast, with banks covered 
with underwood. Between two ranges of hills to the right lies the 
broad plain on which the battle of Cann* was fought (see p. 203). 

42'/ 2 M. B arietta (Locanda di Ettore Fieramosca), a seaport- 
town with 33,200 inhab., picturesquely situated, contains a number 
of well-built houses and churches. The market-place is adorned 
with a bronze statue 14 ft. in height, said to represent the Emp. 
Heraclius (according to others Theodosius), and to have been found 
in the sea. In the Piazza. d'Azeglio is a monument to Massimo 
d'Azeglio (d. 1866), the statesman, erected in 1880. The Cathedral 
of S. Marin Magyiore contains the tomb of a Count of Barbi and 
Miihllngen (d. '1566), with a German inscription. S. Andrea and 
<S'. 'J'rinita possess several ancient pictures. The extensive (.'astello 
dates from the time of Charles V. 

In the wars between Louis XII. and Ferdinand the Catholic. Ilarletta 
w:i< deleii.le.l in lnu's In ijnnsalvii da Cordova and besieged by the Duke 

toBrindisi. CANOSA. 17. Route. 203 

of Nemours. During the siege, among other encounters, a combat took 
place in the vicinity (between Andria and Corato) between thirteen on 
each side of the most valiant knights of Italy and France, conducted re- 
spectively by Colonna , and Bayard 'sans peur et sans reproche' , which 
terminated in favour of the former. 

Canosa (Albergo Genghi, bad), with 16,500 inhab., on the slope of 
a hill, lies 14 M. inland from Barletta and about as far from Andria (see 
below), with both of which it is connected by high-roads. Of the ancient 
Ccmusium, once a prosperous town, a gate (Porta Varrense, on the road 
to Cerignola) , ruins of an extensive amphitheatre, and other relics still 
exist. Numerous painted ¥ases, golden trinkets, etc., have been discovered 
in the neighbourhood. The principal church of S. Sabino, with several 
small domes, contains a pulpit and episcopal throne in marble and a num- 
ber of antique columns; its pavement is now several feet below the level 
of the street. In an adjacent court is the tomb of Boemund (d. 1111), 
son of Rob. Guiscard, one of Tasso's heroes. Extensive olive-plantations 
in the neighbourhood, which, like the whole district of Apulia, also yields 
excellent wine. 

About midway between Barletta and Canosa, and a little to the N. of 
the road, on the right bank of the Aufidus (Ofanto), once lay Cannae, where 
the Romans were signally defeated by Hannibal, B. C. 216. The Roman army, 
under the Consuls Lucius jEmilius Paullus and Caius TerentiusVarro, con- 
sisted of 80,000 foot and 6000 horse, that of Hannibal numbered 40,000 foot 
and 10,000 horse. After various changes of position the two armies engaged 
on the right bank of the Aufidus, the right wing of the Romans and the 
left wing of the Carthaginians leaning on the river. The Gallic and Spanish 
legionaries opened the battle by a successful attack on the Carthaginian 
centre, but Hasdrubal, at the head of the Carthaginian cavalry on the 
right wing, quickly put the Roman horse to flight, and then attacked the 
legions in the rear. Scarcely a single Roman foot-soldier escaped, 70,000 
being left on the field, including jEmilius Paullus the Consul, and 10,000 
being taken prisoner. Hannibal lost only about 6000 men. — In 1019 an 
Apulian and Norman army under Melo of Bari was defeated at Cannse 
by the troops of the Greek prefect Basilius Bugianus. In 1083 Cannae was 
taken and destroyed by Robert Guiscard. 

From Barletta to Bari via Andria, about 50 M., steam-tramway 
in 3'/2 hrs., four times daily in each direction. — 7'/2 M. Andria (£o- 
canda di Milone, near the road to Trani, tolerable), with 37,000 inhab., 
founded about 1046, once a favourite residence of the Emp. Frederick II., 
whose second wife Isabella of Jerusalem died here in 1228, after having 
given birth to a son (Conrad), and was interred in the interesting old 
cathedral. His third wife, Isabella of England, who died at Foggia in 
1241, was also interred in the cathedral of Andria, but the monuments of 
these empresses have long since disappeared, having been destroyed by 
the partizans of Anjou. On the Porta S. Andrea, or delV Irnperatore, is 
a metrical inscription in letters of metal, attributed to Frederick : Andria 
fidelis nostris affixa medullis, etc. The old church of <S. Agostino and the 
adjoining convent belonged to the Teutonic Order-Curing the sway of the 
Hohenstaufen. Andria is 7'/2 M. from Barletta (diligence twice daily in lhr., 
fare '/j fr.), and the same distance from Trani. — To the S. of Andria, on 
the summit of the pyramidal Margie di Minervino , are the ruins of the 
conspicuous and imposing "Castello del Monte, erected by Frederick II. 
who frequently resided here. This height commands a beautiful ""View 
of the sea, the valley of the Ofanto, Monte Vulture , etc. A bridle-path 
(9Vs M.) ascends to it from Andria. 

A little beyond Andria, in a field by the road-side, is a modern 
monument called VEpitafio, marking the spot where the above-mentioned 
encounter between Colonna and Bayard took place. 9'/2 M. Corato, with 
29,000 inhab. 14 M. Ruvo (Giov. Nanni, tolerable), with 17,000 inhab., 
the ancient Rubi, famous for the numerous and beautiful vases found in 
the Apulian tombs in its environs , and now among the chief treasures 
of the Museum of Naples. The tombs have since been covered up again. 
The collection of Giov. Jalta is worthy of a visit. — 17 M. Terliz'.i. 

204 Route 17. BARI. From Foggia 

2G M. Bitonto, with 26,000 inhab. and large manufactures of salad-oil. 
The interesting cathedraf contains several tombs of the 17th century. — 
Near (30 M.) Modtigno the tramway-line crosses the railway from Bari to 
Taranto (.11. 18j. — 37 M. Bari, see below. 

The line now skirts the coast. The country is luxuriantly fer- 
tile, and is chiefly famous for large olive-plantations yielding the 
finest quality of salad-oil. The district where this is produced ex- 
tends only from Barletta andCanosa, past Bari, to the neighbourhood 
of .Viola (p. '206 ). The culture of the olive is very profitable, but the 
yield is extremely fluctuating. A first-rate crop, though very rare, 
sometimes realises a price equal to the value of the whole estate. 

50i/ 2 M. Trani (Alb ergo della Stella d Italia; Alb. delle Pug- 
lie; Due Mori), with 2(3,000 inhab., is a well -built seaport. 
The loftily situated * Cathedral, built about 1100, still possesses a 
Romanesque portal and beautiful bronze doors of 1175. Interior 
barbarously modernised. The interesting Custello is now used as a 
prison. Several synagogues afford an indication of the former 
prosperity of the place and of its importance at the time of the 
Crusades. The pretty 'Villa', or public gardens, on the coast, con- 
tains two well-preserved milestones from the Via Trajana, which 
led from Benevento toBrindisi byCanosa, Ruvo, Bari, andEgnatia. 
KxceWent v/me(Moseadodi Trani) is produced in the neighbourhood. 

r>r)i/ 2 M. Bisceglie, pop. 23,000, with the ruins of a Norman 
fortress and handsome villas. 

61 M. Molfetta [27,000 inhab.), beautifully situated, an epis- 
copal see, was once in commercial alliance with Amalfl. After the 
death of Johanna 1. her husband Otho, Duke of Brunswick, was 
confined in the castle here until released by Charles of Dnrazzo in 
1384. — 65 M. Oiovinazzo, said to have been founded by the inhabi- 
tants of Kgnatia (p. 206), on the destruction of the latter, or by the 
inhabitants of the ancient Netium (Natiolum). 69y 2 M. S. Spirito 
and ISitonto (see above); the latter lies 4 M. to the W. 

7? M. Bari. — Hotels. Albergo del IIisorgimento (PI. a; C, <S), 
with good trattoria, K., L., & A. 2'/2 fr., bargaining necessary; Alb. Pic- 
eiNNiJ~ at the corner of the Via Piccinni and the Via Cavour (PI. D, 4). — 
Cufis IIisorgimento and Stoppani , both in the (Jorso Vitt. Emanuelc. — 
Ben; etc., at Orsola Ctifliscjfs and the Birreria del Bolagnese , both in 
the (Jorso Vitt. Emanuelc. 

Cabs into the town, or per drive, 5U c, after dusk 70 c. ; with two 
horses 70 or 90 c. 

Tramway to Barletta, from the N.W. of the Giard. Garibaldi, see p. 2U3. 

Steamboats. Vessels of the Societit Florio-Bubattino for Brindisi , the 
J'iraus, Tremiti, Ancona, Venice, and Trieste. Also steamers of the fioc. 
Bari, Soc. I'mjlia, etc., to Genoa and Marseilles. 

British VieE-Coxsri, : Mr. Charles Soame. 

Bari, the ancient Barium, which is still, as in the time of 
Horace, well supplied with fish ( 'Bari piscosi moenia'), a seaport, 
and the capital of a province, with 60,600 inhab. ('commune'), 
is the most important commercial town in Apulia. It is one of the 
most ancient bishoprics in-'ltaly, and is now the seat of an arch- 
bishop. In mediaeval history it is frequently mentioned as the 

toBrindisi. BAM. 17. Route. 205 

scene of contests between Saracens, Greeks, and Normans, etc. In 
1002 it was wrested from the Saracens by the Venetians. Wil- 
liam the Bad destroyed the town in 1156, but William the Good 
sanctioned its restoration in 1169. Bari formed an independent 
duchy from the 14th cent, down to 1558, when it was united with 
the kingdom of Naples. 

The Strada Sparano da Bari leads to the N. from the station and 
crosses the Piazza Ateneo, in which, on the left , stands the Ateneo 
(PI. C, 6), containing'a technical school and the new Provincial 
Museum. The latter consists chiefly of vases in the S. Italian style ; 
one of the most interesting objects is the *Figure of a Moor in ter- 
racotta, found in a grave at Monopoli. 

The Strada Sparano ends in the Cobso Vittorio Emanublb, 
which runs from W. to E. and separates the closely built old town 
from the new town, or Borgo. On the W. the Corso ends in the 
grounds of the Giardino Garibaldi (PI. A, 4) ; at the E. end is the 
Giardino Margherita (PI. D, E, 4), with a bust of Giuseppe Masari 
(d. 1883), parliamentary deputy and author, beyond which is the 
Old Harbour, now used only by fishing-boats and other small craft. 

In the middle the Corso expands into the Piazza della Pre- 
iettura (P1.C,4), which is bounded on the W. by the Giardino 
Piccinni, with a statue of the composer Piccinni, Gluck's rival, who 
was born at Bari in 1728, on the S. by the Teatro Piccinni (PI. 15), 
the Palazzo di Citta, and. the Tribunali (the two last forming the 
wings of the theatre), and on the N. by the Prefecture (PI. 11). 
Passing to the left of the prefecture we reach the Castello (now a 
prison, PI. B, 0, 3), which was built in 1169 and afterwards re- 
peatedly strengthened. The castello lies on the New Harbour, 
whence a fine view of Mte. Gargano is enjoyed in clear weather. 
Farther on is the — 

Cathedral of S. Sabino (PI. 3; C, 3), originally a fine Roman- 
esque building, sadly modernised in 1745. Over the altar of S. Rocco 
is a picture by Tintoretto, and opposite to it one by PaoloVeronese. 
The lofty campanile resembles the Moorish tower of Seville. — 
Near the cathedral is the church of — 

*S. Nicola (PI. D, 2, 3), begun in 1087 for the reception of the 
relics of the saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia. The 
crypt was consecrated by Pope Urban II. in 1089 ; the church it- 
self, a pillared basilica in an antique style, with numerous later 
additions, was finished by the Norman king Roger in 1139. On 
the exterior are tombstones erected to members of noble families 
of Bari , and to Byzantine pilgrims who died here. The interest- 
ing facade is embellished with statues of the Virgin, S. Nicola. 
and S. Antonio di Padova (17th cent.?). 

The Interior consists of nave and aisles with flat ceiling, borne by 
double rows of columns, with galleries oyer the aisles. The transverse 
arches in the nave did not form part of th& original structure. In the N. 
aisle is the Tombstone of Robert, Count of Bari, 'protonotarius' of Charles 

206 Route 17. MONOPOLI. From Fuyyia 

of Anjnu, whn conducted the proceedings against the ill-fated Prince Con- 
radin, and was afterwards assassinated by a nephew of Charles of Anjou 
on the very spot on which he had proclaimed the sentence (p. 40). He 
was a member of the Chiurlia family, resident at Bari. — To the right 
of the high- altar is a Madonna with saints, by Bartolommeo Vivarini of 
JIurano, 1476. — At the back of the choir is the Tomb (erected in 1593) 
of Bona Sforza, queen of Sigismund I. of Poland and last Duchess of Bari 
(d. 1558), with statues of St. Casimir and Stanislaus. 

On the staircase leading to the Crypt are some early-Christian sar- 
cophagus-sculptures representing Christ and the Evangelists (5th cent.?), 
which were perhaps brought from Mysia. — The crypt itself contains a 
silver altar with interesting "Alto-reliefs, executed in 1319 for the Servian 
king Urosius by Ruggero dalV Invidia and Roberto da Barletta, and 
restored in 1684 by Bom. Marinelli and Ant. Avitabili of Naples. Below 
the altar is the vault containing the bones of the saint, from which a 
miraculous fluid ('Manna di Bari 1 ), highly prized by believers, is said 
to exude. The festival of the saint, on 8th May, is attended by thou- 
sands of pilgrims, chiefly from the Albanese villages. 

The Tkeasukt contains a beautifully illuminated breviary of Charles 11. 
of Anjou, the sceptre of the same monarch, and an iron crown, which is 
said to have been made at Bari in 1131 for the Norman Eoger. Roger 
himself, Emp. Henry VI. and his consort Costanza, Manfred, and Ferdi- 
nand I. were all crowned with it in this church. — In 1271 Charles of 
Anjou presented the church with a colossal bell, which Manfred had in- 
tended for Manfredonia, but tradition reports that this giant was melted 
down and made into five smaller bells about the year 1391. The present 
bells date from 1578, 1713, and 1830. 

The Lion in the Piazza, with the inscription 'custos justitia;' 
on its collar, is the heraldic cognisance of Bari. 

Railway from Bari to Taranto, see R. 18. 

84 M. Noicattaro. 89 M. Mola di Bari (13,000 inhah.), on the 
coast. 99 M. Polignano a Mare is situated on a lofty and precipitous 
rock , rising above the sea and containing several fine grottoes. 
The finest of these lies under the new town (entrance by a small 
door in the old town ; key at the house opposite). 102 M. Monopoli, 
the ancient Minopolis, with 21,000 inhab., the residence of an arch- 
bishop. The cathedral contains a St. Sebastian by Palma Vecchio. 
The tower of S. Francesco commands a fine view. In the direction of 
the sea there have recently been discovered several rock-hewn tombs, 
the contents of which are now in the museum at Bari (p. 205). — 
On the coast between Monopoli and Fasano lies the ruined town 
('la citta distrutta') of Egnatia, the Greek QnatMa, now Anazzo, 
where a number of vases, ornaments, etc., have been found. The 
stones of the ancient walls have been nearly all removed by the 
peasants to build their cottages. 

HO'/o M. Fasano (Locanda in the Muuioipio, tolerable), a thriv- 
ing town with 15,500 inhabitants. The old palace of the Knights 
of St. John, with its handsome logge (1509), is now occupied by 
the Municipio. Signora Scarli Colucci possesses a collection of an- 
tiquities from Egnatia , to which , however, persons unprovided 
with an introduction will scarcely obtain access. 

The train now enters the province of Lecce or Otranto (Terra 
'I'Otrunto. the ancient Calabria, see p. 198). 123 M. Oatuni (Lo- 

Geogr. Anstalt Trent 

"Wagner 6, DetesJJeipzij 

to Brindisi. BRINDISI. 17. Route. 207 

canda Petriizzo-Anglana) possesses a cathedral with a line Roman- 
esque facade ; the Biblioteca Municipale contains a collection of 
antiquities. — 129 M. Carovigno ; 139 M. S. Vito d'Otranto. 

146 M. Brindisi. — Gkand Hotel des Indes Orientales , built by 
the S. Italian railway company, on the quay, near the landing-place of 
the P. and O. steamers, R. 3, A. 1, B. l'/ 2 , D. 5, lunch 3>/ 2 -4 fr. — Al- 
bergo d'Europa , in the Strada Amena, leading from the station to the 
0/2 M.) harbour, kept by Michele Grapsa, a Greek, good and tolerably 
clean, R. and L. 272 fr., A. 40c; Angletekee, very dirty, also in the Strada 
Amena, near the Europa, bargaining necessary. — Birreria Bizzarri, at the 

Cabs. From the station to the harbovir, 1 pers. 60 c, at night 80 c, 
2 pers. 1 fr. or 1 fr. 20 c, 3 pers. 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 40 c, 4 pers. 1 fr. 50 or 
1 fr. 70 c.; per 1/2 hr. 2 fr. or 2 fr. 20 c, per hr. 3 fr. or 3 fr. 20 c.; 
trunk 20 c. 

Post Office, in the Strada Amena. — Telegraph Office, at the harbour. 

Steamboats to Corfu, Syra, and the Pirseus (comp. R. 43) ; also to An- 
eona, Venice, Trieste, Alexandria, etc. 

British Vice-Consul: Sig. S. O. Cocoto. 

Brindisi, with 16,700 inhab., the ancient Brentesion of the 
Greeks, and the Brundisium (i. e. stag's head) of the Romans, a 
name due to the form of the harbour which encloses the town in 
two arms, was once a populous seaport, and the usual point of em- 
barcation for Greece and the East. 

Brundisium was a very famous place in ancient history. At an early 
period it was colonised by Tarentum, and subsequently by Rome, B.C. 245, 
and it formed the termination of the Via Appia, the construction of which 
from Capua was nearly coeval with the foundation of the colony. Horace's 
description (Sat. i. 5) of his journey from Rome to Brundisium , B. C. 37, 
in the company of Maecenas , who wished to be present at the con- 
clusion of a new alliance between Octavianus and Antony at Tarentum, 
is well known. At Brundisium the tragic poet Pacuvius was born, and 
here, in B. C. 19, Virgil died on his return from Greece (some ruins near the 
harbour being still pointed out to the credulous as the remains of the house 
where he expired). The town , when occupied by Pompey, B. C. 49, sus- 
tained a memorable siege at the hands of Csesar, who describes the event 
in the first book of his Civil War. The fleets of the Crusaders frequently 
assembled in the harbour of Brundfsium , but the place soon declined 
after the cessation of the crusades. It was subsequently destroyed by 
Lewis, King of Hungary, in 1348, and again by a fearful earthquake in 
1458, which buried most of the inhabitants beneath its ruins. 

In modern times Brindisi has again become the starting-point 
of the most direct route from Central Europe to the East, and bids 
fair to become an important station for the carrying trade. The ex- 
tensive harbour, admirably sheltered from every wind, has been en- 
tirely restored. The large steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Co., etc., are enabled to enter and lie at the quay itself. The N. 
arm of the harbour, which once bounded the town and extended far 
into the land , was productive of malaria , owing to its muddy con- 
dition, and is now dried up. The entrance to the harbour is 
divided into two channels by an island. In order to prevent 
the harbour from becoming filled with sand, the N. channel has 
recently been closed by means of a substantial bulwark of solid 
stone. The quarantine establishment and a small fort are situated 
on the island. The fort may be visited by boat, and a fine view 

208 Route 17. LECCE. From Foyyia 

''lijoyed from the top, and the trip may be extended to the break- 
water [in all I-I1/2 hi\, fare l»/ 2 fr-)- 

On a slight eminence by the quay rises a lofty unfluted 
column of Greek marble, with a highly ornate capital, repre- 
senting figures of gods. Near it are the remains of a second. 
The former bears an unfinished inscription, containing mention 
of a Byzantine governor named Spathalupus, by whom the town 
was rebuilt in the 10th cent., after its destruction by the Sara- 
cens. These columns are supposed once to have marked the 
termination of the Via Appia ; but it is more probable that they 
belonged to an honorary monument of the Byzantine period, like 
the column of Phocas at Rome. The other relics of antiquity are 

The Castello with its massive round towers , founded by the 
Emp. Frederick II., and strengthened by Charles V., is now a 
bagno for criminals condemned to the galleys. The remarkably 
picturesque remains of the circular church of 8. Giovanni , de- 
stroyed by an earthquake in the 11th cent. , with colonnades , and 
decorated with frescos, are still preserved, and will probably be 
converted into a museum. In the Cathedral the nuptials of Fre- 
derick II. with Isabella of Jerusalem were solemnised in 1*225. 
Several thousands of the participators in the Crusade of 1227 perish- 
ed here. Brindisi possesses a public library, presented by a Bishop 
de Leo, a native of the place. The environs are fertile, but malarious. 

From Brindisi to Taranto, about 48 M. A railway is under construc- 
tion and is open between (11 M.) Metagne and Taranto. A good road 
connects Brindisi and Mesagne. From Mesagne to Taranto, 36 M., railway 
in 2 hrs. — 6 M. Latiano. — 12 M. Oria, the ancient Una, from which 
the Poria family is said to derive its origin , a beautifully situated place 
with numerous palaces and a small museum (in the Biblioteca Munieipale). 
15 il. Francavilla Fontanel; 24 M. (trottaglia, so called from the numerous 
caves in the vicinity, many of them containing prehistoric remains. 28 M. 
Monteiasi-Monlemesola ; 36 M. Taranto (see p. 210). 

From Brindisi the train runs in 1 hr. 20 min. , by stations 
Tuturano, S. Pietro Vernotico, Squinzano, and Trepuzzi, to — 

170 M. Lecce (Alberyo delta Vittoria; Alb. delta Ferroma; 
Roma; Gran Caffe, Piazza S. Oronzo), the capital of a province 
and the seat of a bishop, with 26,000 inhab., situated in an un- 
attractive district, not far from the sea. 

The church of .S. Croce, with it^ fantastic rococo facade, in the 
Piazza dellaPrefettura, dates from the end of the 16th century. The 
Prefettura, an old Celestine convent, is of the same period; it con- 
tains a collection of vases (Attic*Amphora with Polynices and Eri- 
phyle ; vase with Achilles and Brisei's), terracottas, coins, and in- 
scriptions. Passing through the Prefettura we reach the Giardino 
Puhblico. Near the Porta di Rugge is the church of 5. Domenico, 
in the rococo style of the 17th cent. ; opposite is the Hospital, of 
the end of the ltitli century. In the Piazza del Vescovado are the 
Cathedral of S. Oron;o, built in the 17th cent., the Seminary, and 

to Brindisi. OTRANTO. 17. Route. 209 

the Vescovado. Outside the Porta di Napoli lies the Campo Santo, 
with the church of SS. Nicola e Cataldo , built by the Norman Count 
Tancred in 1180. Of the facade the central part alone, with the 
beautiful portal, is of ancient date. The corridor to the right of the 
church is entered by an interesting *Side-portal. — The town oc- 
cupies the site of the ancient Lupia. In the vicinity lay Rudim, 
where Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, was born, B.C. 239, 
now Rugge, a place of no importance. The poet, who died in 168, 
was patronised by the Scipios, in whose burial-place at Rome his 
remains were deposited. — On the coast lies the Castello di 8. 
Cattaldo, 7*/2 M. to the W., a favourite point for excursions. 

About 4'/2 M. to the S.E. of Lecce lies Cavallino, with a chateau in the 
rich rococo style of the 17th cent. ; the owner, the Duca Sigismondo Castro- 
mediano de Limtrarg, admits visitors on their sending their cards before- 

From Lecce a road (22 M. ; diligence daily in 3 hrs., fare 3 fr.) leads 
by the manufacturing town of Nardb , the ancient Neretum of the Sallen- 
tini, now an episcopal residence, or by Galatina, to — 

Gallipoli, a seaport, with 11,000 inhab., beautifully situated on a rocky 
island in the Gulf of Taranto, but connected with the mainland by a 
bridge. It was founded by the Lacedemonian Leucippus and the Taren- 
tines, and is the Urbs Graia Callipolis of the Roman geographer Mela, but 
is called Anxa by Pliny. The cathedral is a handsome building of the 17th 
century. The town was formerly celebrated for its oil, which was stored 
for long periods in subterranean cisterns, and thence drawn off for export- 
ation in a thoroughly clarified condition. Date-palms are frequently seen 
in the gardens of the handsome villas in the vicinity. — A steamer of 
the Florio-Rubattino Co. plies to Brindisi and Taranto once weekly. 

The train runs from Lecce to (29^2 M.) Otranto in 1 hr. 50min.; 
stations S. Cesario di Lecce , S. Donato , Oalugnano , Sternatia, 
Zollino, Corigliano; 194^2 M. Maglie; Bagnolo del Salento, Can- 
nole, and Oiurdignano. 

199'/2 M. Otranto (American Consul) , the Greek Hydrus, the 
Roman Hydruntum , a colony and municipium , often mentioned 
by the ancients as a point of embarcation for Apollonia in Epirus, 
is now an insignificant fishing town with 2000 inhab. , and the seat 
of an archbishop. The castle with its two towers was erected by 
Alphonso of Arragon and strengthened by Charles V. 

For a long period it continued subject to the Greek emperors, but in 
the 11th cent, was captured by the Normans, who under Robert Guiscard 
and Boemund conducted from this point the siege of Durazzo (Dyrrachium) 
in Albania. On 28th July, 1480, the then prosperous town was attacked 
by the Turkish fleet under Achmet Pasha, grand-vizier of Mohammed II., 
and entirely destroyed; 12,000 of the inhabitants were put to death, the 
remainder carried off as slaves, the churches razed to the ground, and the 
priests barbarously maltreated. The following year the Turks were 
expelled by the Duke of Calabria, afterwards Alphonso II., but the town 
never recovered from the effects of this cruel blow. 

The Cathedral still contains some columns from a temple of 
Mercury, which once stood near the village of S. Nicola, not far 
from the town. The ancient mosaics in the church were much 
injured by the hoofs of the Turkish horses which were stabled in 
the sacred edifice. In a chapel are preserved the bones of many 
of the ill-fated victims of the Turkish onslaught. 

Baedekku. 14 

21 Route 18. TARANTO. 

From the ramparts of the Castle the coast and mountains of 
Epirus are visible in clear weather. 

A road skirting the coast leads from Otranto to (31 M.) the Promon- 
tory of Leuca, by Muro (to the right), and Castro, situated on a rocky 
eminence by the sea, and therefore supposed to be the Castrum Minervac, 
that point of Italy which, according to Virgil, was first beheld by iEneas ; 
then through a succession of gardens and vineyards to Tricase, l'/ 2 M. 
from the sea, Alessano, Montesardo, Patit, and finally S. Maria di Leuca, 
a village on the site of the ancient Leuca, not far from the promontory 
of Leuca or Fiuisterra. This is the Promonlorium Iapygium, or Salenlimivt, 
of antiquity, the extreme point of Apulia, commanding a noble prospect. 
In fine weather the lofty Acroceraunian mountains of Albania may lie 
distinguished. We may return for a change by Path, Presicce, Uggcnto, the 
ancient Uxenlum, an episcopal residence, and Taviano, to Gallipoli (3151.). 

18. From Bari to Taranto and Metaponto. 

99 M. Railway to Taranto, 72 SI., in 4'/-,>hrs. (fares 13 fr., 9 fr. 10, 5 fr. 
20 c); thence to Metaponto, 27 M., in I1/2 hr. (fares 5, 3'/2, 2 fr.). 

Bari, see p. 204. — The line leads inland, towards the W., 
and gradually ascends. 7 M. Modugno, 9'/2 M. Bitetto. On a hill 
3 M. to the N. lies Palo del Colle, once surrounded by four villages 
( Auricarre, Marescia, Staglino, Battaglia), of which few traces are 
now left. 14 M. Orumo-Appula. 25 ^ M. Acquaviva delle Fonti ; 
about 3 M. to the W. is situated Cassano, with a stalactite grotto 
(key at the Sindaco's); fine view from the Capuchin monastery. 

34 M. Gioia del CoMe(14,000 inhab.). The line now enters the 
Term d'Otranto, the ancient Calabria, and traverses the low range 
of hills which form the S.E. spurs of the Apennines. The scenery 
becomes of a bleak character, the olive-trees disappearing and the 
fields often looking as if sown with fragments of limestone rocks. 
4'2M. S.BasilioMottola; a tunnel ; 48 M. Castellaneta. Beyond the 
next tunnel the line crosses three deep ravines ('gravine'). 53 M. 
Palagianello ; 58 M. Palagiano; 60y 2 M. Massafra, picturesquely 
situated on the slope of a 'gravina'. The train now approaches the 
sea. Fine view of the bay. 

72 M. TaraatO (comp. Map, p. 205). — Hotels, all rather dirty: 
Albergo Mouo al Leone di Venezia, in the inner town, R. 2-272 fr. ; 
Aluekgo Garibaldi, at the gate, '/< M - from the station, with view towards 
the JIare Piccolo, R. from 1 fr. 20 c; Albekgo di Roma (the antiquities 
offered for sale by the landlord are not genuine). — Furnished Rooms let 
by Hignora Augusta Barberi, BorgoNuovo, ViaCavour2, R. l'/^fr. (previous 
application by letter advisable). — "Trattoria del Moro al Leone di Vene- 
~i(i, charmingly situated on the coast, oysters 60 c. per dozen; Cafi Duilio, 
Strada Slaggiore. 

Cab from the station to the town, >/z M -> 6° c - — Tw0 omnibus-lines 
ply in the town: 1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 10 c. 

American Consul, Mr. II. 11. Leese. 

Taranto, a town with about 40,000 inhab., is situated in the N. 
anuli: of the Gulf of Taranto, on a rock which divides the deep 
inlet lie re into the Marc Pirrnln and Mare Grande and which is 
made an island by the canal at Porta di Lecee. The Mare (Jrande 
is bounded by tlie ('apt, S. Vitn on the S.K. The ebb and How of 

TARANTO. 18. Route. 211 

the tide is distinctly visible under the bridges which connect the 
island with the mainland, one of the few places on the Mediter- 
ranean where it is perceptible. The harbour is protected by 
two flat islands situated in front of it, the Choerades of anti- 
quity, now S. Paolo (the smaller), occupied by a fort, and S. 
Pietro. The entrance to the harbour is between S. Vito and S. 
Pietro, on each of which a lighthouse is situated. Towards the 
N.W. the passage is navigable for small boats only. 

Tarentum, or Taras, as it was called in Greek, founded to the W. of 
the mouth of the Galsesus by Spartan Parthenians under the guidance of 
Phalanthus, B. C. 707, gradually extended its sway over the territory of 
the Iapygee, which was peculiarly suited for agriculture and sheep-farm- 
ing. (The sheep of this district wore coverings to protect their fleeces ; 
comp. Horace, Carm. II. 6, 'ovibus pellitis Galesi'). Excellent purple- 
mussels were also found here, so that the twin industries of weaving 
and dying sprang up side by side; and this town seems also to have fur- 
nished the whole of Apulia with pottery. Thus through its strong fleet, 
its extensive commerce and fisheries, its agriculture and manufactures, 
Tarentum became the most opulent and powerful city of Magna Graecia. 
The coins of the ancient Tarentum are remarkable for their beauty. 
In the 4th cent. B. C. the city attained the zenith of its prosperity, 
under the guidance of Archytas , the mathematician ; but at the same 
time its inhabitants had become notorious for their wantonness. In 
the war against the Lucanians Tarentum summoned to its aid foreign 
princes from Sparta and Epirus, and in its struggle with Rome it was 
aided by Pyrrhvs (281), whose general Milo, however, betrayed the city 
into the hands of the enemy. In the Second Punic War the town es- 
poused the cause of Hannibal, but was conquered in 209 by the Romans, 
who plundered it, carried off its treasures of art, and sold 30,000 of the 
citizens as slaves. In the time of Augustus Tarentum, like Naples and 
Reggio, was still essentially a Greek town, and its trade and industry 
were still flourishing ('ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes angulus ridet', Hor. 
Carm. II. C). Subsequently it became quite Romanized. After the reign 
of Justinian the town, with the rest of S. Italy, belonged to the Byzant- 
ine empire. In 927 it was entirely destroyed by the Saracens, but in 967 
it was rebuilt by Nicephorus Phocas, in consequence of which Greek once 
more became the common dialect. . In 10G3 Robert Guiscard took the 
town and bestowed it on his son Boemund. At a later period Frederick 
II. of Hohenstaufen built the castle of Rocca Imperiale. Philip, son of 
Charles II. of Anjou, was made prince of Taranto in 1301, 

The modern town, occupying the site of the Acropolis of the 
ancient city, which extended far towards the S. E., is the seat of 
an archbishop , a sub-prefect , and other dignitaries , and carries 
on a considerable traffic in oil, oats, and wheat. Near the station 
are large bonded warehouses, the largest belonging to the Brothers 
Cacace, who also carry on manufactures. 

The population is densely packed in confined houses and nar- 
row streets. The town is intersected lengthwise by three streets. 
The Mare Piccolo is skirted by the Strada Oaribaldi, inhabited 
chiefly by fishermen , whose language is still strongly tinctured 
with Greek and is often unintelligible to the other Tarentines. 
This street is connected by a number of lanes with the narrow 
Strada Maggiore, or main street, the chief business thoroughfare, 
which under various names intersects the town from N.W. to S.E. 
The Strada Vittorio Emanuele, skirting the coast, affords a view 


212 Route 18. TARANTO. 

of the bay and the mountains of Calabria, and forms a pleasant 
evening promenade. 

The now entirely modernised Cathedral of S. Cataldo was 
founded in the 11th cent. It contains a few Byzantine capitals. 
The chapel of the saint (an Irishman), adjoining the choir on the 
right, is sumptuously decorated. The crypt is closed. The tower 
commands a fine view. • — The Castle, at the S. end of the town, 
and the other fortifications date from the time of Ferdinand of 
Arragon and Philip II. of Spain. 

The relics of the celebrated ancient city are scanty. The most 
important is a Doric Temple, discovered by Prof. Viola, of which 
two incomplete columns may be seen in the court of the Congrega 
della Pieta (Strada Maggiore), and some fragments of the stylobate 
in the cellar. To judge from the heavy proportions of the columns 
and the narrow intercolumniation, this must rank with the temple 
of Ortygia (p. 358) as one of the oldest extant examples of the 
Doric style. — Over the bridge to the N. of the Porta di Napoli 
runs a Roman aqueduct, 9 M. long, known as II Triglio. 

The S.E. gate of the town is named the Porta di Lecce. The 
canal which here unites the Mare Piccolo with the Gulf of Taranto 
is 1\)i) ft. wide, and admits war-ships of the largest size. It is 
crossed by an iron swing-bridge. 

On the mainland towards the S.E., where the Tarentum of an- 
tiquity was situated, a new quarter, the Borgo Nuovo, is now 
springing up. A Museum (Director, Prof. Luigi Viola) has recently 
been fitted up in the former convent of S. Pasquale, in the market- 
place, in which are collected the antiquities unearthed in the course 
nf building operations and excavations in the neighbourhood. 

Among the contents is pottery, some of rude workmanship and some 
ornamented with geometric designs, dating from the pre-Grecian inhabi- 
tants. The Corinthian vases and their imitations date from the Doric 
colonists. — The development of the Hellenistic plastic art from the 
severe; style of the Oth cent. B.C. to the more florid taste of the 3rd cent. 
B.C. is illustrated in numerous votive-statues and reliefs. — Among the 
more noteworthy objects are a few jewels, glass and ivory articles, two 
fine marble ""Heads': Persephone 'or Aphrodite, from the end of the 0th 
cent., and Hercules, from the 3rd cent. B.C.; and Reliefs of marine and 
land fights between Greeks and barbarians, from the Alexandrian period. 

Near the hospital are the remains of the Amphitheatre, with 
cellars. Beside the road to S. Lucia, near the sea, are large heaps 
of the purple-yielding mussel shells, dating from antiquity. In 
this neighbourhood is the Villa Beaumont-Bonelti (gardener '/a f r - 1i 
with a good view, and farther on, 3 / 4 M. from Taranto, stands the 
Villa Pepe, once the property of the celebrated Archbishop Capece- 
latro (d. 181(5 ), who placed on it the inscription — 'Si rursus heic 
peccasset Adam, forsitau Dens ignosccret', and afterwards that of 
(Jeneral l'epe. Although in a dilapidated condition, it still merits 
a visit, and is thus described by an old writer: — 

This is nne nf the most charming spots in file neighbourhood. The 

TARANTO. 18. Route. 213 

Ware Piccolo looks like a broad lake. Gentle slopes, covered with olive- 
groves, rise in every direction. A fine view of Taranto and its towers, 
perched on a rock, is enjoyed hence, and still higher rise two magnificent 
palm-trees, the finest of which stands in the courtyard of the archiepiscopal 
residence. Gardens with oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, and pomegranates 
slope down from the town to the water's edge, filling the air with their 
delicious fragrance 1 . 

From this point we obtain a survey of the extensive naval 
buildings, including the Arsenal, with docks 218 yds. long and 
40 yds. broad, and the jlfare Piccolo. The last is divided into two 
halves by the promontory II Pizzone, and the Punta della Penna. 
Excellent fish abound in this bay. They enter with the tide under 
the S. bridge, and are netted at night in great numbers. There 
are no fewer than 93 different species, and they are largely ex- 
ported in every direction. Shell -fish are also bred here in vast 
numbers (oysters and others called cozze , the best being the coc- 
cioli). The situation of the beds is indicated by stakes protrud- 
ing from the water. The traveller may visit them by boat f 1 V2 ft- 
per hr.), and enjoy his oysters fresh from the sea (about 50 0. per 
doz. is sufficient recompense ; bread should be brought). 

The climate of Taranto is somewhat cold in winter, and not 
unbearably hot in summer. The honey and fruit of the neigh- 
bourhood are in high repute, as they were in ancient times. The 
date-palm also bears fruit here, but it seldom ripens thoroughly. 

In the district between Taranto, Brindisi , and Otranto the venomous 
lardnlola, or tarantella-spider occurs. Its bite is said by the natives to 
cause convulsions and even madness, for which evils music and dancing 
are supposed to be effectual remedies. The latter belief gave rise to the 
curious tarantella-dancing mania, which was epidemic in S. Italy in the 
15th-17th centuries. 

From Taranto to Lecce (p. 208) diligence daily in 9 hrs., via. S. 
Giorgio, Sava, Manduria (an old town with 9500 inhab.) , and Campi- 
Balentino. Scenery unattractive. 

From Taranto to Brindisi, see p, 208. 

The railway from Taranto to Metaponto traverses a flat and 
monotonous district on the coast. The once fertile country is now 
very inefficiently cultivated (comp . p . 21 7). The train crosses several 
fiumare (p. 217). — 93 M. Oinosa. — 99 M. Metaponto, p. 216. 

19. From (Naples) Eboli to Metaponto and Reggio. 

386 M. Railway (express) in 17 hrs. ; fares 70 fr. 40, 49 fr. 30, 28 fr. 
20 c. — From Naples to Reggio, 436 M., express-train in 21 hrs. (79 fr. 
45, 55 fr. 65c). — Through-tickets to Messina, Catania, and other places 
in Sicily include transport from the railway-station to the quay at Reggio 
and the steamer-fare to Messina. — The traveller should supply himself 
with refreshments for this journey, as the railway-restaurants are poor 
and few in number. 

Eboli, see p. 171. — The railway runs hence towards the E. 
at the foot of the hills. On the right flows the broad and turbulent 
Sele, beyond which rises the Monte di Postiglione, the Alburnus of 
the ancients, described by Virgil as 'green with holm-oaks'. The 
line, which is here scaling the main chain of the Apennines, passes 

214 Route 19. PERTOSA. From Naples 

through no loss than thirty-six tunnels in the limestone rock. Scat- 
tered groves of oaks and olive-trees are seen at intervals. 4 1 /2 M. 
Campagna ; 12 M. Contursi; the village lies at some distance to the 
left. The train now follows for a short time the course of the 
Tanagro or Negro, the Tanager of the ancients. 15</ 2 M. Sicignano; 
20y 2 M. Buccino, a town with 6500 inhab., on the hill. 21 M. 
Ponte S. Cono. 

From Ponte S. Cono to Spezzano (Metaponlo, Cosenza), 118 31., high- 
road, traversed by a 'Vettura Corriera' and by diligences ('Giornaliera'). 
— About 3 M. from Ponte S. Cono we cross the Negro, and reach the 
cross-roads Bivio di Aulelta (Locanda della Posta). The poor village of 
Auletta (3000 inhab.) lies on a hill to the left. The dilapidated church 
was destroyed by the appalling earthquake of Dec. 12th, 1857, through 
the effects of which, direct and indirect (exposure, hunger, etc.), 40,000 
people perished in the district of Sala and the valley of Uiano alone. 

Beyond Auletta lies the village of Pertosa, which was partly de- 
stroyed in 1857. Below the village is a large cavern, dedicated to St. 
Michael, whence, after a subterranean course of l'/s M., the Negro pre- 
cipitates itself into a gorge. Beyond Pertosa the road crosses a deep ra- 
vine , through which an arm of the Negro flows , by II Ponte di Cam- 
pestrino, a viaduct of seven arches, and then ascends the mountain in 
zigzags. A little way beyond the culminating point a charming view is 
disclosed of the valley of Diano, to the S., into which the road now 
descends. On entering it, we leave the beautifully situated Polla, the 
ancient Forum Popilii, which was almost entirely destroyed in 1857, to 
the right. The valley, 15 M. in length, 3 M. in "width, is traversed by 
the Negro , here named the Calore , and is remarkable for its fertility. 
Numerous villages are situated on the heights on both sides. The road 
ascends more rapidly. On the left lies Atena , the ancient Atina in Lu- 
cania, with remains of an amphitheatre, walls, and towers, but almost 
entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1857. Then to the left Sala 
(Albergo in the Piazza, tolerable), the seat of a sub-prefect, picturesquely 
situated on a height. On an isolated eminence, nearly opposite, on the 
other bank of the river, which is crossed by the Ponte di Silla , an an- 
cient Roman bridge, rises the small town ofDiano, the ancient Tegianum, 
whence the valley derives its name. To the left, 22 M. from Ponte S. 
Cono, lies Padula, below which are the ruins of the Certosa di S. Lorenzo. 

[From Sala and Padula beautiful routes (formerly not unattended with 
danger from brigands) cross the Monte S. Elia to the picturesque Valley of 
Marsico, which is watered by the Agri. The chief place is Marsico Nuovo, 
a town with 12,000 inhab. in the upper part of the valley. After a ride 
of 4-5 hrs. across the fertile plain the traveller reaches Saponara, situated 
on a steep hill, at the foot of which, in the Agri valley, once lay the an- 
cient Grvmentum. The ruins are insignificant, but a rich treasure of vases, 
inscriptions, and gems has been found among them.] 

At Casalnuovo the ascent begins, .ind the road at length crosses the 
rivulet Trecchina to Lagonegro, a small town with 4000 inhab., in a wild 
situation, amidst lofty mountains. The French gained a victory over the 
Neapolitans here in 1806, after which they committed the most savage 
excesses. The road now winds through dark and profound ravines, pass- 
ing to the left of the Lrtgo di Serino , the ancient Lacus Niger, in which 
the Sin no, the fiiris of the ancients, takes its rise. The next village, Lau- 
ria, lies at the base of a lofty mountain, opposite the huge Monte Sirino, 
and is surrounded by vineyards. Then Castelluccio, on an eminence above 
a branch of the Lao, the ancient Laos, environed by dense woods. 

73 M. Rotonda, with 5000 inhabitants. We now traverse the long and 
desolate table-land of f'ampo Tenese, where the Neapolitans fled before the 
French general Rcgnier in 18011. A path descends from this point,and passes 
through the narrow valley at the base of Monti: Polliiio (7326 ft.), on the W. 
side of which Morano, the ancient AJuranum, is picturesquely situated. 

to Regyio. POTENZA. 19. Route. 215 

87 M. Castrovillari, with 10,000 inhiib., on a hill, surrounded by lofty 
mountains, with an ancient Norman castle, is next reached. 

Beyond Castrovillari the high-road leads through a well -cultivated 
district, passing Cammarata, to Spezzano , where we reach the railway 
from Buffaloria to Cosenza mentioned at p. 222. 

The train soon reaches the valley of the Platano, which receives 
several small affluents on the left. At (25 M.) Romagnano the 
country becomes bleak, and covered with broom. 29 M. Bal- 
vano. 33^2 M. Bella- Muro, the station for the village of Bella 
and the town of Muro'Lucano (8000 inhab.) , both of which lie 
about 6 M. to the N. Near (35 M.) Baragiano the train crosses the 
Platano, which it then quits. — - 43 M. Picerno, with 6000 inhab., 
who make oil, wine, and silk. In the vicinity are some marble 
quarries. — 46'/2 M. Tito, at the top of the pass, with an ex- 
tensive view, stretching on the S. to Monte Pollino (p. 218), snow- 
covered even in June. The village (5000 inhab.) lies to the right. 

53^2 M. Poteuza (Ai6. #■ Rist. Lombardo, R. with two beds 
3 fr., good cuisine, omnibus to the station l l / t fr. ; Croce di Savoia, 
dirty; * Cafe Pergola, opposite the Alb. Lombardo; Rail. Restau- 
rant, with bedrooms), with 20,300 inhab., the capital of the pro- 
vince of the same name , which forms part of the old Basilicata , a 
district nearly corresponding with the ancient Lucania. The town 
lies on an eminence above~the Basento, which rises on the mountain 
Ariosa not far from this , and falls into the Gulf of Taranto near 
the ruins of Metapontum. Fine view from the piazza in front of 
the Cappella di S. Gerardo. — The ancient Potentia, destroyed by 
Frederick II. and again by Charles of Anjou, lay lower down in 
the plain , at the spot now called La Murata, where coins and in- 
scriptions have frequently been found. Remains of various ancient 
towns have been discovered near Potenza. Sig. Lacava, director of 
the Banca di Napoli, is well acquainted with the environs, and 
exceedingly courteous in imparting his information. 

The Earthquake of 1857, which wrecked a number of towns and 
villages in the Basilicata and occasioned a loss of upwards of 32,000 lives, 
was attended here with the most terrible consequences. The greater part 
of the town, including the Lyceum, fell, and numerous lives were lost. In 
consequence of wounds alone 4000 persons underwent amputations. The 
result in thirty or forty neighbouring villages was not less disastrous. 
This stupendous convulsion took place in a circular course in three 
distinct shocks, of which the second was the most violent. A line drawn 
from Monte Vulture to the volcano of Stromboli intersects the places 
which suffered most; thus Auletta, Atena, Polla, Sala, Padula, Saponava, 
Sapri and many other villages were entirely destroyed. In the direction 
of Mt. Vesuvius, towards Naples and Salerno to the W. , the concussions 
were much more violent than in the opposite direction. The loss of life 
was not less serious than that occasioned by the earthquake of 1783 in 
Calabria. The shocks recurred in March and April 1858. 

From Potenza to Acerenza, an interesting excursion : diligence to 
Pietragalla (in 3 hrs., fare 2 fr.), and a walk of 1 hr. thence. Acerenza 
("Locanda in the old castle), the Acherontia of Horace (comp. p. 198), 
famed for its wine, occupies a lofty and beautiful situation. The crypt 
of the cathedral contains four ancient columns of coloured marble and 
pedestals with mediaeval reliefs. 

216 Route 19. METAPONTO. From Naples 

Fkom Potenza to Melfi (p. 197; about 37 II. ; hillv road) a diligence 
runs in 9-10 hrs. (fare 6fr.), via Avigliano and Atella. 

Fkom Potenza to Grumo (p. 210), about 75 M., local communication 
only. The road leads by Montepeloso, Gravina, with a collegiate church 
and an old chateau of the Dukes of Gravina, and Altamura, with an old 
Norman cathedral. 

The train now follows the picturesque valley of the Basento, 
passing through numerous tunnels. The stations are generally at a 
considerable distance from the towns and villages, with which there 
is often no regular communication. 58 M. Vaglio ; the village lies 
to the left of the railway. 64 M. Brindisi-Montagna ; 67 M. Tri- 
vigno. 68 M. Albano ; the town of Albano di Lucania is situated 
on a hill to the N. The train now crosses the Camastra, the chief 
affluent of the Basento; fine mountains to the right. 72 'A M. Cmn- 
pomaggiore, to the left, romantic mountain scenery. 80 M. Cal- 
ciano, the station for Tricarico, a town to the N., the seat of a 
bishop, with 6000 inhabitants. f&^M. Orassano-Oaraguso (small 
restaurant) ; 88 M. Salnndra-Grottole. Grassano and Grottole lie 
considerably to the N. , Garaguso and Salandra to the S. of the rail- 
way. Salandra, with its oastle , is situated on the Salandrella, an 
affluent of the Cavone, which flows into the Gulf of Taranto. — 
96 M. Ferrandina, 104 M. Pisticci ; the two small towns are at 
some distance to the S. Farther on the train crosses the Basento, 
which descends in windings to the sea. 112 M. Bernalda, a town 
of 7000 inhab., with extensive fields of saffron and cotton. 

120 M. Metaponto [Station Inn, R. l 1 / 2 -3fr. ; Bail. Restau- 
rant, tolerable , with the castle of Torremare, the junction of the 
railway to Taranto and Bari (R. 18). 

About 1 M. to the N.W. of the station lie the ruins of a Doric Temple, 
dedicated to Apollo Lyceus, and called by the peasants Chiesa di Sansone ; 
the columns are all encased in stucco. — About 3 M. to the N.E. (horse 
2-2 V2 fr.) is another ancient Greek "Temple in the Doric style, called Le 
Tavole Paladine by the peasantry, who believe each pillar to bave been the 
seat of a Saracen chieftain. Fifteen columns of the peristyle (ten on the N., 
five on the S. side) are still standing. The limestone of which they consist is 
now much disintegrated. This temple marks the site of the celebrated ancient 
Greek city of Metapontum. Pythagoras died here, B.C. 497, in his 90th year, 
but his philosophy long survived him in the principal towns of Magna 
Graecia, especially rt Metapontum itself, Tarentum, and Croton. When 
Alexander of Epirus came to Italy in B.C. 332, Metapontum allied itself 
with him, and in the Second Punic War it took the part of Hannibal. 
Its enmity to Rome on the latter occasion, however, caused its downfall, 
and at the time of Pausanias, in the 2nd cent, after Christ, it was a mere 
heap of ruins. — We may now return by the right bank of the Bradano. 
The neighbouring farm-houses (massarie), such as the Massaria Sansvnr, 
are built of massive blocks from the ancient walls of the town. On the 
coast are traces of a harbour now filled with sand. To the S.W. arc 
rows of tombs which afford an idea of the great extent of the town. 

The proceeds of the latest excavations are temporarily exhibited in 
the red house behind the railway-station. They include a dedicatory in- 
scription to Apollo Lyceus, which revealed (he purpose of the temple; a 
fragment of a metope, some polychrome terracotta mouldings , and archi- 
tectural fragments from the same temple; a boar, in the archaic style, 
carved in sheet-bronze, etc. 

The railway crosses the Basento and skirts the Gulf of Taren- 

to Reyyio. 


19. Route. 217 

tum. The soil is very fertile, but miserably cultivated. Although 
quite capable of yielding two crops annually with proper manage- 


ment, it is allowed, in accordance with the old-fashioned system 
prevalent here, to lie fallow for two years after each crop. In the 
marshy districts near Metaponto and at other parts of the line the 
railway company has surrounded the stations and many of the 
pointsmen's and signalmen's huts with plantations of the Eucalyp- 
tus Globulus, which have already proved extremely beneficial in 
counteracting the malarious influences of the district. The train 
crosses several fiumare, or mountain-torrents, which were confined 
within embankments on the construction of the railway. The 
numerous watch-towers are a memento of the unsafe condition of 
the coast during the middle ages , which is also the reason of the 
distance of the settlements from the sea. 

124!/ 2 M. S. Basilio Pisticci, beyond which the train crosses the 
Cavone. 129 l / 2 M. Scamano Montalbano. We next cross the Agri, 
the ancient Aciris. 133 M. Policoro, near which lay the Greek town 
of Heraclea (founded by the Tarentines in 432), where Pyrrhus 
with the aid of his elephants gained his first victory over the Ro- 
mans, B.C. 280. At Luce, in the vicinity, the celebrated bronze 
Tabula Heracleensis (Lex Julia Municipalis) , now in the Museum 
at Naples (p. 64), was discovered in 1753. 

The train traverses a wood (Pantano di Policoro) , full of the 

218 Route 19. COTRONE. From Naples 

most luxuriant vegetation (myrtles , oleanders , etc.) , and near 
(139y 2 M.) Nova Siri crosses the river Sinno , the ancient Siris. 
The line now approaches the sea. 

142 M. Rocca Imperiale. The country becomes hilly. 146 M. 
Monte Giordano; 150 M. Roseto. To the left, on the coast, is a 
curious ruin. — The finest part of the line is between Koseto and 
Rossano. It commands a beautiful view of the precipitous Monte 
Pollino (7852 ft.) never free from snow except in summer, and of 
the broad valley of the Crati, at the head of which rise the pine- 
clad Sila mountains (p. 223). — 154 M. Amendolara ; 160 M. Tre- 
bisacce (a good echo at the station); 166 M. Torre Cerchiara. 

169 M. Buffaloria (Rail. Restaur.), whence the line mentioned 
at p. 222 diverges to Cosenza. 

The train now crosses the Crati, on which the wealthy and lux- 
urious Sybaris, founded B.C. 720 by Achaeans and Trcezenians, and 
destroyed in 510 by the Crotonians , is said to have been situated. 

About 6 M. from this point, near Terranovu, are the scanty ruins of 
Thurii, which was founded by the Sybarites after the destruction of their 
city. In 443 the Athenians sent a colony thither, and with it the historian 
Herodotus. Owing to the wise legislation of Charondas, Thurii soon at- 
tained to great prosperity. It formed a league with the Romans in '282, 
and was defended by C. Fabricius against the attacks of the Lucanians, 
but it was afterwards plundered by Hannibal. In 193 it received a Roman 
colony, and the new name of Gopiae, but it rapidly declined, and was at 
length entirely deserted. 

178M. Stat. Corigliano Calabro. The town, with 11,000 in- 
hab., lies on a height, 4 M. from the station. 

I80Y2 M. Stat. Rossano. The town (Albergo & Trattoria Mila- 
nese , unpretending), with 18,000 inhab., situated on a hill, and 
possessing quarries of marble and alabaster, is 5 M. distant. This 
was the birthplace of St. Nilus. The archiepiscopal library contains 
a valuable 5th cent. MS. of the Gospels, engrossed on purple vellum 
and copiously illustrated. 

The train runs close to the sea through a mountainous district, 
and crosses the Trionto. Stations Mirto Crosia, S. Qiacomo, Pietra- 
paola, Campana. 204^2 M. Cariati (Albergo di Sibari, miserable). 
Farther on, the train traverses pleasant plantations of olives, vines, 
and figs. Stat. Crucoli, Cirb, Torre Melissa, and Strongoli. This 
last, a squalid village with 3000 inhab., situated on a bold emin- 
ence 4 M. from the station, and reached by a bad road, was the 
ancient Poetelia, founded according to tradition by Philoctetes, and 
besieged by Hannibal after the battle of Canna;. 

'239 M. Cotrone (Albergo delta Concordia, Alb. Valente, both at 
the entrance to the town, with tolerable trattorie; carriage from the 
station ] /-)it.~), a thriving little seaport with 9700 inhab., situated on 
a promontory, was in ancient times the famous Achaian colony of 
<'roton, founded B.C. 710, which is said to have been once so 
populous and powerful as to be able in 510 to send an army of 
100,000 men into the held against Sybaris. After its great victory 

to Beggio. CATANZARO. 19. Route. 219 

on that occasion, however, Croton declined ; not long afterwards 
the citizens were defeated by the Locrians on the river Sagras, and 
in 299 the town fell into the hands of Agathocles of Syracuse. 
During the height of the prosperity of the city, Pythagoras, who 
had been banished from Samos by the tyrant Polycrates, and was 
then in his 40th year, established himself at Croton. He attracted 
a band of disciples and founded his brotherhood here, B.C. 450, 
but was at length banished in consequence of the jealousy of the 
citizens. On the way to the station are large store- houses for the 
fruit which is exported hence in considerable quantities. A visit 
should be paid to the old Castle, dating from the reign of Charles V., 
the highest tower of which commands a fine view (admission by 
applying to an officer or sergeant). — A pleasant walk may be 
taken through the Strada Margherita to the harbour. 

Oranges and olives thrive admirably in the environs, and are 
largely exported. Liquorice is also a staple product. An intro- 
duction to a member of the Baracco family, which is all-powerful 
in this neighbourhood , will be found of great service (sometimes 
obtainable through the consuls at Naples). 

About 7 M. to the S.E. is the Capo delle Colonne, or Capo Nao, alow 
promontory, much exposed to the wind. (Route to it by land 2>/2 hrs., 
very rough; boat 6-10 fr.) As the steamer rounds this cape, the eye is 
arrested by a solitary column, rising conspicuously on massive substruc- 
tures above the few modern buildings of the place. This is now the sole 
relic of the Temple of Hera of the Lacinian Promontory , once the most 
revered divinity on the whole of the Gulf of Tarentum. The worship of 
Hera has been replaced by that of the Madonna del Capo, to whose church, 
close to the temple, a number of young girls from Cotrone ('le verginelle') 
go every Saturday in procession, with bare feet. To the S.W. of this 
promontory are three others , the Capo delle Cimiti, the Capo Rizzuto, and 
the Capo Cattella. 

Beyond Cotrone the train quits the coast, and traverses a hilly 
district, with little trace of cultivation. Near (249 M.) Cutro it 
passes through a long tunnel. Stations Isola-Capo-Rizzuto, Rocca- 
bemarda, Botricello, Cropani, Simmeri. 

276 M. Catanzaro - Marina ; about f/g M. from the station is 
La Rocceletta, the ruins of the mediaeval abbey of Roccella. — 
From the Marina a branch-line (5 l /i M. in 25 Min., fares, 1 fr. 5, 
75, 50 c.) runs via, S. Maria to Sala, the station for the loftily sit- 
uated town of Catanzaro. 

Catanzaro. — Hotels. Albeego Centrale, tolerable; Albebgo Serea- 
valle. — Trattoria Centrale , in the Piazza. Farther along the Corso, 
Cafi del Oenio. 

Diligence at 6 p.m. to Tiriolo (p. 224) in connection with the diligences 
to Cosenza and Reggio. — Mule 3-5 fr. a day. 

Catanzaro, with 28,600 inhab. (including the suburbs), the 
capital of the province of the same name, prettily situated 8 M. 
from the sea, possesses numerous velvet and silk manufactories, and 
luxuriant olive-groves. Adjoining the law-courts is a small Pro- 
vincial Museum, containing coins, vases, and other antiquities from 
the Greek settlements of the district (fine *Helmet from Tiriolo ; 

220 Route 19. SQUILLACE. From Naples 

statuette of jEsculapius; among the pictures, a Lucretia by a Ve- 
netian master, and a Madonna by Antonello Saliba, 1508). The 
Cathedral contains a Madonna with S. Domenico, a good Venetian 
picture of the 16th cent. Fine views are obtained from the cam- 
panile and from the ViaBellavista (N. side of the town). The Castle 
was built by Robert Guiscard. The climate is cool in summer, and 
snow often lies in winter. Many wealthy families reside here. The 
handsome Calabrian costume is still frequently seen here, parti- 
cularly on Sundays. Catanzaro suffered severely by the earthquake 
of 1783. Numerous pleasant excursions may be made hence. 

Beyond Catanzaro the line skirts the coast and passes through 
several promontories by means of tunnels. 

279 M. Squillace, the ancient Scylaceum, is perched on an al- 
most inaccessible rock, i l / 2 M. from the station and nearly opposite 
the lofty Monte Moscia, which here projects into the sea ; it is not 
visible from the railway. 

Cassiodorus , the private secretary of Theodoric the Great , was born 
at Scylaceum , and after the death of his master retired to his native 
place, where he founded a monastery , wrote a number of learned works, 
and died in 575 at the age of nearly a hundred. — To the N. of Squillace 
the Emp. Otho II. was defeated in July, 982, by the Arabs, who had 
crossed over from Sicily. He himself escaped almost by a miracle, 
and succeeded in reaching Rossano, where he met his consort Theophano. 
Otho did not long survive this reverse; he died at Rome in December, 
983, and was interred in the old church of St. Peter. 

The train passes through the promontory by means of two tunnels. 
Stations Montauro, Soverato, San Sostene, SanV Andrea, Badolato, 
Santa Caterina, Monasterace- Stilo (near which are iron-works), 
Riace. 312*/2 M. Caulonia. The river Alaro is supposed to be the 
Sagras of antiquity, where an army of 130,000 Crotonians is said to 
have been utterly routed by 10,000 Locrians. On this river lies 
Castelvetere, on the site of the ancient Achaean Caulonia, where 
Pythagoras sought refuge after his expulsion from Croton. 

317 M. Roecella Ionica, with 6500 inhab. ; the old town, with 
its ruined castle , is picturesquely situated on a rock overhanging 
the sea. — Near the station of (321 M.) Oioiosa is a small ancient 
amphitheatre. From this point the magnificent scenery resembles 
that of Greece. 324 M. Siderno. 

327 M. Gerace. The town, with 9600 inhab., and a cathedral, 
originally Romanesque, in which the antique columns are still 
extant, lies on the slope of a lofty spur of the Apennines, having 
risen from the ruins of Locroi Epizephyrioi , the once celebrated 
colony of the Locrians, founded B.C. 683, provided with a salutary 
code of laws by Zaleucus (664), and extolled by Pindar and De- 
mosthenes for its wealth and love of art. The ruins of the ancient 
city near Torre di Gerace are now concealed by an orange garden. 

The I'asso del Men-ante, a mountain path, leads from Gerace through 
beautiful woods, and over the lolly Aspromonte , to Casalnuovo (p. 214). 
Thence by a post-road to Gioia (p. 225) or to Seminara (p. 226), about 37 M. 
The top of the pass commands a delightful view of the sea in both direc- 

to Reggio. REGGIO. 79. Route. 221 

tions. In descending , we overlook the Bay of Gioia as far as the Lipari 

Stations: Ardore, Bovalino,Bianconuovo. Two tunnels. 348 M. 
Brancaleone. The line now skirts the Capo Spartivento, the Pro- 
montorium Herculis of antiquity, the S.E. extremity of Calabria 
(station, 352 M.). Tunnel. 356 M. Palizzi. The train turns towards 
the W- and then nearly to the N. From this point to Pellaro the 
railway is hounded on the right by barren rocks and sand-hills, 
intersected now and again by the stony beds of the mountain tor- 
rents, dry in summer and often overgrown with oleanders. Tunnel. 
Then : 359i/ 2 M. Bova; 362 M. Amendolea; 367 M. Melito. 

372 J /2 M. Saline. The train affords a view of the coast and 
mountains of Sicily, and rounds the Capo dell' Armi, the Promon- 
torium Leucopetrae, which was in ancient times regarded as the 
termination of the Apennines. Cicero landed here in B.C. 44, 
after the murder of Caesar, having been compelled by adverse winds 
to turn back from his voyage to Greece , and he was then per- 
suaded by citizens of Rhegium to go to Velia, where he met Brutus. 

376 M. Lazzaro; 380 M. Pellaro; 383y 2 M. S. Gregorio. 

386 M. Reggio. — There are two Railway Stations here : Reggio 
Ciitit, for local traffic, and Reggio Porto, for through-passengers to or from 

Hotels. »Albekgo Vittoria, B., L., & A. 3>/2, B. »/ t , lunch 2'/2, D. 4 fr. ; 
Alb. Centbale; Colomba; Genio; Capeeka, all these in the Corso Gari- 
baldi. — Novaea, in the Strada Plebiscite; Teinaceia, on the Marina. 
The larger hotels have also good trattorie. — Cafes : Spinelli, in the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele; Giordano, Corso Garibaldi. 

Carriages (stand in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele), per drive 80 c, at 
night 1 fr. 20 c. ; per hr. l>/ 2 fr., at night 2 fr. 20 c. 

Steamer to Messina at 7.30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. daily, 2 fr. ; embarcation 
and landing 50 c. (bargaining necessary) ; the passage may also be made 
in one of the Naples mail-steamers, which cross several times weekly. 

Reggio, called Reggio di Calabria to distinguish it from Reggio 
nell' Emilia, is the capital of the province of the same name, and 
an archiepiscopal residence , with 16,000, or with the surrounding 
villages, 40,000 inhabitants. Known in antiquity as Rhegium, it was 
originally a Eubcean colony, and was peopled in B.C. 723 by fugitive 
Messenians. Rhegium soon rose to prosperity, but it also early 
suffered the hardships of war. In 387 B. C. the town was captured 
and destroyed by Dionysius of Syracuse, and in 270 B. C. by the 
Romans. In the middle ages it suffered the same fate, successively 
at the hands of Totila the Goth in 549, the Saracens in 918, the 
Pisans in 1005, Robert Guiscard and Frederick Barbarossa, both in 
1060, and the Turks in 1552 and 1597. The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by the great earthquake of 1783, and it there- 
fore now presents a modern appearance, with its broad and hand- 
some streets extending from the sea to the beautiful hills in the 
rear, which are studded with numerous and handsome villas. 

The Cathedral, a spacious basilica with pillars, dates from the 
17th cent. ; the Cappella del Sacramento, to the left of the high- 
altar, is richly adorned with coloured marble. On the facade is a 

222 Route 20. REGGIO. From Buffuloria 

quotation from the Acts of the Apostles. — In the small piazza to 
the right, at the back of the cathedral, is the Museo Comunale 
(Director, Canon de Lorenzo ; inspector , Giuseppe Vazzano) con- 
taining fine terracottas, lamps, statuettes, and vases (including a 
few very antique specimens and native examples with curious or- 
namentation); a relief of a woman dancing, of the 6th. cent. B. C, 
with its architectural framework painted Mack, red, and yellow; 
similar fragments of a later date, with elegant ornamentation on a 
bright red ground; mosaics, small bronzes, coins, inscriptions, etc. — 
Above the cathedral rises the Castello. 

In the piazza adjoining the railway station is a statue of Gari- 
baldi. — A military band often plays in the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele, which is embellished with a statue of Italia. — The 
Strada Reggio Campi, which runs along the heights behind the 
town, forms a charming promenade with varying views (especially 
fine by evening -light) of the environs and the Sicilian coast. The 
distance from Reggio to Messina is about 6 3 / 4 M. 

Excursions. At the back of Reggio rises the imposing, forest-clad As- 
promonte, the W. extremity of the range which in ancient times bore the 
name of Sila; the highest point is the Montalto (6907 ft.). The last name 
is applied to the entire range by the natives of this district. The summit is 
overgrown with beech-trees, the slopes partly with pines. Here, in the vici- 
nity of Reggie, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner by the Italian 
troops under Pallavicini , 29th Aug., 1862. The ascent, which is very 
laborious, is best undertaken from Villa Giovanni (p. 226) or from Scilla 
(p. 226; two mules and one guide for a day and a half 14 fr.). If possible 
the start should be made early on a moonlight night. The summit, which 
is reached in 9 hrs., commands an imposing view of the sea, the islands, 
and Sicily. 

To Scilla , see p. 226. — Ascent of the Mle. Elia , see p. 225. This 
excursion is best made by driving to Pal mi (4-5 hrs. ; 15-20 fr.), ascending 
the Mil on foot, and descending through beautiful chestnut wood to Bag- 
nara in 2 hrs., where the carriage should be ordered to wait. Travelling 
in the province of Reggio has always been considered free from ua'/nrd. 

20. From Buffaloria to Cosenza and thence by road 
to Reggio. 

From Buffaloria to Cosenza , 43 31., railway in 2 3 /4-3 l A hrs- (fares 
7 fr. 80, 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c). — From Cosenza to Bagxara, about 106 M., 
high-road traversed by YcHnre Corriere and diligences ( Oiornaliera), in 
about 34 hrs. — From Bagxara to Reggio, 20 M., railway in 1 hr. 35 
mill., fares, 3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 65 c. 

Buffaloria, a station on the Naples and Reggio railway, see 
p. 218. — () M. Doria, the station for Cassano (9000 inhab.), a 
beautifully situated town i 1 / 2 M. to the N., with warm baths, and 
an ancient castle on a lofty rock. The castle affords a magnificent 
survey of the valleys of the Cosc'de and the ('rati, the Sybaris and 
the Cralhis of antiquity. The wild, barren limestone mountains 
rise here almost immediately from the plain, culminating in the 
M"nlc I'ollino. The Tnrre di Miln is pointed out hero as the tower 

to Reggio. COSENZA. 20. Route. 223 

whence the stone was thiown that caused the death of T. Annius 
Milo, when he was besieging Cosa on behalf of Pompey. 

10 M. Spezzano- Castrovillari ; Spezzano is 5 M. and Castro- 
villari 9y 2 M. to the S. of the station (p. 215). Beyond (15 M.) 
Tarsia the train reaches the valley of the Crati , which it ascends, 
crossing several affluents of that river. Stations : S. Marco Rog- 
giano , Mongrassano-Cervico , Torano-Lattarico, Bisignano, Mon- 
talto-Uffugo, and Rende-S.Fili. To theW. are the Calabrian spurs 
of the Apennines. 

43 M. Cosenza (Albergo dei Due Lionetti , with the good Trat- 
toria Centrale), the ancient Consentia, once the principal city of 
the Bruttii , is now the capital of the province of the same name, 
with 16,700 inhab., and an archiepiscopal residence, containing 
well-built houses and palaces of wealthy landed -proprietors and 
manufacturers. It lies on the N. slope of a hill which separates 
the Crati from the Busento above the confluence of these streams. 
The town is commanded by a castle (fine view), the walls of which, 
though 9 ft. in thickness, were unable to resist the shock of the last 
earthquake. Shocks are felt here almost every year. In 1181 the 
town was destroyed by an earthquake, and again on 4th Feb., 1783, 
when upwards of 30,000 persons perished in this district. Serious 
damage was also sustained from the earthquakes of 1854 and 1870. 

The Gothic Cathedral contains the tomb of Louis III. of Anjou, 
who died here in 1435, eighteen months after his marriage with 
Margaret of Savoy. — On the piazza in front of the Prefettura 
a monument, with an allegorical figure of Liberty by Gius. Pac- 
chioni of Bologna, was erected in 1879 to the Brothers Bandiera 
and other participators in the Calabrian rising of 1844. 

Alaric, King of the West Goths, died at Cosenza in 410, after 
he had plundered Rome and .made an attempt to pass over into 
Sicily. His coffin and his treasures are said to have been buried 
in the bed of the river Buxentius (Busento). The site is unknown, 
but a tradition of Cosenza places it at the union of the Busento 
and the Crati, rear the station. 

In front of the Theatre, on the other side of the town, is a 
Statue of Italia; in the gardens farther on, several busts: to the 
right, Bernardino Telesio, the philosopher (d. 1588), to the left, 
Garibaldi, Cavour, Mazzini. Thefoot-path through the fruit-gardens, 
to the right from the point where the high-road descends to the 
river, is highly picturesque. 

Fkom Cosenza to Paola (p. 227), where the steamers touch four times 
weekly, a drive of 3>/2 hra. (seat in a carriage on these days 5 fr.). 

To the E. of Cosenza rises the Sila (locally known as 'Monte Nero'), a 
lofty and wooded range of mountains, extending about 37 M. from N. to S., 
25M. from E. toW., attaining a height of 6200 ft., and embracing an extensive 
network of valleys. These mountains, which consist of granite and gneiss, 
are remarkable for their beatity and fertility; their slopes are studded with 
numerous villages, while higher up they are clothed with chestnuts, oaks, 
beeches, and pines. The E. and S. slopes descend to the Gulf of Taranto. 

224 Route 20. TIRIOLO. From Buffaloria 

In ancient times these mountains supplied the Athenians and Sicilians 
with wood for ship-building , and they were famed for their cattle. The 
snow does not disappear from the higher regions until the latter end 
of May, or June, after which they afford a delightful summer abode to 
the natives with their flocks. This beautiful district, which has very 
rarely been explored by travellers , is still in a very primitive condition. 
Letters of introduction to influential inhabitants should be procured at 
Naples or Messina by intending explorers. The best months for the 
tour are July, August , and September. Either Cosenza or Cotrone 
(p. 218) may be taken as a starting-point. Fine scenery and picturesque 

The Road from Cosenza to Bagnara (Reggio) ascends gradually 
through a well-cultivated district. The heights on each side are 
clothed with oaks and chestnuts. 

9>/ 2 M. Eogliano, a town of 5500 inhab. on a hill to the 
left, commands a charming view of the fertile country and the 
surrounding mountains, above which on the right rises the M. Co- 
cuzzo (5052 ft.). The road descends into the ravine of the 8a- 
vuto, the ancient Sabdtus, ascends Le Crocelle di Agrifolio, an 
abrupt ridge of the Apennines, and leads by Carpanzano, Coraei, 
Arena Bianca, and through ravines and forest, to — 

34 M. Tiriolo, a town with 4000 inhab., loftily situated on 
the watershed between the Corace , which falls into the bay of 
Squillace, and the Lamato, which descends to the bay of S. Eufe- 
mia, the ancient Sinus Terinaeus. Near Tiriolo, a name perhaps 
derived from the Ager Taurianus, numerous coins and other anti- 
quities have been found. In 1640 a bronze tablet (now at Vienna) 
was discovered here, bearing the Senatusconsultum against the 
Bacchanalia, of B. C. 186, mentioned by Livy (xxxix. 18). 

Before Tiriolo is reached, a road to the left crosses the river Corace and 
leads to O'/a M.) Calanzaro (diligence, see p. 219). 

To the right a road leads to (11 M.) Mcastro, an episcopal town on 
the hill- side, in the now ruined castle of which Frederick II. once 
for several years confined his son, the German king Henry VII., who had 
rebelled against him in 1235. The latter died at Martorano in 1242, and 
was buried at Cosenza. Towards the sea, 3 M. from Nicastro, lies <S. 
Evfemia, with a celebrated Benedictine monastery founded by Robert 
Guiscard, but destroyed by the earthquake of 163S. 

The road to Reggio traverses a chain of hills, and then crosses 
the Lamato, the right bank of which it skirts for some distance, 
commanding almost uninterrupted views of the bays of Squillace 
and S. Eufemia, which are here barely 19 M. apart. 

We next pass Casino Chiriaco and cross the plain of Maida, 
where in 1806 the English auxiliaries of the Bourbons under 
Sir John Stuart defeated the French under Regnier and drove 
them out of Calabria. The road crosses the fertile , but un- 
healthy plain by Francavilla to Torre Maxdea. 

fid M. Pizzo is a small town with 8500 inhab., situated on a 
sandstone rock on the coast. Below it are the ruins of the old 
castle where Joachim Murat, king of Naples, who had been com- 

to Regyio. MILETO. 20. Route. 225 

pelled to land here the day before, instead of at Salerno as he in- 
tended, was shot on 13th Oct. 1815. He was interred in the church 
at Pizzo. — The Naples and Messina steamers touch here (p. 228). 

A bridle-path leads hence to Tropea , beautifully situated near the 
Capo Vaticano, whence the Lipari Islands (R. 33) may be visited. 

The road, running near the coast, next leads to — 

65 M. Monteleone (Albergo d'ltalia), on the site of the ancient 
Hipponion, the Vibo Valentia, of the Romans, a loftily situated town 
with 12,000 inhab., which was much damaged by the earthquake 
of 1783. The old castle was erected by Frederick II. Pleasant 
promenade commanding a charming view of the sea, Sicily, and 
the Lipari Islands. 

A road leading N. to the coast (3 M.) passes through the village of 
Bivona, on the site of the ancient port of Vibo, destroyed by the Saracens 
in 983. 

The road now traverses a hilly district to — 

74 '/2 M. Mileto, once the favourite residence of Count Roger of 
Sicily, whose son, King Roger, was born here. Pop. 5000. It con- 
tains the ruins of the abbey of 8. Trinith founded by him, where 
his remains and those of his first wife Eremberga formerly reposed 
in two sarcophagi which are now in the museum at Naples. — 
The mountains of Sicily, and particularly the summit of vEtna, 
now become conspicuous in the horizon. 

From Mileto a mountain-path leads E. to the (5 M.) grand ruins of 
the once celebrated monastery of Santo Ste/ano del Bosco, situated in a 
lonely valley at the foot of the Apennines. Near the neighbouring village 
of Soriano are the extensive ruins of the Dominican monastery of S. Do- 
menico Soriano, also destroyed by the earthquake of 1783; and, on the 
farther side of the low ridge of Monte Astore, the remains of the Cerlosa, 
in which St. Bruno established his austere order of Carthusians in 1094, 
and where he died and was interred in 1101. 

From Mileto the road gradually descends from the heights 
bounding the bay of Gioia on theN., and reaches (84 1 /2M.)Rosarno. 
The picturesquely situated town (4000 inhab.) was destroyed by the 
earthquake of 1783. The plain is then traversed to Gioia Tauro, 
which occupies the site of the ancient Metaurum, a desolate looking 
place, situated on the coast to the right, and an extensive depot of 
oil. Owing to the prevalence of malaria here, the workmen always 
spend the night at Palrni. We now cross the Marro, the ancient 
Metaurus, a river famed for its fish. The earthquake of 1783 was 
particularly destructive in this neighbourhood. The earth opened in 
many places, swallowing up houses entire, and filling up several 
valleys. — On the coast to the right, not far from the road, on a 
cliff rising perpendicularly from the sea, stands the singularly 
picturesque town of — 

99 M. Palmi (Albergo Plutini), with 15,500 inhab., surrounded 
by orange and olive plantations, and affording beautiful views of 
the coast and the island of Sicily, particularly from a Terrace on 
the sea at the end of the main street. 

The town is situated about halfway up the "Monte Elia, which 
commands a superb view of the Faro, the castle of Scilla, the town and 

BAEDEKfT Tt»l„ TTT 0*1, T?^!t;„„ ^ 

226 Route 20. SCILLA. 

harbour of Messina, and the majestic jEtna in the background. The N. 
coast of Sicily is visible as far as Milazzo; out at sea are Stromboli and 
the Lipari Islands ; to the N. the bay of Gioia as far as Capo Vaticano. 
If the traveller on the arrival of the diligence at Palmi descends to the 
sea, and at the farther end of the main street ascends to the right by a 
path through olive plantations (which a carabiniere may be asked to point 
out) , he may reach the top of the hill , stay 10 min. on the top , and 
regain the road before the diligence comes up. (The conductor should of 
course be told of the traveller's intention beforehand.) Those who prefer 
leaving the diligence at Palmi and paying a longer visit to the Monte Elia 
will have little difficulty in procuring a seat in a carriage at a later hour, 
as the road between Palmi, Bagnara, and Reggio is always much frequented. 

To the S.E. of Palmi lies (2'/2 M.) Seminara , which has been the 
scene of two important conflicts. In 1495 the French army defeated that 
of King Ferdinand II. under Gonsalvo da Cordova, and on 21st April 
1503, the French were on nearly the same spot routed by the Spaniards 
under Ugo de Cardona, one of Gonsalvo's most able generals. 

The road from Palmi to Reggio, traversing chestnut and olive 
plantations, and affording a succession of views of the sea and the 
coast, is one of the most beautiful on the Mediterranean. It crosses 
the Mte. Elia (see p. 225), on the S. slope of which is situated ■ — ■ 

106 M. Bagnara (Locanda della Stella, with beds), the present 
terminus of the coast railway which is to connect Reggio with Naples 
(comp. p. 172). 

The Railway from Bagnara to Reggio (20 M. ; see p. 222), 
following the road, skirts the coast. — 3 M. Farazzina. 

6 M. Scilla (Locanda di Baviera, on the Marina, well spoken 
of; a relative of the landlord is recommended as a guide to Aspro- 
monte), the ancient Scylla , with 8000 inhab., rebuilt since the 
terrible earthquake of 1783. The castle, situated on a promontory 
commanding the town, once the seat of the princes of Scilla, was 
occupied by the English after the battle of Maida (p. 224), and 
defended for 18 months (until 1808) against the French. Fine 
view of Sicily, across the Straits of Messina, here 3 M. broad. The 
silk and wine produced here enjoy a high reputation. Numerous 
swordfish (pesce spada) are caught here in July. To Messina, see 
p. 326. 

The rock of Scylla , represented in Homer's Odyssey as a roaring 
and voracious sea-monster — a beautiful virgin above, and a monster 
with a wolf's body and dolphin's tail below — is depicted by the poets 
in conjunction with the opposite Cliarybdis as fraught with imminent 
danger' to all passing mariners. The currents and eddies in the straits are 
still very rapid, but it is now believed that the Cliarybdis of the ancients 
is by no means exactly opposite to the whirlpool of Scylla, as the 
saying 'incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Gharybdwi' appears to indicate, 
but outside the harbour of Messina, 7'/a M. from Scilla, at the point now 
called Garofalo (comp. p. 326). 

Oi/.j M. Cannitello ; 11 M. Villa 8. Giovanni, prettily situated; 
lSl'-i M. Catona. Opposite is Messina (p. 318). We are now in a 
region of luxuriant vegetation, with oranges, pomegranates, palms, 
and aloes. — 15 M. Gallico ; 16 M. Archi-Reggio ; 18 M. 8. Caterina- 

20M. Reggio, see p. 221. 


21. From Naples to Messina by Sea. 

Communication several times a week between Naples and Messina is 
maintained by various steamship companies, including the French Com- 
pagnie Gintrale Transatlanlique (Marseilles and Tripoli line) and the 
Compagnie Fraissinet & Co. (Marseilles and Piraeus line), and the Italian 
Societtl Florio- Rubaltino. The voyage lasts 14-18 hrs. Besides the direct 
steamers , the last named company despatches vessels twice a week tt 
Sicily, touching at the chief ports on the Calabrian coast, and taking 37-52 
hrs. in all. In the case of cholera most of the lines cease running. — 
Embarcation with luggage I-IV2 fr. 

We enjoy a magnificent retrospective view of the lovely bay. 
After 2^2 hrs. the steamer enters the strait between Capri, with 
the rugged and precipitous Lo Capo (p. 163), and the Punta di 
Campanella (p. 159). Shortly afterwards a view of the Bay of 
Salerno is disclosed. As the sun sets and the vessel gradually stands 
out to sea, Mt. "Vesuvius presents a most majestic appearance. 

On the Direct Voyage the steamer reaches the open sea about 
dusk. On the following forenoon the volcano of the island of 
Stromboli, near which the steamer afterwards passes, becomes 
visible on the right. The mountain-range of the N. coast of Sicily 
next comes in sight , presenting a very striking appearance. As 
the vessel steers for the Strait of Messina we observe Scilla on 
the left, and the Faro on the right. Arrival at Messina, see p. 318. 

The Coasting Steamers pass the promontories delta Licosa 
and dello Spartivento and the Bay of Policastro during the night. 
The once powerful town of Policastro (4000 inhab.) was destroyed 
by Robert Guiscard in 1055, and by the Turks in 1542. 

On the following morning, Monte Pollino (7326 ft.), which 
terminates the Neapolitan Apennines, is the most conspicuous 
mountain, and adjoining it begin the Calabrian Mts. As the vessel 
proceeds southwards to Paola we enjoy a succession of fine views. 
The coast is studded with numerous towns and villages, most of 
them situated on the heights , between which valleys descend to 
empty their brooks into the sea. Verbicaro is seen somewhat 
inland, then Diamante, at the base of a lofty cliff. Farther on, 
Belvedere with 4627 inhab., charmingly situated on the slopes of 
the mountain. Then, beyond a small promontory, in the bay to the 
S. lies Cetraro, the inhabitants of which are anchovy- fishers. 
We next observe Ouardia, on a lofty hill, with warm baths ; then 
Fuscaldo, with 10,000 inhab. and the ruins of an old castle. 

Paola, with 8500 inhab., beautifully situated in a ravine and 
on the slope of the mountain, carries on an extensive oil and wine 
trade. The town, which some suppose to be the Palycus of the 
Greeks, was the birthplace of Francesco di Paola, founder of the 
mendicant order of Minorites. — On the arrival of the steamer 
carriages start for Cosenza (3*/2 nrs - drive, seat 5 fr. ; see p. 223). 

After a halt of about l 1 ^ hr. the vessel resumes her voyage. 
On the coast are the villages of San Lucido, Fiumefreddo, and Bel- 
monte, at the back of which rises the conspicuous Monte Cocuzzo 


228 Route. :>l'. CAPO DI GALLI ). 

(5052 ft.). Amantea next becomes visible, supposed to be the 
ancient Amantia of Bruttium. The town and fortress, erected on 
a lofty rock, were garrisoned in 1806 by royalists, who repulsed the 
French troops ; but, after severe sufferings from famine, they were 
compelled to surrender the following year. To the S. of Amantea 
the Savuto falls into the sea. The coast becomes flat and less richly 
cultivated. Farther on, Nocera ; then past the Capo Suvero to the 
Golfo di Santa Eufemia, at the S. end of which lies — 

Pizzo (see p. 224); halt V/ 2 hr. 

At the S. E. angle of the bay lies Monteleone, see p. 225. 

The steamboat rounds Capo Zambrone, and reaches Tropea, an 
ancient town (6000 inhab.) in a delightful situation, the climate 
of which is much extolled. To the S. is the Capo Vaticano with its 
lighthouse, projecting far into the sea. In the bay lies Nicotera, 
which suffered severely from the earthquake of 1783 , near the 
influx of the Mesima. At Oioia (p. 225) the post -road from 
Naples to Reggio (It. 20) leads down to the coast, which it skirts 
during the rest of the way. Soon after the harbour of Pizzo is 
quitted the Lipari Islands (R. 33) become visible to the W. ; Strom- 
boli, with its continually smoking crater, is the most conspicuous. 
Off Capo Vaticano the Sicilian mountains suddenly appear. 

Palmi, Baynara, Scilla, see pp. 225, 226. The Aspromonte range, 
with the Monte Alto (6907 ft.), looks uninteresting from this side. 
We now enter the Strait of Messina, which presents a busy scene 
during the daytime. 

Messina, see p. 318. If the steamer arrives during the night 
the passenger had better remain on board till morning, enquiring 
beforehand of the captain when the vessel is to start again. 

22. From Naples to Palermo by Sea. 

Steamers of the Societa FloHo-Rubattino daily in 15 hrs. ; fares 48 fr. 
60, 31 fr. 60 c. , including provisions. La Veloce company, see p. 229. 
Steamer of the Compaguie Generate Tranmtlantique also once a week; 
fares; 40, 25, 15 fr., provisions extra. — The passenger should be on deck 
early next morning to enjoy the beautiful approach to Sicily and the en- 
trance into the harbour. 

Beyond Capri the steamer reaches the open sea. Early next 
morning (between 5 and 6 o'cl.) the Lipari Islands (It. 33) are seen 
to the S. (left); later the island of Vstica (p. 280) to the W., 
long remaining visible ; then, about 10 a.m., the towering moun- 
tains of Sicily ; to the extreme right is the Capo di Qallo, nearer 
rises Monte Pellegrino (1958 ft. ; p. 277), and to the left is the 
Monte Catalfano (1233 ft.), with a smaller pointed promontory, 
guarding the E. entrance to the Bay of Palermo. At length we per- 
ceive the beautiful and extensive city. A little to the left of Monte 
Pellegrino are the lofty Monte Cuccio (3445 ft.), Monreale (p. 274), 
and farther distant the Monte Oriffone. — ■ Palermo, see It. 23. 


General Remarks. 

Strabo, the Greek geographer, in one passage calls Sicily an 'addition' 
in another a 'detached portion' of Italy; and there is indeed not one of 
the surrounding islands so intimately allied, geographically as well as 
historically, with the great peninsula which bisects the Mediterranean. 
Goethe has justly observed that, without Sicily, Italy would lose much 
of its charm: 'the climate cannot be too highly extolled; the beauties 
are innumerable. 1 This cannot fail to be experienced by every traveller 
who forms acquaintance with this 'gem among islands'. Nor is the beauty 
of the scenery the sole attraction to the wanderer from the north. Those 
equipped with even a superficial knowledge of history cannot but exper- 
ience a profound interest in the places with which the most ancient Hel- 
lenic and Roman traditions are connected, where the destinies of Athens, 
Carthage , and Rome have been decided , and where medieeval characters 
so famous as Henry VI. and Frederick II. have ruled. There is not a 
nation which has materially influenced the destinies of European civili- 
sation, that has not left distinct traces of its agency in this island. Those 
whose time and resources permit are therefore strongly recommended to 
visit Sicily before proceeding homewards. 

Modes of Travelling. The Steamboats of the Italian companies and 
also the comfortable boats of the French Compagnie Oinirale Transatlan- 
tique ply daily from Naples to Palermo, and almost daily from Naples to 
Messina (see pp. 228, 227). The good and swift vessels of the new steam- 
ship company La Veloce also ply several times a week between Naples 
and Palermo. Others start on alternate Fridays from Marseilles for Palermo 
( Messageries Maritimes de France). Steamers also ply once weekly from 
Palermo to Sardinia (R. 40), and to Malta and the East. — Railway to 
Reggio, and the passage thence to Messina, see E. 19 ; the railway journey 
from Naples to Reggio occupies 21 hrs. (express), the passage thence to 
Messina l 3 /4 hr. 

Other steamers (Societct Florio-Rubattino, whose headquarters are at 
Palermo) make the circuit of the island once a week, Palermo being the 
starting-point, and Messina and Syracuse the principal stations. A steamboat 
also plies several times weekly between Palermo and Messina, see p. 312. 
The service is tolerably punctual on the N. and E. coasts, but on the S. 
side of the island, where the navigation is more difficult, delays of many 
hours and even days frequently occur. 

Railways. The following railways now form a complete network 
over Sicily : (1) From Messina by Catania, S. Caterina-XirM, Roccapalwmbo, 
and Termini to Palermo, 210 M.; (2) From Catania to Syracuse, 54 M.; 
(3) From Canicattl to Licata, 31 M. ; (4) From Roccapalumbo to Girgenti and 
its harbour Porto Empedocle , 46'/2 M. ; (5) From Palermo by Partinico, 
Alcamo, Castelvetrano, Mazzara, and Marsala to Trapani, 117 M. ; (6) From 
S. Caterina-Xirbi by Caltanissetla to Aragona- Caldare , 37 M.; (7) From 
Palermo by Misilmeri and Bolognetta - Marineo to Villafrali, 21'/2 M. ; (8) 
From Syracuse by Avola to Noto, 19'/2 M. 

Diligences run on all the principal roads in Sicily, but the ordinary 
traveller is now almost independent of their aid. The usual charge 
throughout the island for a Caueiage with two horses is 20-30 fr. per 

2<50 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

day, with a 'buona mano' of 2-3 fr. The usual charge for a Mule is 
7-10 fr. per day, with a small fee to the attendant, but for an excursion 
of several days the rate is lower. If, however, the traveller does not 
return to the point of starting, the return-journey must be paid for. 

Plan of Tour. The best seasons for travelling; in Sicily are the months 
of April and May, or October and November. Even in January the weather 
is often fine and settled (comp. pp. 236-237). The ascent of jEtna in spring 
is possible , but the best period is August or September , after the first 
showers of autumn have cleared the atmosphere. 

The principal points in the island may be visited in a fortnight or 
three weeks without divergence from the railway. The following distri- 
bution of time may be followed: — At Palermo "3-4 days; the towns in 
the W. part of the island (Segesta, Selinunto, Mazzara, Marsala, Trapani) 
4-5 days (Segesta and Selinunto alone 2-3 days); journey to Girgenti 1 day; 
at Girgenti 1 day; from Girgenti to Catania 1 day; Catania and Ml. Jitna 
2 days; at Syracuse lij 2 day; at Taormina 1 day; at Messina 1 day. The 
best mode of exploring the very picturesque N, Coast is indicated at p. 312. 

The most energetic of travellers, however, will take at least a month 
to exhaust the beauties of the island. The following routes are the most 
important: — At Palermo 3-4 days; by land in 4 days, or by steamer 
direct in 15 hrs. from Palermo to Messina; in the latter case MiUc-zo 
and Patli (Tyndaris) should he visited from Messina, 3 days; by railway 
to Taormiim 1 day; Catania and jEtna 3 days; stay at Syracuse 2 days; 
by railway or steamer to Girgenti; at Girgenti 1-2 days ; by land in 2 days 
tn Sriacca, Selinunto, and Castelvelrano; thence by Calalajimi (Segesta) in 
1 day, or, if Marsala and Trapani be included, in 4 days, to Palermo. 

Geography and Statistics. 

Sicily (Greek Sikelia or Trinacrid) is the largest island in the 
Mediterranean. Its area, according to the most recent measure- 
ments, amounts to 29,240 sq. kilometres, i.e. about 11 ; 450 Engl. 
sq. M. The form of the island is an irregular triangle. The N. 
coast is 200, the E. 135, and the S.W. 177 Engl. M. in length. 

The whole island of Sicily is mountainous in character. Closely 
connected with Italy by geological structure as well as in geo- 
graphical position, it forms a continuation of the great Apennine 
range which stretches across the Mediterranean from the main trunk 
of Europe to Africa, a submerged prolongation of the range being 
also distinctly traceable. The distance between Cape Boeo and 
Cape Bon is only 75 M. , and the depth in the direct line never 
exceeds 100 fathoms, except in one narrow belt running S.E. 
towards the island of Pantellaria (248 fathoms), while the Straits 
of Pantellaria, separating Sicily from Africa, are as a rule not more 
than 50 fathoms deep. This submerged elevation is probably of 
volcanic origin. Pantellaria and Linosa are extinct volcanoes, 
and to the N. of Sicily lies another volcanic tract, the eruptions of 
which have produced the Lipari Islands. The S.E. portion of the 
island of Sicily is of the tertiary formation, and is connected with 
the Malta hlanth by a submarine table-land. The virtual W. 
apex of Sicily is formed by Maritimo, the westernmost of the Aega- 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 23 1 

dian Islands, which lie in shallow water. The Straits of Messina 
are only 2 M. wide at their narrowest point, and at their shallowest 
part (near the same point) 51 fathoms deep , while on the N. and 
E., on the contrary, the shores of the island descend abruptly into 
the deepest parts of the Mediterranean, a sounding of no less than 
2000 fathoms having been made within about 30 M. of Cape Passero. 
Mountains. Sicily , which is of a hilly or mountainous char- 
acter throughout its whole extent, may be roughly described as 
a table-land of a mean level of 2300-2800 ft., somewhat tilted 
towards the N., and higher at the edges than in the interior. The 
loftiest of the non-volcanic summits are towards the N., where a 
range of mountains runs from the Straits of Messina along the 
coast , forming a prolongation of the Apennine range which tra- 
verses the Italian peninsula. The continuity of the chain remains 
unbroken as far the valley of Polizzi, a place of historical interest, 
whence the Himera Septentrionalis (Fiume Grande) flows N. to the 
Tyrrhenian, and the Himera Meridionalis (Fiume Salso) S. to the 
African Sea. The W. part of the range, which consists rather 
of detached groups of mountains, is the only one which has received 
a distinguishing name from the natives, who call it the Madonie. Its 
highest summits are the Pizzo delV Antenna (6480 ft.), the loftiest 
mountain in the island after ^Etna, and the Monte Salvatore, both 
covered with snow during one half of the year. Scientific geographers 
apply the name of Nebrodic Mountains to the Madonie together with 
the mountains to the N. and N.W. of ^Etna (where the Monte Sori 
attains a height of 6052 ft.), while they distinguish that section of 
the range which abuts on the Straits of Messina as the Peloric Chain 
(the Monies Neptunii or Pelorides of the ancients). 

To the W. of the important watershed of the two Himeras the 
mountains still form a chain or range, though of less distinct char- 
acter, the highest summits of which all lie near the N. coast. 
As we proceed towards the W. , however , single mountains or 
isolated clusters become more prominent, till they end at last 
in the pyramid of Monte S. Giuliano, the ancient Eryx, rising 
precipitously from the sea and standing like a gigantic sentinel to 
guard the W. coast of the island. From this great northern range, 
running fromE. to W., various minor chains branch off towards the 
S. and S.W. into the heart of the island, leaving both on the E. 
and W. small littoral plains between them and the sea. 

In the S. E. corner of the island is a mountainous district of a 
very peculiar and interesting geological character, united with the 
other mountain-systems only by a narrow ridge near Caltagrrone. 
In the heart of it rises the Monte Lauro (3230 ft.) , whence the 
considerable rivers of this part of Sicily descend in all directions 
through profound ravines and valleys , the sides of which are 
honeycombed with caverns. These erosions reveal to' us the fact, 
that , while the surface of the mountain consists chiefly of tertiary 

232 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

shell-limestone , this formation alternates lower down with strata 
of dark volcanic rock. Nearly the whole remainder of the island, 
particularly the districts in the middle, and to the S. and S.W., 
is also composed of the tertiary formation. To this formation, 
represented mainly by marl, clay, and gypsum, belong extensive 
deposits of sulphur and rock-salt, the first of which contribute so 
materially to Sicily's wealth and prosperity, while the latter are 
as yet almost untouched. The sulphur-strata extend westwards as 
far as the secondary mountain-ranges near Salemi and Partanna, 
and eastwards as far as the mountains of Judica and Rammacca. 
Whatever part of the interior of the island the traveller visits, 
he is sure to stumble upon a sulphur-mine, or meet long trains of 
waggons or mules conveying this 'yellow gold' of Sicily to the coast. 
The richest mines are at Lercara (p. 296), situated on the watershed 
between the Tyrrhenian and African Seas, to theN. of Girgenti, and 
near Caltanissetta (p. 304). — The tertiary formations in Sicily 
attain a most unwonted altitude ; the huge rock on which lies Castro- 
giovanni, the historical Enna (p. 304), rears its head no less than 
3270 ft. above the level of the sea. — The mountains on the N. 
coast, with the ramifications extending to the Kryx and the Monte 
San Calogero near Sciacca, belong to the secondary formations, and 
consist chiefly of calcareous limestone. This limestone is perforated 
by numerous caverns, in which the bones of huge pachydermata, 
denizens of the country before its separation from the African con- 
tinent, and various prehistoric antiquities are frequently found. — 
The Peloric range and the mountains of the N. coast from Messina 
to Cape Calava are composed of crystalline rocks of the primary for- 
mations, but their bases are overlaid with strata of recent tertiary 
deposits, so that the older formation seldom comes to light on the 
coast itself. The identity of the geological structure of this part of 
the island with that of Calabria is a proof of the intimate connec- 
tion between Sicily and the Italian peninsula. The rock of Seylla 
(p. 226), visible from the Faro, and the peninsula of Milazzo 
(p. 317), are both formed of fine-grained granite and gneiss. The 
S. margins of the Peloric Mts. and of the Aspromonte (p. 222) 
consist of clay-slate. 

Mt. JEtna (10,835 ft.), the loftiest mountain in Sicily and the 
largest volcano in Europe, rises on the E. side of the island, and is 
completely detached from the other mountains by the deep valleys 
of the Simeto and Alcantara. The watershed between these rivers, 
however, near the Lake of Gurrita, which is sometimes quite dry, 
attains a considerable height (3792 ft.). The district in which this 
great volcano rises has evidently been at one time a bay of the 
sea, still recognisable in the plain of Catania. The mountain is 
capped with snow throughout the year, except (luring a few weeks 
in summer, while in some of the gullies the snow never melts 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 233 

The island contains no Plains of any extent. The most con- 
siderable is the Piano di Catania (Ager Leontinus, Campi Laestry- 
gonii), extending between the rivers Simeto and Gurnalunga. The 
littoral plains of Terranova (Campi Oeloi), Licata, and Milazzo, 
the plain between Trapani and Marsala, and the Conca d'Oro near 
Palermo may also be mentioned. 

The Coasts of Sicily are as a rule steep and rocky, short reaches 
of flat coast being found in the gulfs of Catania and Terranova, 
and to the S. of Trapani only. A peculiarity of the Sicilian coast 
is found in the numerous narrow peninsulas lying in front of it, 
which have in comparatively recent times only ceased to be islands, 
and which almost invariably form good harbours. Of this nature 
are the peninsulas of Syracuse, Augusta, Trapani, and Milazzo. 
The strikingly picturesque Monte Pellegrino, near Palermo, was 
at one time an island off the coast , and the sickle-shaped piece 
of land which forms the harbour is also of very recent geological 
formation. To these capacious natural harbours falls to be added 
the artificial one of Palermo , the somewhat inadequate successor 
of the famous ancient harbour, which has been gradually silted up 
during the geological elevation of theW. coast of Sicily. The same 
cause has rendered the fine harbour of Trapani almost useless. 
The S. coast is perfectly destitute of natural harbours, and there- 
fore unapproachable in stormy weather; but artificial harbours 
have recently been constructed at great expense at Porto Empe- 
docle and Licata. 

The Rivers of Sicily are very numerous , but none of them 
are large , and with a few exceptions they all dry up in summer. 
The district of primary formations in the N. E. of the island does 
not contain a single perennial water-course , but many broad Fiu- 
mare , or river-beds , filled after heavy rain with turbulent and 
destructive torrents , which carry down large masses of the easily 
detached rock , and refuse to be confined within embankments, 
often causing widespread devastation. The stony beds of the 
'fiumare' are sometimes upwards of i/ 2 M. wide at the mouth, and 
even in winter are traversed by a mere thread of water only. 
The numerous streams towards the S.E., which take their rise in 
the porous, honey-combed limestone hills, are, on the other hand, 
comparatively copious in the lower part of their course. Water 
may generally be found by digging below the dry beds of the 
fiumare even in summer. The principal rivers, none of which are 
navigable, are the Simeto (which waters a great part of E. Sicily), 
the Alcantara, the Fiume Salso (Himera Meridionalis), the Platani, 
and the Belice. (In the Map at the end of the Handbook the water- 
courses which dry up in summer are coloured brown , and those 
which contain water throughout the whole year are blue.) 

The splendid Forests with which Sicily was originally covered, 
and which yielded the admirable ship-building timber mentioned 

234 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

so often in the days of the Greek and Saracenic domination, have 
been disappearing rapidly under the axe of the woodman since 
the 16th cent., and especially since the beginning of this century. 
In the 11th cent, the Monte Lauro was still clothed with forests of 
pines and fir, and in the 15th cent, the Monte Pellegrino, now 
conspicuous for its baldness , was clothed with underwood. The 
total area of the forests in Sicily in 1857 was estimated at 170,000 
acres , but this has probably greatly decreased , as the forests of 
jEtna then covered 125,000 acres, while the whole province of 
Catania now contains only 60,000 acres of wood. The only con- 
siderable forests are those of iEtna and the mountains on the N. 
coast , the finest of which are the Caronian Forest and the Bosco 
di Ficuzza on the Busambra , where the Bourbon sovereigns used 
to hunt when they resided at Palermo. These woods consist of 
oaks, chestnuts, elms, ashes, etc., and are carpeted with thick 
green underwood like the woods of Central Europe , while others 
nearer the coast and in lower situations consist mainly of isolated 
evergreen oaks (Quercus Ilex, Quercus Suber, etc. J. Pine-forests 
are found in the yEtna region only. The Macchie, a kind of thicket 
of dense , almost impenetrable , and often thorny bushes , 5-6 ft. 
high, peculiar to the regions of the Mediterranean, and growing on 
the denuded sites of former forests, are less common in Sicily than 
in neighbouring lands. 

Products and Cultivation. The current impression that only 
a small portion of the area of Sicily is cultivated , is quite er- 
roneous. In 1857 it was estimated that about 200,000 acres only 
were unproductive, and 1,600,000 acres under pasture, leaving 
5,500,000 acres, or 3 / 4 of the whole area, under cultivation. Since 
that date , moreover, a large proportion , probably about one-half, 
of these unproductive lands have been reclaimed , chiefly through 
the partition of large estates falling into the hands of government 
on the failure of heirs. The value of pasture in Sicily may be 
gathered from the fact that an annual rental of 25,000 fr. has been 
paid for the apparently barren Mte. Pellegrino near Palermo. 

The cultivation of the soil has made rapid strides within the 
last few decades, especially since 1860, and arboriculture has of 
late become one of the chief occupations of the farmer. The greater 
part of the island is still devoted to the production of wheat, but 
the culture of fruit-trees, especially of the Citri (the generic term 
for oranges, lemons, and citrons), is found to be still more lucrative, 
and assumes ever-increasing proportions. In the Conca d'Oro near 
Palermo the yield of a hectare (2V2 acres) of lemon-trees averages 
4300 fr., and that of a hectare of orange-trees 2900 fr. per annum. 
The export of these fruits , particularly to the United States , is 
steadily increasing, and has now reached the value of 80, 000, 000 fr. 
annually. They are shipped in almost equal quantities from Pa- 
lermo and Messina, being cultivated most sedulously on the N. 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 235 

coast from Partinico to Messina, and on the E. coast as far S. as 
Catania. The orange and lemon harvest lasts from November to 
March, but the fruit does not thoroughly ripen till January. Dur- 
ing the hot season the trees require a constant supply of water. 
About one-fifth of the whole island is now devoted to the culti- 
vation of trees of various kinds, the products of which are exported 
to the value of 135,000,000 fr. annually, a sum that will appear 
still more considerable when it is remembered that nine-tenths 
of the islanders thems'elves subsist entirely on wheaten bread, 
fruit, and fish. This branch of agriculture is interesting, not only 
from an economical but also from a social and moral point of view. 
The constant attention which arboriculture demands renders it 
impossible for the agricultural labourers to live in crowded vil- 
lages, often at a considerable distance from their daily work ; so 
that this branch of agriculture tends to a more equal distribution 
of the population, and contributes to improve their moral con- 
dition. Sicily at present contains about 500 of these over-grown 
villages of agricultural labourers , with an average population of 
5000 each, but the people are now beginning to descend from their 
rocky nests and settle among the fields. 

Another prevalent error with regard to Sicily is that its fertility 
has decreased. Rain still falls in sufficient quantity to make the 
fruits of the field as plentiful now as of yore , in spite of the poor 
agricultural implements and the want of manuring. Wheat, Barley, 
and Beans, which form almost the only crops, cover all the avail- 
able level districts in the island. As the Sicilian wheat is of ex- 
cellent quality and commands a high price, it is usually exported, 
while an inferior kind is imported for home consumption ; but the 
already-mentioned concentration of the population in a few large 
villages, the peculiarity of the farm-tenure, the inferiority of the 
agricultural implements, and the occasional deficiency of hands, 
which is supplied in many parts by peasants from Calabria, are un- 
favourable to the agricultural prosperity of the country. The fields 
on the N. and E. coasts, like those in Sardinia and N. Africa, 
are enclosed by Cactus-hedges (Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia 
Amyclaea), which frequently attain a considerable height. Their 
fruit, the cactus-fig, of a sweetish, somewhat insipid taste, is 
much esteemed by the natives, who in autumn use it to a consider- 
able extent as a substitute for bread. The Cotton culture, which 
was greatly extended during the American civil war, has since 
then declined, as the Sicilian cotton is very inferior to the Ameri- 
can. Sumach (jRftus coriaria, the leaves of which are used in 
tanning and as a black dye) and linseed are among the staple ex- 
ports. Other products exported, besides the Citri and their es- 
sential oils, are almonds, olive oil, wine (Marsala, Riposto, Ca- 
tania, Vittoria , and Siracusa) , nuts , capers , pistachios , manna, 
liquorice, lentils, and raisins. The chief animal products are silk, 

236 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

hides, wool, anchovies, tunny-fish, and cantharides. Mineral pro- 
ducts : sulphur, salt, and marble. The island possesses no mines 
of the precious metals or of coal. Many of the merchants are Ger- 
mans and Swiss, who have to a great extent taken the place of the 
English , but the Sicilians themselves are now beginning to turn 
their attention more zealously to commerce. About two-thirds of 
the manufactured goods imported into Sicily, as well as Italy, 
pass through the hands of Swiss and German merchants The sta- 
tistics relating to the exports and imports are untrustworthy , but 
it is ascertained that the former are far more considerable than the 
latter. This will be still more the case as agriculture advances in 
consequence of the partition of the vast landed estates and the 
promotion of the public safety. 

Climate. The climate of Sicily, which may be described gener- 
ally as of a marine character, is a most delightful one , and in 
equableness is second to that of Madeira alone. This is especially 
true of the climate of Palermo, which is rapidly coming into favour 
as a winter residence for invalids. Catania is somewhat colder in 
winter, and is moreover exposed to sudden changes of temperature 
on account of the proximity of Mt. ^Etna. Messina and Syracuse 
are windy places. 

In Sicily the year consists of two seasons only, the rainy and 
the dry. The Kainy Season corresponds with the winter of Cen- 
tral Europe, and is marked by a fall of temperature. The freezing- 
point , however , is seldom reached , except occasionally just be- 
fore dawn , and there are few winter days when one cannot sit 
comfortably in the open air in a sheltered situation. The rainy 
season is at the same time that of the most luxuriant vegetation. 
It is ushered in by thunder-storms in September and October, 
sets in steadily in November, generally relaxes somewhat in Jan- 
uary, ends towards the close of March, and is followed by a few 
violent thunder-storms in April and May. In June, July, and Au- 
gust, but particularly in July, almost no rain falls, but the heat is 
tempered by the proximity of the sea. Continuous rain is, how- 
ever, rare, even in the wet season, and there are seldom more than 
half-a-dozen days in the year absolutely without sunshine. Cicero s 
remark on Syracuse, that the sun shines there every day without 
exception, is almost literally true. The heaviest rainfall occurs m 
December. In Palermo it averages 2'2 inches per annum, of which 
B in. fall in December and only about ] / 6 in. in July; in Syracuse 
the rain-fall is 16 in. , with practically none in June, July, and 
August. Wheat is sown at the beginning of the rains, and reaped 
shortly after their close. 

The Winds also vary in accordance with these two divisions ot 
the year. From October to March the rainy W.S.W. wind, blowing 
from the equatorial regions, prevails; from May to August the 
prevalent wind blows from the N.K., forming a continuation of 

Qeography and Statistics. SICILY. 237 

the trade-winds from beyond the N. pole; while in April and 
September these winds blow alternately. Violent winds, with the 
exception of the Scirocco , are rare , and the barometrical changes 
are on the whole slight. The Scirocco, one of the hot periodical 
storm-winds , which blow from the Sahara in all directions , is 
among the few drawbacks to the climate of Sicily. It visits Palermo, 
where it is particularly disagreeable, about twelve times a year, 
and may occur in any month, though it is most frequent and most 
violent in April and the short transitionary seasons generally. On 
the E. coast it is generally charged with moisture, but at Palermo 
it is hot and dry. The highest temperature ever observed in the 
shade at Palermo (105° Fahr.) was registered during the scirocco. 
During its continuance the sky is of a dull, leaden appearance, 
often with a tinge of red , occasioned by the columns of dust 
which the storm frequently brings with it from a long distance. If 
rain falls, these fine particles of dust occasion the phenomenon 
known as 'blood rain', which may be easily collected on the fo- 
liage of the trees. The effect of the scirocco, often less felt at first 
by visitors from the N. than by the natives, is to occasion a diffi- 
culty of breathing and lassitude, which unfit one for work, espe- 
cially of a mental nature. The scirocco, however, often lasts for a 
few hours only, and rarely for more than three days. 

One of the great advantages of the climate of Sicily arises from 
the comparatively slight difference in the temperature of the diffe- 
rent seasons. The heat at Palermo in summer is less than at Flo- 
rence, while the winters are remarkably mild and equable. The 
mean temperature in August, the hottest month, is 78° Fahr., and 
in January, the coldest month, 52°, the difference being 26° only, 
while the mean annual temperature is about 64°. The lowest tempe- 
rature yet recorded at the observatory at Palermo has been 35°, but 
it is known that the mercury occasionally descends 3-4° below the 
freezing-point in the early morning almost every winter. During 
December, January, February, and March the thermometer remains 
at almost the same level , and abrupt changes are very rare, espe- 
cially at Palermo , which is sheltered from the N. wind by the 
Monte Pellegrino. The mean daily range of temperature at Pa- 
lermo is about 12°, in winter less, and on some days not more than 
4-5°. Catania has a mean annual temperature of 65° ; in summer 
it is warmer than Palermo, and in winter colder. The mean tem- 
perature in August is 81° and that of January 50°, showing a 
range of 31°. The daily range of temperature is also somewhat 
greater (ii^-i-i"), an( i a difference of 41° has been noticed within 
24 hours. 

Mineral Baths, most of them sulphureous, and already famous 
in ancient times, are established at Sciacca on the Monte S. Calo- 
gero (Thermae Selinuntinae), at Termini (Thermae Himerenses), at 
Termini di Castro near Barcellona , and at Acireale near Catania. 

238 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

The bath-arrangements are very defective, those at Acireale and 
the two Termini being the best. 

The Population of the island, according to the census of 
1879, amounts to 2,832,851, or on an average 247 souls per Engl, 
sq. M. National schools have been established everywhere under 
the new regime , and the towns now possess commercial (scuola 
tecnica and istituto tecnico] and grammar schools, but the number 
of 'analfabeti' (persons who can neither read nor write) still 
amounts to nearly four-fifths of the whole population ( 9 / 1n ths in 

Districts. From the Saracen period down to the beginning of 
the present century the island was divided into three districts : the 
Val (Welaia, i.e. province) di Demone, the N.E. portion; the Val 
di Koto, the S.E. part; and the Val di Mazzara, to the S.W. Since 
1817 it has been divided into seven prefectures : (1) Palermo, (2) 
Trapani, (3) Oirgenti, (4) Caltanissetta, (5) Catania, (6) Siracusa, 
(7) Messina. 

Towns. The principal towns are Palermo, Messina, Catania, 
Modica, Trapani, Termini, Acireale, and Caltagirone. Of the 120- 
130 towns in the kingdom of Italy which contain above 10,000 in- 
hab. upwards of one-quarter belong to Sicily. This is explained 
by the fact, that owing to the constant wars of the middle ages, 
the predatory incursions of barbarians, and the insecure state of 
the country, it was unsafe for the peasantry to live in villages, and 
this class has therefore mainly contributed to swell the population 
of the towns. 

Historical Notice. 

1. Political History. 

Fiest Period. According to the traditions of ancient Greek 
mariners, Sicily was once inhabited by Cyclopes, Gigantes, Loto- 
phagi, Laestrygones, etc., whom Sicilian historians have endea- 
voured to classify into iron- workers, stone-workers, farmers, and 
gardeners. The most ancient inhabitants of Sicily were a prehistoric 
race , the only certain traces of whom are the flint implements 
found in various parts of the island and perhaps a few of the stone 
monuments. They were followed by the Sicani, who were believed 
by some authorities to be of Iberian, by others of Celtic origin. It 
is more probable, however, that they belonged to an Italian race. 
They dwelt at first in the E. part of the island , but within the 
pi-riod embraced in history are found only in the W., between the 
Tyrrhenian Sea (Ilykkara) and the Libyan Sea. The deserted terri- 
tory of the Sicini to the E. was taken possession of before B.C. 
1 00(1 by the Sikeli, a tribe related to the Latins, which, as some 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 239 

authorities believe, had already had a warlike history and made 
maritime raids upon Egypt. They dwelt in the S.E. corner of the 
island, in the middle of its E. half, especially in the valley of the 
Symaethus, and on the N. coast. Their principal towns were: S. 
Hybla, M enae (Mineo), Morgantium, N. Hybla (Paterno), Centuripe, 
Agyrion (Agira) , Assorus (Asaro) , Aluntium (S. Marco) , and 
Agathyrnum (near C. Orlando). The Phanicians , coming from 
the E., founded numerous colonies on the coast, and the Elymi, 
supposed to he descended from the Trojans, occupied Segesta, Eryx 
(with the sanctuary of Aphrodite), Entella, and other settlements. 
The Greeks make their appearance in Sicily in B.C. 735, when 
the Ionian Theocles of Chalcis (or Athens) founded Naxos, at the 
mouth of the Cantara. During the following year Dorians from 
Corinth under Archias founded Syracuse ; and in 728 Megara Hy- 
blaea, another Dorian colony , was settled by Lamis of Megara. 
Zankle (afterwards Messana) was peopled by Ionians , who also 
founded Leontini and Catana (729). A Dorian character was 
impressed upon the S. coast by the foundation of Oela (Terranova) 
by Rhodians and Cretans in 689, of Selinus by Megara in 628, and 
of Acragas (Girgenti) by Gela in 581. The Dorians also made 
themselves masters of the S.E. corner of Sicily through the Syra- 
cusan colonies of Acrae (664), Casmenae (624), and Camarina (599). 
Himera (648), the only Greek colony on the N. coast, was a joint 
settlement, in which the Ionian element preponderated. The oc- 
cupation of the Lipari Islands in B.C. 580 marks the close of the 
spread of the Hellenic power in Sicily, and the beginning of the 
Semitic reaction. The Phoenicians, who on the approach of the 
Greeks had retired to Solus (or Soloeis), Panormus, and Motye, now 
placed themselves under the protection of Carthage and thus 
imposed a check upon the farther progress of Hellenisation. The 
Sikelians in the E. part of the island, however, became almost 
entirely subject to the Greeks. 

The Greek colonies , as they grew in population , soon began 
to suffer from internal dissensions between the different classes of 
citizens. This led to the formation of codes of law, of which that 
of Charondas of Catana is the most famous, and to the establishment 
of tyrannies , a form of government which attained its most char- 
acteristic development in this island. The most notorious of the 
ancient tyrants was Phalaris of Acragas. About the year 500 we find 
tyrants ruling over most of the cities, of whom Gelon of Syracuse 
and Theron of Acragas, united by ties of family and interest, rescued 
the Greek sway from the perils which threatened it, when, at the 
time of the 2nd Persian "War, the Greeks of the western sea were 
attacked by the Carthaginians. In 480, however, the Greek cause 
was victorious at the battle of Himera, the Salamis of Sicily. The 
short but brilliant golden age of Hellenic Sicily now began, sullied 
only by the destruction of the Chalcidian towns of the E. coast by 

240 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

Gclon and Hiero. The greater number of the temples and aqueducts 
at Syracuse, Girgenti, Selinunto, Himera, etc., the ruins of which 
excite such admiration at the present day, were erected between 480 
and 450. But internal municipal struggles, fomented by the demo- 
cratic parties of the different cities, and the renewed antagonism of 
the Doric and Ionic-Achsan elements paved the way for a cata- 
strophe, to which the great Athenian campaign against Syracuse in 
413 contributed. Previously to this the Greeks had a formidable 
enemy to subdue in Ducetius of Netum(Noto), who united the towns 
of the Sikeli in a confederacy against the Greeks (461-440), but this 
league was compelled to succumb to the united forces of Syracuse 
and Acragas. What the Sicilians had failed in effecting was now 
attempted with more success by the great power of Africa. The 
Carthaginians now began their most formidable attacks. Sclinus 
and Himera were destroyed by them in 409, Acragas taken in 406, 
Gela and Camarina conquered and rendered tributary to Carthage 
in 405, and Messana razed to the ground in 396. These events were 
instrumental in causing the rise of Dionysius I. in (Syracuse (406), 
who extended and fortified the town, and after a war of varied 
success finally drove back the Carthaginians in 382 to the Halycus 
(Platani). Down to his death in 367 Dionysius was master of the 
destinies of Syracuse, and with it of Sicily ; the greater part of Magna 
Graecia was also subject to his sway, and he even intervened several 
times with effect in the affairs of Greece itself. Syracuse never again 
attained to such a pinnacle of power. On his death dissensions began 
anew. Dionysius II. was inferior to his father, and Dion able as a 
philosopher only. Timoleon, however, succeeded in 343-336 in 
restoring some degree of order, defeated the Carthaginians in 340 on 
the Crimissus (Belice), and again restricted their territory to the 
W. of the Halycus. But even his brilliant example availed little 
to arrest the increasing degeneracy of the people. In 317-289 
Agathocles usurped the sovereignty of Syracuse, and in 310 the 
Carthaginians besieged the city, although unsuccessfully. The 
brilliant African campaign of Agathocles was without enduring re- 
sult. Pyrrhus too, who had wrested the whole island as far as Lily- 
biuum from the Carthaginians, soon quitted it again for Italy (278- 
276), dissatisfied with the prevailing anarchy and disunion. In 
274 Hiero II. usurped the tyranny of Syracuse. His siege of Mes- 
sana, of which Campanian mercenaries, or Mamertines, had treach- 
erously taken possession , compelled the latter to sue for Roman 
aid. Thus it was that the Romans obtained a footing in the island, 
and the struggle between them and the Carthaginians, who had 
supported Hiero, now began. The chequered contest for the sover- 
eignty of Sicily lasted from 264 to 241. Hiero, who in 263 had 
become an ally of Rome, ruled over a small independent kingdom 
on the E. coast, even after the final expulsion of the Carthaginians. 
After the death of Hiero II. his successor Hieronymus espoused the 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 241 

cause of Hannibal, in consequence of which Syracuse was besieged 
by Marcellus in 214-212, taken, and sacked. In 210, after the 
conquest of Agrigentum , the island became the first Roman pro- 
vince, and was divided into two districts or quaesturse, Lilybaetana 
(with the capital Lilybaeum, now Marsala) and Syracusana. 

Second Pbkiod. At first the Romans endeavoured to improve 
the agriculture of the island, which had suffered seriously during 
the protracted wars, with a view to render Sicily a more profitable 
province. The system bf cultivation borrowed from the Carthagi- 
nians was indeed successfully employed in rendering Sicily the 
granary of Italy, but at the same time it proved the occasion of 
the Servile Wars (139-131 and 104-101), which devastated the 
island to a greater extent than the Punic wars. Under the Roman 
governors the ancient prosperity of Sicily steadily declined. The 
notorious Verres in particular impoverished it greatly during his 
term of office in 73-71. The civil war between Octavianus and 
Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of Sicily (43-36) 
but was defeated by Agrippa in the naval battle of Naulochus (on 
the N. coast, near Mylae), also accelerated its ruin, so that Augustus 
was obliged in a great measure to repeople the island and re-erect 
the towns. Little is known of its internal affairs after this date. 
With regard to the dissemination of Christianity in Sicily numer- 
ous traditions are current, and are preserved in the different mar- 
tyrologies. It is recorded (Acts xxviii. 12) that St. Paul landed 
at Syracuse on his journey to Rome and spent three days there, 
and the evidence of monuments goes to confirm the local legends 
of missionaries from the E., and to refute the later pretensions of 
Rome to the establishment of Christianity in Sicily. Syracuse 
would thus seem to have taken an important part in the spread of 
the Christian religion. After the end of the 3rd cent, the new 
religion made rapid progress, and in the reign of Constantine it had 
become practically the universal faith, though heathens still existed 
in Sicily down to the 6th century. 

After another servile war had devastated the country (A. D. 
259), Syracuse began, in 278, to suffer from the incursions of bar- 
barian hordes, when it was plundered by a mere handful of wan- 
dering Franks. In B.C. 27 Sicily had become the first of the ten 
senatorial provinces , according to Augustus's distribution of the 
empire, and then a province of the diocese of Italy, according to the 
arrangement of Diocletian ; but in 395 it was separated from the 
"W. and attached to the E. empire, whereby it escaped the fate of 
neither. In 440 Oeiserich besieged Palermo and conquered Lily- 
baeum (Marsala). Odoacer made himself master of Sicily, and 
the island afterwards became subject to the Ostrogoths. In 535 
Belisarius brought it under the sway of the Eastern emperors, who 
retained it till its conquest by the Arabs. — The Romish church 
had great possessions in Sicily, and Pope Gregory I. was a zealous 

Baedkkep "•>!»■ ttt °"- ^ J: '-- 16 

2 12 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

promoter of the cultivation of the island. Constans II. even 
transferred the seat of the E. empire to Syracuse in 663, but he 
was murdered there in 668, and the city was plundered by the 
Arabs the following year. 

Third Period. In 827 the Saracens, under Ased-ibn-Forat, 
on the invitation of the governor Euphemius, landed near Mazzara. 
Four years later Palermo fell into their hands , and that city now 
became the capital, and swayed the destinies of the island. The 
Saracens, conquering one city after another, overran the whole is- 
land, and in 878 Syracuse was taken by Ibrahim -ibn- Ahmed. 
Although the Christians could now maintain themselves in the 
N.E. angle of the island only, and even there were deprived of 
Taormina in 902, and finally of Rametta in 965, yet the establish- 
ment of a lasting peace was rendered impossible by the antagonism 
between their Arabian and Berber conquerors, which continually 
led to sanguinary conflicts. To these evils were added the changes 
of dynasty. At first the Aghlabites of Kairvan ruled. Then Sicily 
became an independent emirate under the Fatimite Sovereigns of 
Egypt. The latter half of the 10th cent, was the most prosperous 
period of Sicily under the Mohammedan sway. But the sanguinary 
struggles of the Sunnites and Shyites in Africa, where the Zirites 
had usurped the supremacy, were soon transplanted hither, and 
the insurrection of several cities accelerated the downfall of the 
Arabian dynasty. In spite of these unfavourable circumstances, 
the prosperity of the island had during this period considerably 
increased, and agriculture, industry, and commerce had progressed 
so greatly that the Norman conquerors found the island a most 
valuable acquisition. 

About the middle of the 11th cent., after an ineffectual at- 
tempt to conquer the island had been made by George Maniaces, 
a Greek, in 1038-41, Robert and Roger de Hauteville, sons of 
Tancred of Hauteville in Normandy, went to Italy on the invi- 
tation of their elder brothers , who had declared themselves 
Counts of Apulia. Robert, subsequently surnamed Ouiscard, i.e. 
'the Shrewd', compelled the pope to invest him with the Duchy 
of Apulia, and then, after Ibn-Thimna of Syracuse had already in- 
voked his aid, proceeded from Mileto with his brother Roger to con- 
quer Sicily in 1061. The first expedition did not immediately 
produce the desired result. But ten years later they returned, and 
by 1090 the entire island was subdued. The line of Robert Guiscard 
having become extinct in 1127, the second son of Roger, Count 
Roger II. , united the whole of the Norman conquests under his 
sceptre, and caused himself to be crowned as king at Palermo in 
1130. During his reign Sicily prospered, and its fleets conquered 
the Arabs and the Greeks, from whom they wrested a portion of 
ancient Greece (Romania). He was succeeded by his second son 
William (lir>4-66), surnamed by the monkish and feudal chroni- 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 243 

clere 'the Bad\ who was followed by his son William II. , 'the 
Good" (d. 1189). After the death of the latter a contest as to the 
succession arose. William II. had given his aunt Constance, 
daughter of Roger, to Henry VI., son of Frederick Barharossa, in 
marriage, and that monarch now laid claim to the crown. The Si- 
cilians , however , declared themselves in favour of Tancred , of 
Leccc, a natural son of Roger. On his death shortly afterwards he was 
succeeded by his son William III. , whom Henry VI. had less diffi- 
culty in subduing (1 164). Henry did not long enjoy his conquest, 
and died at Messina in 1197. He was succeeded by the Emperor 
Frederick II., as Frederick I. of Sicily, whose exertions in behalf 
of Sicily have been so highly extolled by posterity. In 1250-54 
his second son Conrad occupied the throne ; then Manfred until 
the battle of Benevento in 1266 ; and in 1268 Charles of Anjou 
caused the last scion of the Germanic imperial house to be exe- 
cuted (see p. 41). 

Fourth Pbriod. Charles of Anjou and Provence maintained 
his supremacy in Sicily, with which he had been invested by Pope 
Clement IV., for but a brief period. The massacre of the Sicilian 
Vespers (1282) was an expiation of the death of Conradin. Messina 
defended, itself heroically against the attacks of Charles ; and Peter 
of Arragon, son-in-law of Manfred , became master of the island. 
But its decline dates from this period. It was repeatedly devastated 
by the interminable wars with the Anjous of Naples, while the no- 
bility, such as the Chiaramonte and the Ventimiglia, attained to 
such power as to render systematic administration on the part of 
the government impossible. In 1410, when Sicily became an ap- 
panage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain , it still retained 
its freedom of internal administration. But this very privilege 
proved prejudicial to it, whilst its external defence against the 
barbarians was neglected. During the second half of the 18th cent, 
many mediaeval institutions were swept away by the advance of ci- 
vilisation , and in 1812 Sicily was finally rescued from the con- 
dition of a mediaeval feudal . state. In that year , the Sicilian Es- 
tates, under the influence of the English general Lord William H. 
C. Bentinck, whose troops were then protecting the island against 
Napoleon, passed a constitution on the English model. But three 
years later this was again abrogated. The misrule of the Bourbons, 
and the popular antipathy to the union with Naples, led to a san- 
guinary revolt on July 14th, 1820, which, however, was repressed 
by the Neapolitan generals, Florestan Pepe and Coletta. The cholera 
epidemic, also, of 1837, which the people attributed to the fault of 
the government, was followed by renewed disturbances. At the re- 
volution of Jan. 12th, 1848, Sicily appointed a government of its 
own under the noble Ruggero Settimo, and maintained its inde- 
spendence againet Naples for a year and a half. Among the leaders of 
the people at this time were the Marchese Torrearsa, Prince Butera, 


244 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

Stabile, La Farina, and the brothers Amari. In September 1848, 
however, Messina was laid partly in ruins by the fleet of Fer- 
dinand II. ('Re Bomba') , in the following April Catania was cap- 
tured, and in May Palermo. During these struggles the inspiriting 
idea of a comprehensire national unity had impressed itself on the 
Sicilians, and when in 1860 Northern Italy became united under 
the house of Savoy , revolts once more broke out in the two chief 
towns of the island. Garibaldi , with 1000 volunters , landed in 
Sicily at Marsala on May 11th 1860, and after a victorious battle at 
Calatarlmi , stormed Palermo on May 27th. In a few weeks more 
he was master of the entire island ; and by the plebiscite of Oc- 
tober 21st, 1860, Sicily joined the new kingdom of Italy. 

The following is a chronological sketch of the history of this 
period of six centuries : — 

a. 1282-1285. Peter of Arragon, King of Sicily . 
1285-1296. James the Just. 

1296-1337. Frederick II. 

1337-1342. Peter II., co-regent from 1321. 

1342-1355. Louis. 

1355-1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis. 

1377-1402. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 

1485 to Martin of Arragon. 
1402-1409. Martin I. sole monarch of Sicily , married to 

Bianca of Castille. 
1409-1410. Martin II., father of Martin I. 
1410-1412. Interregnum. 

b. 1412-1416. Ferdinand the Just, King of Arragon and 

1416-1458. Alphonso the Generous, King of Arragon, and 

after 1442 King of Naples. 
1458-1479. John of Arragon and Navarre. 
1479-1515. Ferdinand II. the Catholic, after 1505 also 

King of Naples. 
1515-1554. Emp. Charles V. ; 1517, Squarcialupo's re- 
bellion at Palermo. 
1554-1598. Philip II. 
1598-1621. Philip III. 
1621-1665. Philip IV.; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, 

Giuseppe Alessi. 
1665-1700. Charles II.; 1672-1678, Messina revolts in 
favour of Louis XIV. of France. 
-■. 1700-1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 King of Spain. 
il. 1713-1720. Victor Amadous of Savoy, 
e. 1720-1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germany. 
/'. 1734-1759 Charles III. of Hourbon. 

1759-lS0(i. Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily, after 
ISI5 Ferdinand I., King of the Two Sicilies. 

History of Art. SICILY. 245 

1825-1830. Francis I. 

1830-1859. Ferdinand II. 

1848-1849. Sicily independent. 

1859-1860. Francis II. 

2. History of Civilisation and Art. 

Almost every one of the numerous nations which in the course 
of centuries have inhabited or governed Sicily has left behind it 
some trace of its individual capacity for art, modified, however, to 
some extent by the characteristics peculiar to the island, and there- 
fore in most cases bearing a Sicilian stamp. Cicero has observed 
that the Sicilian is never so miserable as to be unable to utter a 
bon-mot, and a similar remark might be made at the present day. 
The Sicilians of all ages have displayed marked , though not bril- 
liant abilities. Their wit, flow of conversation, and power of re- 
partee were universally known to the ancients. It was not, there- 
fore, the result of mere chance that Greek comedy attained its 
earliest development here , and that bucolic poetry originated in 
Sicily, where to this day the natives delight in rural life. Sicily 
has in all ages produced admirable speakers , although rather 
sophists and phraseologists than great orators. In the study of the 
history of their island the natives have ever manifested the utmost 
zeal, and for the concrete sciences as far as they are connected with 
practical life, such as mechanics and medicine, they possess con- 
siderable aptitude. In the manufacture of objects of an artistic 
character (in opposition to pure works of art) , as in architecture, 
the art of engraving, the composition of mosaics, etc. , the Sicilians 
have from a very early period distinguished themselves. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that the Saracenic supremacy introduced 
a new and important element, into the national character, which 
shows itself in a vein of seriousness , foreign to the character of 
neighbouring races, such as the Neapolitans. The national songs, 
for example , are strongly tinctured with Oriental melancholy. 

The monuments of Sikelian culture of the pre-Hellenic period 
still preserved in Sicily, although far more scanty than the Greek, 
merit a more minute examination than has hitherto fallen to their 
share. Prehistoric antiquities have recently been investigated in 
several different spots , and traces of the flint period have been 
found in caverns and elsewhere. The most important antiquities 
of a somewhat later date are : the Subterranean Cities with which 
the S.E. angle of the island is replete, the so-called Ddieri of 
Val d'Ispica, Palazzolo, Pantelica, etc., and the Polygonal Struc- 
tures at Cefalil and on Mt. Eryx. 

The Metopes of Selinus , mementoes of the most ancient style, 
form the transition to the Hellenic sculpture. Some of the most 
magnificent Greek temples still extant have been erected in Sicily : 
Temple of Apollo at Selinus 371 ft. long, 177ft. broad; Temple of 

246 SICILY. History of Art. 

Zeus at Qirgenti 356 ft. long, 174 ft. broad (Parthenon at Athens 
229 ft. by 101 ft. ; Temple of Zeus at Olympia 233 ft. by 97 ft. ; 
Temple of Apollo at Phigalia 195 ft. by 75 ft. ; Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus 388 ft. by 187 ft.). The Ruined Temples at Girgenti, Se- 
gesta, Selinunto, and Syracuse are nowhere surpassed. The Theatres 
of Syracuse, Taormina, Segesta, Tyndaris, Palazzolo, and Catania 
have indeed been modified by additions during the Roman period, 
but the Greek origin of their foundations and arrangements may 
easily be recognised. The fortifications of the Epipolae of Syracuse 
are among the best existing specimens of Greek structures of the 
kind. In the province of Sculpture comparatively few Greek works 
have come down to us. Among these may be mentioned the more 
recent metopse of Selinus in the museum at Palermo , and a few 
relics preserved at Syracuse. Of Bronzes, in the casting of which 
Perilaos of Agrigentum is said to have excelled, scarcely a single 
specimen has survived. On the other hand a copious collection 
of admirable ancient Coins has come down to us. Beautiful 
Vases are likewise found in almost every part of the island. The 
climax of the prosperity of the Sicilian Greeks was contempo- 
raneous with that of their mother-country, and not in point of 
architecture alone. About the year 550, Stesichorus of Himera per- 
fected the Greek chorus by the addition of the epode to the strophe 
and antistrophe. sEschylus resided long in Sicily , where he died 
(456), and was interred at Gela. Pindar and Sappho also enjoyed 
the hospitality of Sicily, and sang the praises of the victories 
of her sons at Olympia. Simonides visited Sicily, and composed 
appropriate lines for the gift dedicated to the gods by Gelon after 
the battle of Himera in 480. Phormis, an officer of Gelon at Syra- 
cuse, who invented movable scenes, Epicharmus in 480, Sophron 
in 460, and Xenarchus , the son of the last , distinguished them- 
selves in the composition of comedies. Nothing is more charac- 
ristic of the Sicilian enthusiasm for art than the story that the 
Syracusans once set at liberty several Athenian prisoners, because 
they knew how to recite the verses of Euripides with pathos. Even 
during the period of decline the national poetical bias was still 
pre-eminent , and gave birth to a new description of poetry, the 
idyls, in which their inventor Theocritus of Syracuse was unsur- 
passed , and which even in modern times have found numerous 

The Sicilians have always manifested considerable capacity for 
philosophical research. Pythagoras found followers here. Xeno- 
phanes of Colophon, the founder of the Eleatic school , died in 
Syracuse at an advanced age. A century later, Plato thrice visited 
Syracuse. Hut the most illustrious Sicilian thinker was Empedocles 
of Acragas, distinguished as a natural philosopher, and also as a 
practical statesman, physician, architect, and orator. The names of 
a number of eminent physicians arc recorded : Pautunias, Arron 

History of Art. SICILY. 247 

(5th cent. B.C.}, Menecrates (4th cent. B.C.), and Celsus (but the 
last, horn at Centuripse, is not to be confounded with his famous 
namesake who lived in the reign of Augustus). Distinguished histo- 
rians were : Antiochus, Philistus of Syracuse , Timaeus of Taor- 
mina, Bicaearchus of Messana, and the learned Diodorus (Siculus) 
of Agyrium, who wrote his celebrated Bibliotheca Historica in the 
reign of Augustus. The most brilliant of the numerous orators 
were Corax and Tisias, the teacher of Isocrates, Gorgias, and Lysias. 
Gorgias, the celebrated sophist and orator, was a native of Leon- 
tinoi, and Lysias was the son of a Syracusan. Among the mathe- 
maticians and mechanicians Archimedes was the most distinguished. 
Hicetas of Syracuse was one of the first who taught that the earth 
moved and the sun remained stationary. 

The Roman-Byzantine supremacy gave the death-blow to the 
intellectual progress of the Sicilians. The soldier who slew Archi- 
medes may be regarded as symbolical of this epoch. In accordance 
with the Roman custon, however, numerous magnificent amphi- 
theatres, theatres, and aqueducts were constructed during this 
period. The rapacity of Verres and other governors despoiled the 
island of countless treasures of art. The Christians used many of the 
ancient temples and tombs for sacred purposes. A single Byzantine 
church of small dimensions near Malvagna alone remains from this 
period. A proof of the abject condition to which Sicily had sunk 
is found in the circumstance that down to a late period of the Mus- 
lim supremacy not a single author of eminence arose, although 
crowds of monks and priests resided in the island. Theophanes 
Cerameus and Petrus Siculus , the historian of the Manichaeans, 
alone deserve mention. The wandering San Simeon of Syracuse 
died at Treves. 

The Arabs were the first to infuse new life into the island. 
They not only enriched the architectural art with new forms of 
construction , as mentioned below , but they also inaugurated a 
new era in the writing of history and geography, and under King 
Roger II. the first mediaeval geographer Edrisi completed his great 
work (Nushat-ul-Mushtak). Among the Mohammedan Kasides 
(poets) Ibn-Hamdis was the most distinguished. Art developed 
itself to a still greater extent under the Norman rule, and the 
princes and great men of that race have perpetuated their names 
by the erection of numerous cathedrals. The importance they at- 
tached to learning is proved by the fact that they were in the habit 
of summoning the most learned men of the East (e. g. Petrus 
Blesensis) to instruct their young princes. Whilst the Arabs de- 
serve commendation for the introduction of the most valuable com- 
mercial products (grain, cotton, sumach, etc.) which the island 
possesses, the Norman princes established the manufacture of silk ; 
and a school for the arts of weaving and the composition of mosaic 
was maintained in the royal palace. The brilliant reign of Fre- 

248 SICILY. History of Art. 

derick II., his legislative merits, and Ms zealous promotion of 
every art and science are well known. At his court at Palermo the 
Italian language developed itself soas tohecome a written language, 
and his counsellors, his sons , and even he himself made the first 
attempts at Italian poetry. Of Frederick II., Manfred. Knzius, 
Ciullo of Alcamo, Peter de Vineis, Ouido delle Colonne, Jacopo da. 
Lentini, etc., poems are still preserved to us. But this golden age 
was of brief duration. Amid the vicissitudes of subsequent cen- 
turies all intellectual superiority became extinct. Even the 
chroniclers manifest distinct traces of this degeneracy. Whilst 
well-written and interesting chronicles of Sicily were composed in 
the 13th century [Hugo Fnlcandus , Bartholomew of Neocantro, 
etc.), those of a later period are often unreadable. The revival of 
classical studies, however, at length roused literature from its inert 
condition. At the close of the 15th cent. "Messina distinguished 
itself by its promotion of Greek studies, and Constantine Lascaris 
taught there. The following century produced the learned and 
indefatigable Thomas Fazello of Sciacca (d. 1570), the originator 
of Sicilian history and topography. His work was completed by 
the historian Maurolycus of Messina. 

The enlightened absolutism of the Bourbons during the last 
century tended to promote the progress of science in Sicily, 
although the attention of scholars was principally directed to ar- 
chaeological research relating to the history of the island. The 
wealthier of the nobility formed collections of antiquities and wrote 
descriptions of them {Biscari, Torremuzza, Astuto, Judica, Airoldi, 
Gaetani, etc.). The clergy collected materials for the history of 
Sicily, and others composed detailed monographs on the subject. 
The 'polyhistor' Mongitore, a writer of little critical power, but of 
great importance owing to the untiring diligence with which he 
amassed MS. authorities, who had been preceded by the eminent 
Antonino Amico , Rocco Pirro , Ayostino Inveges , and Giovanni 
Batti*ta Caruso, died suddenly in 1743, at the advanced age of 80. 
His death is said to have been occasioned by his perusal of the 
Codex Diplomaticus of Giovanni di Giovanni, in which the mythical 
character of the traditions regarding the origin of Christianity in 
Sicily was exposed. Di Giovanni, Francesco Testa, the brothers 
Giovanni Evangelista and Salvatore di Blasi, Vito Amico of Catania, 
and Rosario Gregorio , the first writer of constitutional history in 
Sicily, form a series of historians of the last century who would have 
done credit to any nation. The art of poetry also revived, and found 
its most talented representative in Giovanni Meli of Palermo (d. 
IS 15). His anacreontic songs in the national dialect were universally 
popular even before they appeared in a printed form. Among the 
most distinguished scientific men of the present century may be 
mentioned Dmnrnico Scinii, the naturalist and historian of literat- 
ure, the astronomer I'iazzi (born, however, in the Val Tellina in N. 

history of Art. SICILY. 249 

Italy), the brothers Gemellaro, and the patriotic historian Giuseppe 
Lafarina, besides a number of living savants of whom the island 
can at present boast. 

Music. In the history of music Sicily occupies a less prominent 
position than in the other arts, but Bellini (b. at Catania 1802, d. 
at Paris 1835) is justly admired for the beauty and sweetness of 
his melodies. 

With regard to ancient art in Sicily , and particularly the 
sculptures of Selinunto, see p. xxx et seq. We may now add a few 
remarks upon the principal mediaeval and modern monuments of art. 

Abchitectubb. The mediaeval architecture of Sicily, and par- 
ticularly that of Palermo, bears the impress of the political desti- 
nies of the country in a very striking degree, showing the change 
from the Byzantine to the Arabian domination, and from the latter 
to the supremacy of the Normans. The style is accordingly of a very 
mixed character, which strict connoisseurs will not fail to censure, 
but it possesses great attractions for the less scientific lover of art. 
The leading element is the Arabian. After the overthrow of the 
Arabian supremacy the more refined culture of that race left its 
mark on the island, and the Norman princes found it desirable to 
avail themselves of its services in the administration of the country 
and particularly in the province of art. The Arabian culture, 
however, was in its turn considerably swayed by Byzantine in- 
fluences, and it is therefore not surprising that these again should 
be reflected in the Sicilian architecture of the 12th century. The 
ground-plan of many of the churches of Palermo is traceable to 
Byzantine originals, viz. a square space enclosed by four pillars 
and covered with a dome. It is uncertain whether this form was 
introduced direct from Byzantium after the final triumph of Chris- 
tian culture, or whether the Arabs had already employed it in the 
construction of their numerous little oratories (of which Ibn Hau- 
kal, an Arabian traveller of the 10th cent., says that there were 
hundreds at Palermo alone), and handed it down to their Norman 
successors. The latter alternative, however, is the more probable. 
While the plan of many churches, such as Martorana, S. Cataldo, 
and S. Antonio at Palermo is Byzantine, and that of others, like 
Monreale, S. Spirito and several abbey-churches at Palermo, and 
the cathedral at Cefalu, is Romanesque, the universally prevalent 
pointed arch is of Arabian origin, and. quite distinct from the 
Gothic form. The Arabs brought it from Egypt and used it in all 
their buildings, and they also derived thence the custom of adorn- 
ing their flat ceilings with pendentives, resembling stalactites, and 
their friezes with inscriptions. While the ecclesiastical architecture 
of Sicily was thus unable to resist the Arabian influence , that of 
her palaces still possesses a distinctly Arabian character, cor- 
responding with the Oriental complexion of the Norman court. Of 

250 SICILY. History of Art. 

the numerous palaces which are said to have encircled Palermo in 
the 12th cent., we now possess imperfect examples only in the 
Zisa and the Cuba (and in the relics of the chateaux of Mimner- 
murn at Altarello di Baida and Favara at Mare Dolce), so that it 
requires a considerable effort of imagination to picture their vaunted 
magnificence. Sicily possesses no Gothic churches of any note (S. 
Francesco and S. Agostino at Palermo, and the cathedral at Mes- 
sina), but it is curious to observe how tenaciously her architects 
clung to Gothic and other mediaeval forms down to a late period in 
the Renaissance epoch. Of the later mediaeval secular architecture 
we find many pleasing examples, especially at Palermo. In the 
17th cent, numerous edifices in the 'baroque' style were erected 
on a very extensive scale , but characterized by an only too florid 
richness of decorative detail. 

Sculpture. In the plastic art, in bo far as it rises above a 
merely decorative purpose, mediaeval Sicily attained little pro- 
ficiency. The principal works in bronze (the gates at Monreale) 
are not the work of native masters. Sculpturing in marble for de- 
corative purposes, on the other hand, was extensively and success- 
fully practised here at an early period. The capitals and several 
shafts of columns in the monastery-court of Monreale are among 
the finest works of the kind in Italy. The early Sicilian Wood 
Carving, sometimes adorned with arabesques, which is still fre- 
quently met with (as at Martorand), is of remarkably fine exe- 
cution. Another proof of the great skill of the Sicilian artificers is 
afforded by the Porpliyry Sarcophagi of the Norman princes and 
German emperors in the cathedral at Palermo, and by the numerous 
Marble Incrustations and Marble Mosaics of the 12th century. The 
mural covering of the Cappella Palatina and the Martorana, and 
the mosaic decorations of the monastery court of Monreale will bear 
favourable comparison with the finest works of the Roman sculptors 
in marble and the members of the Cosmas school. Mosaic painting 
was also highly developed in the 12th century. The mosaics in 
the cathedral at Cefalu and in the Cappella Palatina, and those in 
the Martorana and at Monreale , which have been preserved from 
decay by repeated restorations, are not all of uniform value, but 
even those which show less vigour of conception display the bold- 
ness of touch and finish of execution peculiar to able and ex- 
perienced masters. As such artificers cannot possibly have sprung 
up under Arabian rule , we must assume that the earlier of the 
works to which we have referred were executed by Byzantine artists 
invited to Sicily from foreign countries, and that these masters 
then transmitted their art to native successors. At a later period, 
after the extinction of the Norman princes, Sicilian art fell far be- 
hind that of the mainland. Even during the Renaissance period 
Sicily made no independent exertion, her cultivation of art being 
but a slow and hesitating adoption of that of Rome and Naples. 

History of Art. SICILY. 251 

It must, however, be borne in mind, that the existing sculptures 
of Sicily are as yet by no means fully known. The most famous 
name connected with Renaissance sculpture at Palermo is that of 
Oagini. For three generations the Gagini's were sculptors in 
marble. Antonio Oagini, born in 1480 , was the son of a Lombard 
sculptor, and to him and his sons are referred all the finest works 
in marble of the 16th cent, at Palermo. At a later period Giacomo 
Serpotta (1655-1732), a successor of Bernini, and a fore-runner of 
the rococo school , executed at Palermo numerous works in stucco, 
of distinct, though perhaps somewhat affected, grace. 

PAiNTrNG. The history of this art in Sicily, although it has 
been the object of zealous local research , has not yet been placed 
on a satisfactory critical basis. In the 15th cent. , however , the 
island produced several painters of considerable eminence , the 
most frequently named of whom is Antonio Crescenzio , although 
only the St. Cecilia in the cathedral at Palermo (p. 259) can be 
assigned to him with certainty. His claim to be the artist of the 
striking 'Triumph of Death' in the Palazzo Sclafani (p. 258) rests on 
very uncertain grounds ; but he perhaps may be credited with the 
mural designs in a lateral chapel of S. Maria di Gesi) (p. 279) which 
forcibly recall the Florentine compositions of the 15th century. 
His pupil Tommaso di Vigilia and Pietro Ruzulone are painters 
of mediocre rank. The most distinguished Sicilian painter of the 
15th cent, was Antonello da Messina, but the only authentic works 
by him now in Sicily are five in his native town ■(p. 322). This 
master must not be confounded with his less distinguished con- 
temporary Antonello da Saliba, several pictures by whom are still 
preserved at Palermo. Of the artists of Palermo in the 16th 
cent, the most famous was Vincenzo di Pavia, surnamed Aine- 
molo, who is also known as Vincenzo il Romano , and is said to 
have been a pupil of Polidoro Caldara. Most of the churches 
of Palermo boast of works by this master, who would there- 
fore seem to have been very prolific ; but as the works attribu: 
ted to him are of very unequal merit, many of them are probably 
by a different hand, while others are partly by his pupils. His 
labours extended down to the year 1542. His finest works are the 
Ascension and the Descent from the Cross in the Museum, and 
a rich composition in a side-chapel to the left in S. Domenico. To 
the 17th cent, belongs Pietro Novelli (1603-47), surnamed 'Mon- 
realese', a master of considerable originality, and a follower of the 
Neapolitan school, to which he owes his vigorous colouring and his 
strongly individualised heads. Besides his works at Palermo, there 
is an interesting work by this master in the staircase at Monreale 
(St. Benedict and his successors). Several of his monkish figures 
are among the finest works produced by the Italian naturalists. 
Palermo followed the degraded styles of the 18th cent., the proofs 
of which are too numerous to require enumeration. 


23. Palermo. 

Arrival, Hi Sea. Travellers are conveyed to tin' Itogana (PI. H, 7; 
1 fr. for each pers.), where luggage is slightly examined. Thence to the 
town about 1 M. ; cab with luggage l'/2 fr., including a gratuity. Omnibuses 
from several of the hotels await the arrival of the steamboats. — The main 
Railway Station, opened in 1886, is in the Via Lincoln, outside the Porta 
S. Antonino (PI. A, B, 4); that of the W. Railway (R. 26) in the Via Lolli 
(PI. G, 2); and that of the local railway to Corleone (p. 294) in S. Erasmo, 
at the S.E. end of the Marina (PI. A, 5, 6). 

Hotels. (If a stay of any length is made, charges had better be asked 
beforehand.) "Hotel des Palmes (PI. b; F, 4), in the Via Stabile, with 
two beautiful gardens; pension at various rates according to the size and 
situation of the rooms, about 15 fr. "Trinacria (PI. a; C, 6), with a fine 
view of the Marina, entered from the Via Butera; R. facing the Marina 
on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th floor 5, 5th 2 l /t fr. , R. facing the street 3>|2 
fr. ; sitting-room 6-10 fr. ; B. I1/2, lunch 3-372, D. 5 l /2, served in the tra- 
veller's apartment 6'/2 fr. ; A. 1, L. 1, tea with bread and butter l'/2, tea 
alone 1 fr. — "Hotel de France (PI. c; C, 5), in a healthy situation, fre- 
quented by natives~and foreigners ; charges a shade lower than at the Trina- 
ci'ia, E. 4, D. 5, pens. 10 fr. — Outside the Porta Macqueda, Piazza Oliva 
72, is the ,: 'Hotel Oliva (PI. f, F3; kept by the landlord of the Trinacria), 
pension 8-10 fr., recommended for moderate requirements and for invalids. 
— Of the second class: Italia (PI. d; C, 5), Piazza Marina 60, near the 
Giardino Garibaldi, R. 2-272, pens. 6-7 fr., bargaining necessary; Albergo 
Centrale (PI. e; D, 3), with trattoria, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 355, in the 
centre of the town, close to the Quattro Canti, R. 2-3, B. 1 fr. , lunch 
l','2-2, D. 3'/2-4, pension 6-10 fr. , Italian standard of cleanliness; Re- 
becchino (PI. h; C, 2) , Via Vitt. Emanuele, opposite the cathedral R. & A. 
4 fr., well spoken of; Albergo al Pizzuto (PI. g; T>, 4), Via Bandiera 30, 
near the Piazza S. Domenico ; 'Pension Suisse , Via V ; ttorio Emanuele 
187, pens, for a prolonged stay 5 fr." 

Furnished Apartments, generally indicated by placards, are now easily 
obtained in Palermo, but are usually somewhat deficient in the comforts 
desirable for a winter residence and not all at suited for solitary invalids. 
In the town the Piazza Marina (PI. C, 5), the Piazza Bologni (PI. O, 3), 
and the Piazza Vittorio (PI. C, 2) may be recommended, the houses outside 
the town less so. Invalids should avoid rooms in the vicinity of the Cala. 
The price of a furnished room in the town is 30-70 fr. , that of a small 
furnished ctage outside the town about 100 fr. a month. Some of the pri- 
vate villas in the Olivuzza (PI. F, G, 1) and the Giardino Inglese (PI. H, 
I, 4) are also let in whole or in part, but in general at high rents and not 
to pulmonary patients. The smallest details should be inserted in the con- 
tract, and the apartments should be carefully inspected before taking posses- 
sion. Marchess Milo, Corso Calatafimi 55 , Piazza dell' Indipendenza, is a 
trustworthy house-agent. The hirer of furnished lodgings will find some 
difficulty in procuring suitable provisions, and also some inconvenience 
in the fact that the Sicilian servants can rarely speak Italian. 

Trattorie and Cafes. " Stella Americana, Via Vitt. Emanuele 178, good 
cuisine and moderate charges; Lombarda , outside the Porta Nuova. — 
'" Cafe Oreto, at the corner of the Piazza Marina and the Via Vitt. Emanuele ; 
Gafi-lleslaurant Lincoln, opposite ; "Progresso , Via Vitt. Emanuele 311; 
Rebecchino, see above; Cafi del Foro Italica, 'entrance in the Via Bu- 
tera, fine sea-view. Good luncheon at the cafes. — Best ices at the CaftS 
Trinacria . Quattro Canti di Campagna (PI. F, 3, 4) and at the cafe of the 
Tealro Bellini, Piazza della Martorana. — Confectioners ('Pasticceria') . 
Guli, Via Vitt. Emanuele 101-107, excellent preserved fruit; "Ca/lisch, Via 
Vitt. Emanuele 180. — Beer at Caflisch , see above; Cafi Trinacria, see 
above; and in the court of the Albergo Centrale (see above). 

The Casino Nnovo, or new club, in the Palazzo Ccraci in the Via Vitt. 
Emanuele (p. 259), contains handsome apartments, and is worth visiting; 
strangers may easily obtain an introduction for a fortnight; ticket for a 
longer period 10 fr. per month. Strangers may also be introduced to the 

Pozzazzi , 

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ii. S.MaUeo — — *•* 

X.S.Jlichelesircunydo C. 3 

51. Monte Santo . ■ B.4 

5fi. Monte Vergini — r — 1*** 

59. S.Meeolo AMbergnerw-^ ■ J 

60. Iblentzne C.4 

61 .iVbvixialo deGe^dH ^- 2 

62 S. OUra, F • s 

r 63.7' OUreOa, *•*! 

WfTempio innUsP 

Gcotfrapli-. An-stalt -voil 

■WagliCT «. Hf"bts ,ieip»ig 

Carriages. PALERMO. 2.3. Route. 253 

Circolo Filologico, in the Pal. Natoli, near S. Salvatore, where Italian and 
foreign newspapers and periodicals may he consulted. 

Carriages. Tariff for 1-4 persons : — | One-h. Two-h. 

Drive within the town-walls, including the Piazza S. 
Francesco di Paola , Piazza Ruggero Settimo , Corso 

Scina and Via Borgo 0. 60 0. 80 

Drive within the suburhs, including the harbour and the 
station if not more than '/« hr 1. — 1. 50 

Small articles free. Each box 20 c. 

First hour 1. 80 2. 20 

Each additional hour . . ^ 1. 60 2. — 

At night these charges are raised by one-half. Driving in the town is 
prohibited on Good Friday. Longer drives according to bargain. 

Tramways (fare for short distances 25 c). Five lines start from the 
Piazza Marina (PI. C, 5) , three of which diverge from each other at the 
Porta S. Giorgio (PI. E, 5) : 1. To Acqua Santa, at the foot of Monte Pel- 
legrino (PI. H,5, 6, 7; I, 7); 2. To Sampolo, at the entrance to the Favo- 
rita (PI. H, I, 5) ; 3. To Noce, at the end of the Corso Olivuzza (PI. E, 5-2 ; 
F, 1) ; 4. To Romagnolo, on the high-road to Bagheria (p. 278) ; 5. Through 
the Via Lincoln and Corso Tuckery to the Piazza delV Indipendenza (PI. C, 
5, 6; B, 6-1; C, 1), where this line unites with the two following. — A 
sixth line leads from the Piazza Bologni (PI. C, 3) through the Via Vitt. 
Emanuele, and on to La Rocca, at the foot of the hill of Monreale (comp. 
PI. D, 3-1) , and a seventh line crosses the Piazza dell 1 Indipendenza and 
runs through the Strada Pisani (PI. C, 1) to Porrazzi , on the high-road to 
Parco, about l'/4 M: from the town -, comp. p. 273. — Other cross-lines are : 
8. From the Harbour to Porta Carini (PI. G, 6, 4 ; F, 4, 3 ; E, 3, 2). 9. From 
the end of the Corso Olivuzza to the Corso Calatafimi (PI. E, D, 2, 1). 

Baths. "Via Quattro Aprile 7, near the Piazza Marina ; cold bath 1 fr., 
warm bath 1 fr. 25 c, Russian bath for 1-2 pers. 5 fr, ; Suton&s , Porto 
Salvo 11-13, bath 1 fr. ; both these establishments clean and well fltted-up. 
— Sea Baths in the Stradone del Borgo (PI. F, 5), and near Acqua Santa 
(PI. I, 7). Swimmers will probably prefer to bathe early in the morning 
from a boat, which they may hire (}/i fr.) at the Sanita, outside the Porta 

Post Office, on the E. side of Piazza Bologni (PI. C, 3); branch-office 
in the Palazzo delle Finanze (PI. 85; D, 5). 

Telegraph Office, Via Macqueda 222, not far from the Quattro Canti 

n the left in going thence to the Porta Macqueda). 

sSteamboat-Offices. Societa Florio-Hubattino, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 96, 

at the corner of the Piazza Marina ; Compagnie Ginirale Tran&ailaniique 

(agent, Signor Quercioli), Salita S. Antonio in the Via Vitt. Emanuele; 

La Veloce, Via Tintori, next the Cafe Lincoln. 

Booksellers. Luigi Pedone Lauriel, Via Vitt. Emanuele 360, with a 
circulating library. — Second-hand books : Giovanni Fiorenza , Via Vitt. 
Emanuele 365; both near the Quattro Canti, in the direction of the Piazza 
Vittoria; Costa, Via Macqueda 224. 

Photographs'. Sommer, Incorpora, Rive, and Tagliarini, adjoining each 
other in the Via Vitt. Emanuele, near the Piazza S. Spirito (PI. C, 6). 

Watchmaker: Zollikofer, Via Vitt. Emanuele 142. 

Teacher of Italian. Signor Mastropasqua, professor inthelstituto Tecnico. 

Bankers. Ingham & Whitaker, Via Lampedusa ; Morrison & Co., Piazza 
Marina; Kayser &■ Kressner, Via Teatro S. Cecilia 44; Wedekind , Pal. 
Cattolica, Via Cintorinai. Money Changers : Gio. Valdes, Via Vitt. Em. 104, 
and others in the same street. 

Guide: Francesco Sutone, see above. In the town 6 fr. per day; out- 
side 10 fr. , incl. provisions , but excl. railway fares. Sutone also pro- 
cures lodgings- 
Goods Agents. Edoardo Castiglia & Co., Via Cintorinai 10. 

Climate and Health (comp. also p. 236). Palermo is often recom- 
mended as a winter-residence to persons with delicate chests or nervous 
complaints. The air is mild, humid, and of very equable temperature, the 
temperature averaging 52° Fahr. in January. Almost the only serious draw- 

254 Route 23. PALERMO. Theatres. 

backs lo the climate are formed by the unpleasant, winds , and the occa- 
sional cold rainy days; which, however, vary in frequency and intensity 
in different years. Precautions should be taken against illnesses of a gastric 
nature by proper attention to clothing and diet. Sitting in the open air 
is rendered dangerous in some parts of the town by the dampness of the 
ground. The drinking-water of Palermo should he used with some 
caution; when there is any tendency to diarrhoea, it should be drunk 
mixed with red wine, or in the form of weak tea. Diseases of the 
eye are very common , but the blinding glare of the sun may he neutral- 
ised by the use of umbrellas and spectacles of coloured glass. — The 
beautiful public and private Gardens in Palermo and its environs add 
greatly to its charm as a residence. Admission to the finest of the latter 
is generally obtainable by the payment of a small fee (comp. p. 273). 

Physicians. Dr. Berlin, Via Patuano 12 (PI. E, 5) ; Dr. De Jonge, Hotel 
des Palmes. — Chemists. English, Via Vitt. Emanuele 27; Capulo , Via 
Vitt. Emanuele 95. 

Theatres. Teatro Bellini (PI. 95; C, 4), Piazza della Martorana; S. 
Cecilia (PI. 96; C, 4), Via Santa Cecilia; Garibaldi, Via Castrofilippo (per- 
formances in the Sicilian dialect) ; Politeama , Piazza Ruggero Settimo 
(PI. F, 4; p. 265). — Between Christmas and Easter operas are generally 
given alternately in the S. Cecilia and the Garibaldi; at other times the 
former is usually occupied by dramas, the latter by operettas. 

Consuls. American : Mr. P. Carroll. — 'British : Mr. W. Stigand, 
Via Lincoln 3. 

English Church , Via Stabile, opposite the Hotel des Palmes. Presby- 
terian Service performed occasionally in the Waldensian Church, Pal. 
Cuto, Via Macqueda 32. 

Attractions. During a stay of three days at Palermo the traveller 
should visit: — 1st Day. La Martorana (p. 261), the Cathedral (p. 258), 
the Royal Palace (p. 256) , the Botanical Garden (p. 265) , and La Flora 
(p. 264) in the forenoon; Monte Pellegrino (p. 277) in the afternoon. 2nd 
Day. S. Maria di Gesii (p. 279) and the Museum (p. 266) in the forenoon; 
Monreale (p. 274) and Villa Tasca (p. 274) in the afternoon. 3rd Day. 
The Bagheria (p. 278) and Solunto (p. 279) in the forenoon ; La Zisa (p. 276) 
and La Favorita (p. 277) in the afternoon; the Marina (p. 264) in the evening. 

The Festival of St. Rosalia (p. 277), ll-15th July, accompanied with 
horse-races, regattas, illuminations, etc., attracts a great concourse of 
country-people to Palermo several days before the beginning of the gaieties. 
The Municipio usually contributes 30-40,000 fr., towards the expenses , in 
order that this famous feast may be celebrated with becoming splendour. 
The processsion to the chapel of the saint takes place annually in the 
month of September. 

Palermo, the capital of Sicily, with 245,000 inhab., including 
the surrounding villages, is the military, judicial, and ecclesiastical 
headquarters of the island, and possesses one of the seven principal 
Italian universities. It lies in 38°, 6', 44" N. latitude, on the W. 
side of the Bay of Palermo which opens towards the B., and is 
enclosed by the fertile plain of the Conca d' Oro, beyond which 
rises an amphitheatre of imposing mountains. On the N. the city 
is sheltered by the finely shaped Monte Pellegrino, opposite which, 
on the E., lies the Monte Catalfano. Palermo is justly entitled 
to the epithet 'lafelice', on account of its magnificent situation and 
delightful climate. 

The town .is on the whole well built, although the houses are 
generally of unimposing exterior. It forms an oblong quadrangle, 
the E. end of which adjoins the sea. Two main streets divide it 
into four quarters. South-westwards, from the Porta Felice on the 

History. PALERMO. 23. Route 255 

sea as far as the Porta Nuova by the royal palace, extends the Via 
Vittorio Emanuele or Toledo (so-called after the Spanish viceroy), 
popularly known as the Cassaro , from the name it bore originally 
(Arab, 'al cassar', the castle); this street, which was construc- 
ted in the 16th cent. , is intersected at right angles by the Via 
Macqueda, constructed in 1600. The S. gate is the Porta S. An- 
tonino, the N. the Porta Macqueda. A new quarter of the town, 
consisting chiefly of villas and residences for visitors, has sprung 
up to the N. of the Via Cavour. 

The commerce of the city, which is to a great extent in the 
hands of foreigners , has overtaken that of Messina and is steadily 
increasing. Sumach, sulphur, oranges, and lemons are largely ex- 
ported. The harbour presents an animated scene. Steamers of 
many foreign companies call at Palermo; and the Navigazione Gene- 
rale Italiana (Florio-Itubattino) , whose fleet is perhops the most 
numerous of all, has one of its chief seats in the capital of Sicily. 

The narrow and shallow harbour, called La Cala, on the N. W. side of 
which lie the ruins of FortCastellammare, extended in ancient and mediaeval 
times farther into the city, including the present Piazza Marina and reach- 
ing on the N. as far as the Via Argenteria, whence the Greek name of 
the city Panormos ('entirely harbour'). The ancient town stretching 
down to S. Antonio (PI. 5; D, 4), was bounded by two brooks which 
emptied themselves into the harbour, the course of which may still be 
traced in the Via di Porta di Castro on the S. and the depression of the 
Papireto, the Piazza S. Onofrio, and the Piazza Nuova on the N. To the 
N. and S. of the old town lay the suburbs. 

Panormus was originally a Phoenician settlement, and, until it was 
captured in B. C. 254 by the Romans, was one of the most important 
strongholds of the Carthaginians. Hamilcar Barca besieged the city from 
the Heircte (Monte Pellegrino , p. 277) for three years , in a vain attempt 
to recover it. It afterwards belonged to the Romans and was colonised 
by Augustus. In 535 A. D. a fleet under Belisarius captured the city from 
the Goths, and thenceforth it remained under the Byzantine emperors till 
the arrival of the Arabs in 830. The latter made it their capital, and it 
rapidly attained a high pitch of prosperity, counting at one period 300,000 
inhabitants. In 1072 the Normans obtained possession of it, and in 1193 the 
Germans in the person of Henry VI. (p. 243). The French house of Anjou 
was expelled in 1280 (Sicilian Vespers). The monarchs of the house of 
Arragon seldom resided here. The Chiaramonte, powerful feudal barons and 
Counts of Modica, who erected a spacious palace for themselves at Palermo, 
were long the real rulers of the place. It was not until the 15th cent, that 
Palermo began to recover from the sufferings of this long period of anar- 
chy. The Spanish Viceroys of Sicily, notwithstanding the loud remon- 
strances of Messina, selected this city as their residence, and the nobles 
and clergy of their court contributed to swell its magnificence and gaiety. 
From this period , the 16th and 17th cent. , date the two main streets, 
and many of the churches and palaces which now form the characteristic 
features in the architectural appearance of Palermo. Outward splendour 
could not long, however, conceal the numerous evils of the Spanish rule ; 
and in 1647 a revolt took place, whose leader Giuseppe d'Alessi met the 
fate of Masaniello (p. 175). The people notwithstanding remained faithful 
to the Spaniards till 1713, against both the French and the Austrians. In 
1798 and again in 1806 the Neapolitan court took refuge in Palermo; and 
Ferdinand I. resided here until 1815. The Sicilian parliament met here 
in 1812. The revolt of 1820 involved Palermo in much loss; while the 
cholera in 1837 swept off 24,000 victims in 8 weeks. In Jan. and Feb., 1848 
the town, which for a year and a half had been the seat of the revol- 
utionary gouvernment (p." 244), was subjected t.n a destructive bombard- 

256 Route i>.3. PALERMO. Cappella Palatina. 

ment of over three weeks: and after the final revolt against the Bourbons, 
which broke art on April 4th 1860, Palermo suffered the same terrible ex- 
perience until the victorious entry of Garibaldi on May 27th. Under Ita- 
lian rule the town has extended' considerably , especially towards the N. 
Large sums of money, averaging 1,000,000 fr. yearly, have been expended 
in laying out avenues, in paving the streets, and in other works conducing 
to the beauty of the town and the public health. 

Palermo possesses very few ancient architectural remains, but this 
want is amply compensated for by its interesting mediaeval monuments 
and the museum. 

On the S.W. side of the town, at the end of the Via Vittorio 
Emanuele, lies the spacious Piazza della Vittoria (PI. C, 2), 
where the — 

*Palazzo Beale (PI. 87) rises on a slight eminence which 
has always been the site of the castle of the city. The nucleus of 
this building is of Saracenic origin. Additions were made by Robert 
Guiscard, King Roger, the two Williams, Frederick II., and Man- 
fred ; and it afterwards underwent many alterations so that the cen- 
tral tower with the pointed arches (S. Ninfa) is now the only relic 
of Norman times. Notwithstanding which it still retains traces of 
its origin as a defensive structure. 

The gate farthest to the left leads into the Palace Court, 
which is enclosed by arcades. Ascending a staircase on the left, 
and turning to the right on the first floor, we enter the — 

:i *Oappella Palatina, built before the year 1132 by King Ro- 
ger II. in the Norman style and dedicated to St. Peter (best visi- 
ted between 8 and 11 a.m., fee 1 /. i fr.). 

The Vestibule, embellished with modern mosaics forms the remains 
of a porticus, which at one time surrounted the entire chapel ; of its seven 
columns, six are of Egyptian grantte. To the left is an inscription on the 
wall in Latin, Greek, and Arabic, reforring to the construction of a spe- 
cies "f clock in 1142. 

The Interior consists of of a nave with aisles , and in 36 yds long: 
including the apse , 14 yds. in width. The Arabian pointed arches are 
borne by ten columns of granite and cipollino, 16 ft. in height. The choir 
is approached by ffve steps, and ovea the cross rises a dome 57 ft. in 
height, pierced by eight narrow windows, and bearing Greek and Latin 
inscriptions. The wooden -oof of the nave is also adorned with a (Jutic 
(ancient Arabian) inscription. To the right is a pulpit and marble cande- 
laburn, li 1 ^ ft- high, in Norman work of the 12th cent, (the four top iigurs 
added later). The Gothic choir -stalls are modern. — The floor is laid 
with coloured mosaics. 

The Walls are entirely covered with mosaics on a golden ground, 
and radiant with oriental splendour. The Mosaics represent subjects from 
the Old Testament, and the lives of Christ, St. Peter, and St. Paul. 
The most antiq